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Full text of "Pacific Rural Press (Jan.-July 1871)"

2D07 15Sb35T fi 

Calilornia State Library 




aBloraia- Mdt Mlhm% 



Presented by 
Date received. 
No. 'dl. ^ cH U 



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B :K 7 R A. C T 

From an Act prencfUtiiirf fitilen for the Oovernmeiit oj the Slate Librttri/, 
pasted March Sih, 1861. 



Skction II. The Librarian shall cause to be kept a register of nil 
books issued ami returned ; and all books taken by (be members of the 
Legislature, or its officers, shall be returned at the close of the session. 
If any person injure or fail to return any bonk taken from the Library, 
he shall forfeit and pay to the Librarian, for the benefit of the Library, 
three times the value thereof; and before the Controller shall issue his 
warrant in favor o'" any member or officer of the Legislature, or of this 
State, for his per diem, allowance, or salary, he shall be salisticd that 
such member or officer has returned all books taken out of the Library by 
him, and has settled all accounts for injuring such books or otherwise. 

Skc. 15. Books may be taken from the Library by the members of the 
Legislature and its officers during the session of the same, and at any 
time by the Governor and the officers of the E.\ecutivc Department of 
this Slate who are required to keep their offices at the scat of government, 
the Justices of the Supreme Court, the Attorney-GcDcral and the Trustees 
of the Library. 



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Number, i] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JAN. 7, 1871. 



[Volume I. 



IE 



LTuei. 



TREE PLANTING IN CALIFORNIA. 

The season for tree planting has arrived 
md we are frequently asked the question 
'when is the best season or time to trans- 
plant trees?" In tliis climate it makes but 
ittle difference whether a tree is set just 
ifter the first rains or anytime during the 
vinter months, or in the spring just before 
he buds swell oiit into leaf. If your soil 
s light upland, the fall of the year is nn- 
oubtedly the best time. While if it is a low , 
)r heavy stagnant soil, late planting would 
)e better. On the level, low adobe soils 
I'ound San Francisco Bay for instance, 
)efore the land is really suitable for trees, 
must be back fiirrowed into ridges, 
vhere the rows of trees are to be set and 
he drillfurrow should be left open, with a 
ower cross drain to conduct away all sur- 
lus water. Under draining of such soils 
?, if not absolutely necessary, at least very 
:lvisable; and unless there is good drainage, 
t is better to wait until near sj^ring before 
lanting trees on such low heavy grounds. 

On ordinary soils it makes 'little or no 
ifiference, if the work is well done and the 
luface of the ground is left loose and free 
f weeds, when the dry season sets in. 
Ine thing is worth considering, however; 
rders for trees should be sent to your 
iirsery man early in the season, so that the 
est trees and the best varieties can be 

served or at once procured. Young, 
irifty trees should be chosen in preferance 
) older ones, if you wish to have a fine 
I'chard. We have known people that 
ere in a hurry to have a bearing orchard 
ght away, to make the mistake of getting 
lot of large trees, with stumj)y roots, 
•gardless of all precedent, only to blame 
)mebody for "bad luck" which is sure to 
)llow. 

If you are in a hurry to have a fine bear- 
ig orchard soon, get one, and two year old 
ees, of good thrifty growth, and well 
penedwood. Trees that are forced in 

owth, too late in the season, should be 
lunned as they are tender, and not sure 
I thrive. 

When the terminal hud is full and perfect, 
I a thrifty looking nursery tree, you may 
" '", '_ being all right, if the roots 
' ,, ed.andhave not been serious- 




1 direc- 
j_"You 
i paper" 7 
it from 
ordial 
irst fos- 
|om any 
Mr. 
;lie fact 
"White 
rocks, 
ell de- 
s of that 
lis, seem 
of the 
,s a few 
al Keva- 
ivizon of 
of the 



lursery men to have a 

Is dig trees and allow 

posed to the sun and 

ler, and then transport 

without protection. 

5verely reprehensible, 

many failures to make 

appear all right to 

well versed in Ruch 

' honest nurseryman, 

nent of trees under 

\j perhaps be mak- 

tion) 

never put anything 

vis. Manure raked 

1 tree is all right; 

ediate contact with 



it, it induces rot, and blight, and works a 
positive injury. 

An upright position of stalk, and an even 
sj^reading of the roots, with the ends point- 
ed a little down, in a natural position, is 
right. Then press the earth closely about 
them, so as to leave no open spaces under 
or around the roots. Any one can set trees, 
if he will use a little common sense and 
observe natural principles, and be success- 
ful. 

Evergreens, and other trees and plants 
in pots and boxes, may be transplanted 
at any time of the year, if properly shaded 
and watered, but our rainy season is really 
the best in every respect. 



advantages, has its drawbacks to the mere 
working man — the bone and sinew of every 
land — who comes hither expecting to de- 
pend upon his labor, alone, for immedi- 
ate means of suj)port. Our markets are 
necessarily limited, and the uncertainty 
and high price of labor, has hitherto pre- 
vented the establishment of those exten- 
sive manufacturing operations wich fur- 
nish ready employment for labor in the 
older states; and provide an abundant 
market for farm produce. 

The introduction of a more diversified 
system of farming, toward which our ijoj)- 
ulatiori is now being inclined, will greatly 
facilitate the incoming of emigration, and 




" CALIFORNIA SPECIMENS.' 



CALIFORNIA FRUIT AND VEGETA- 
BLES. 

Much has been said and written of the 
equable and balmy climate of California^ 
a climate unrivalled even under the beauti- 
ful skies of Italy. Much ha3 also been 
said of the soil of its beautiful valleys, 
which yields harvests most bountifully to 
the slightest touch of cultivation; and yet 
the picture has not been overdrawn. That 
for these reasons our state affords superior 
inducements to settlers is a supposition 
true, to a large extent, even now; but likely 
to be much moi?e so dt a more diistant day, 
when certain industrial, agricultural and 
commercial problems, shall be better un^ 
der stood, and rrtore fully carried out than 
they are at present. Like any other new 
country, California, mih. all its natural 



furnish the stepping stone for other im- 
portant industrial and commercial im- 
provements, which will open a still wider 
door to the employment of the millions of 
l^eople in other lands who are looking anx- 
iously to this rising empire of the Pacific. 
In order to satisfy our readers abroad 
that what has been said of the wonderful 
productions of the soil of the Pacific 
Coast is fully borne out by facts and fig- 
ures, we herewith submit an engraving 
which has been faithfully prepared from a 
photograph of a pile of fruit and vegeta- 
bles, which was hastily collected in the 
Pacific Fruit Market, of this city, on the 
27th of September 1767. They were not 
unusual specimens; but such as can be 
collected at almost any day, during six 
months of the year, in any of the larger 
markets of the Pacific Coast. These pho- 1 



tographs have been extensively copied by 
artists and circulated largely in various 
parts of this and other countries. Mr. A. 
D. Kichardson had an engraving made from 
one of these photographs and published in 
his book entitled "Beyond the Mississippi." 
The engraving herewith presented has 
been prepared by our own artist, from a 
copy of the original photograph furnished 
us by Mr. C. W. Weston, the well 
known San Francisco fruit dealer. The 
human figure introduced, is nearly six 
feet high, and was included in the photo- 
graph to show the relative size of the veg- 
etable and pomological productions. Re- 
ferring more particularly to the engraving 
— the two beets upon the right thereof rest 
upon the floor, and if their tops, which 
were wilted, had stood erect, they would 
have reached fully up to the chin of the 
human figure. Although they were dug 
while s/iW growing, they nevertheless weigh- 
ed respectively 38 and 59 pounds! 

One of the pears shown is a Duchess 
d'Angouleme and weighed 30 ounces; 
si^ecimens of the same variety have been 
raised in this state which weighed seventy 
ounces\ The apples shown are of the 
Gloria Mundi variety and weigh from 23 to 
29% ounces, each. 

The corn has 24 rows to the ear, and pro- 
duced four ears to a stalk. The bunch of 
grapes (Tokay) held in the right hand of 
the figure weighed 11 pounds. The sun- 
flower, partially shown at the feet of the 
figure was 24 inches across its face. An 
egg-plant is shown 26 and a cabbage 54 in- 
ches in circumference; one of the quinces 
weighed 31 ounces, while the sweet pota- 
toes, squashes, melons, pumpkins, etc. were 
of like mammoth proj^ortions. 

We may state in this connection that an 
onion has been shown at an agricultural 
fair in this state which weighed 77oz. and 
measured 22in. in circumference; a tomato 
26in. in circumfei-ence; cabbage heads 
weighing from 43 to 53 pounds; water 
melons 65 pounds; a red beet 5 feet long, 
1 foot in diameter and weighing 118 pounds 
and a squash which weighed 265 pounds! 
These were extraordinary productions — 
none of which class of productions, except 
the sunflower mentioned, happened to be 
in the market at the time the photograph, 
from which we have copied, was taken. 
A celebrated writer says that nothing is so 
false as facts except figures; but the picto- 
rial representation of most of the facts 
above given can be verified by sun pic- 
tures, which can't lie and which are within 
the ready reach of any person in this city. 



Five Chops or Wheat from One Sow- 
ING. — A Yolo county farmer has raised fiv6 
crops of wheat from one plowing, sowing 
and harrowing. It is said that his ground 
averaged 30 bushels to the acre. One 
hundred and fifty bushels from land tilled 
but once is certainly very good and i>rofit- 
able returns; but would not proper tillage, 
at least every second year, have given a 
greatly increased yield over that obtained 
from consecutive years of volunteer crops? 



&^ 



inuary 7, 1871. 



ECHANICAL PROGRESS. 



The Cottekill Locks. — TJie Engineer 
gives a description of these new patent 
locks, ■which we condense: — "The padlock, 
lieing -without a rivet hinge, could only be 
forced with great difficulty. The hoop is 
in one piece with the bolt, and simply 
slides up and down to open and shut. The 
street door lock or latch has two keys; one 
only ne(Hl be used during the day; by the 
aid of the other a cover is thrown over the 
first keyhole, preventing the insertion of 
the key^ and backing up the tumbler with 
a strong stop ijlnte to prevent the bolt 
being forced. This lock is applicable to 
small safes, office doors, etc. The keys 
are spindles with cams cut on them. The 
key being a number, of eccentric circles, 
each difiering, working in the centre of the 
tumblers, the lock is perfectly powder 
proof. Robberies are often committed by 
copies or impressions of the keys being 
taken ; this is impossible with the Cotterill 
lock. The key working in the center of 
the levers give's a great a<lvantage over all 
locks, the keys of which work on the edge 
of the levers', making it very much more 
difficult to i)ick or force. The keyhole 
being so small, any instrument inserted for 
picking fills it up, so that no second instru- 
ment can be inserted which will have the 
least eftect. The s<ife or street door lock 
with two keyholes is doubly secure, as it 
forms two sejiarate and distinct locks; the 
last or bottom key in locking throws a 
steel plate over the top keyhole, making it 
in every way safe from the burglar. Be- 
sides, in banks or large jewelry establish- 
ments two clerks may be present, each with 
his own key to open the safe, yet the lock 
can be maxle so that the principal may have 
a master key to open the two. The great 
advantage of the jiadlock is that the shackle 
is not fixed to the lock by a ])in, but slides 
in and out of the lock, requiring a key to 
open it, yet it will lock itself. The keyhole 
is covered by a spring drop, which requires 
the point key to open it, so that no dirt can 
get into it, and wet is kept out of the body 
of the lock." 

Uses of the BESSEsreR Metal. — "A 
correspondent of the Maschinen Construc- 
teur' says that he has seen Bessemer metal 
used with great advantage for making the 
piston-rods f)f steam hammers which were 
used for hammering steel. Wrought-iron 
pistons and piston-rods of the same dimen- 
sions were used up in a short time, by the 
change of the iron from a fibrous to a gi-an- 
ular structure, in consequence of the re- 
peated concussions to which they were 
subjected. Bessemer metal has also been 
used for locomotive axles with excellent 
results. Its use for this purpose, as well 
as for boiler plates, is continually increas- 
ing in Europe, though we have not heard 
of its application to either purpose in this 
country. The fact that it resists the oxidiz- 
ing effects of a flame much better than 
wrought iron is a strong argument for its 
use in boilers. It is only about 13 years 
since the first introduction of Bessemer 
metal, and though its adoption fiu- rail 
making has been contested, step by step, 
iintil it proved itself far superior to other 
iron, it is now almost universally commen- 
ded for that purpose. " — Eng. and Min. Journ- 
al. 

Wiee Rope Bridge. — At the Landore 

Siemens Steel Works, near Swansea, is an 
arrangement for carrying the matter from 
some excavations across a stream where 
vessels are frequently passing. Two steel 
wire ropes are stretched across, each bear- 
ing a "runner" with grooved wheels, from 
which is suspended a truck; and the runners 
are (joth attached to an endless wire cord 
which passes round a pulley on each bank, 
so that the loaded truck, descending by its 
own gravity to the opposite bank which is 
the lowest, draws back at the same time the 
empty one. To allow the passage of a 
vessel, the ropes are lowered to the bottom 
of the stream at its middle, by running 
forward the abutement over which they 
are strained ; and this is afterwards drawn 
bat-k by a hand winch worked by two men, 
the tinal tautening being accomplished by 
screw couplings to which the hauling 
chains are hooked. 

Carboi-ized Vulcanite. — The Scientific 
American has seen specimens of rubber 
goods, all made of the same materials and 
in the same manner, but a part of which 
were carbolized and a part not. All had 
been used in the same manner and for the 
same length of time. "The uncarbolized 
rubber and cloth were in a rotten and 
damaged condition, while the carbolized 
was api)arently as strong and sound as 
when new." 



Peat for Gas. — T. H. Leavitt, of Boston, 
whose notes upon the use of peat fuel for 
locomotives and in iron works we have al- 
luded to, writes the Gas Light Journal on 
peat for gas making. We give an extract 
or two from his letter: — Prof. Johnson of 
Yale College says " a retort of two feet 
width, one foot depth, and eight or nine 
feet length, must receive but 100 lbs. of 
peat at a charge. The qiiantity of gas yield- 
ed in a given time is much greater than 
from bituminous coal. From retorts of the 
size just named, 8,000 to 9,000 c-ubic feet of 
jjas are delivered in 24 hours. The numl)er 
of retorts riupiisite to furnish a given vol- 
ume of gas, is much less than in the manu- 
facture from coal. On the other hand the 
dimensions of the furnace are considerablj* 
greater, because the consumption of fuel 
must be more rapid, in order to suiii)ly the 
heat which is carried olTby the copious form- 
ation of gas." * * Dr. A. A. Hayes of 
Boston, reports an exi)eriment with 1(5 lbs. 
of peat from Wisconsin. The quantity be- 
ing so small the cliarge was made up with 
Pictou coal. 134ft)S.Pictou coal alone, yield- 
ed 5.36 ciibic feet of gas: 5 feet being e- 
qual to 17 candles, or the whole to 1778 
candles. Thesame qhantity (134; Ihs) ofPic- 
tou coal with the 16 ttis. of peat added, yielded 
620 cubic feet of gas: 5 feet of which were 
equal to 29 4-lOth. candles. In his report 
he says " There are only two or three can- 
nel coals known which afford so much illum- 
inating material, plai'ing this peat in the 
first class of gas materials. It exceeds all 
common cannel coals, and of course is far 
above any bituminous coal, and can be 
worked with 2^oor coal to make good gas." 

Disburdened Slide Valve.— The Arti- 
san has this notice of a device which is the 
subject of a recent English patent. "In 
order to relieve the slide-valve from the 
pressure of the steam or fluid upon its back, 
so as to lighten the friction against the 
valve face as far as is consistent with main- 
taining a 8uffi(uent contact, the inventors 
form the valve with a passage tlnxnigh it 
and a face at its bac-k, which works steam- 
tight upon a plate carried by a cylinder 
passing through the bonnet or steam-chest 
cover by a suitably packed gland. This 
cylinder excludes the steam from the back 
of the valve more or less, according to its 
area. If the engine be non-condensing, 
the area of the cylinder will be somewhat 
less than that covered by the valve. For a 
condensing engine, the cylinder may be of 
larger area than the valve, and apparatus 
will then be provided to prevent the cylin- 
der receding from the back of the valve 
when there is no proper vacuum in the 
condenser." 



The Launch of the "Thoroughfare," 
the new steamer built for freight purposes 
by the C. P. R. R., which occurred on the 
24th ult. , was interesting as being that of 
the first of its class ever used on our coast. 
It is 165 feet long, 50 feet wide, has a double 
track, and can accommodate 14 to 20 freight 
cars. It was built under the superintend- 
ence of Mr. P. H. Tiernay. The engines, 
with 22-inch cylinders and 7-foot stroke, 
were Imilt at the works of the railroad com- 
pany at Sacramento. The steamer is very 
stro'nglj' constructed, and its launch was 
made the occasion of quite a little jubilee. 

The "Pneumatic Disp.vtch." In the 
sul iterranean room adjacent to the entrance 
of the Broadway pneumatic tunnel, a small 
line of tubing has been arranged in connec- 
tion with a blower to test some improvements 
recently suggested in the pneumatic system 
of transmitting mail matter. On a late visit 
of Secretary Robeson to the tunnel, the 
apparatus was put in opei-ation, and a large 
mail of letters and newspapers sent through 
the tubes at a velocity of sixty-three milesan 
hour. — A rtisan . 



Graining with Stencil Plates. — We 
see this noted as the subject of a recent 
patent. A pattern of the grain of any wood 
is taken with tracing paper, and transferred 
to a plate, which is t.'ut accordingly. This 
is placed upon the graining color, freshly 
laid on, and rubbed overwith a cloth which 
removes the color at the openings. The 
l)late is then removed, and the work finish- 
ed with the ordinary graining tools. 

Aerostation. — The Paris correspondent 
of the London Engineer writes that the 
French Academy of Sciences "has express- 
ed its opinion in a very decided manner 
against aerostats heavier than the air moved 
by steam or other power; but it gave some 
countenance to a proposition by an engi- 
neer, M. Sorel, who uses a sail as a rudder, 
and a screw simply to jiroduce a difference 
between the velocity of the machine and 
that of the wind. The balloon is, in fact, 
retarded Ity the screw, and thus resistance 
is obtained." 



iCIENTIFIC 1?R0GRESS. 



The "Mudlumps" of the Mississippi. — 
The American Naturalist for December has 
a notice of an abstract of a paper upon this 
subject, by Professor Hilgard, the State 
Geologist of Louisiana, read before the 
American Association, We quote: "The 
Mudlumps are islands formed bj' upheavals 
of the bottom, off the mouths of the Passes, 
inside the bar. They often rise in mid- 
channel, obstructing navigation and divert- 
ing tlie current, and at times bringing up 
objects long ago lost from vessels. They 
form a number of pretty large islands, 
especially near the mouth of the South- 
west Pass. On them we frequently find 
springs of li(iuid miul, accompanied by 
bubbles of combustible gas ; these springs 
often exhibit all the phenomena of mud 
volcanoes — extensive cones of mud, with 
an active crater in the middle. Most of 
the material of the Mudlumps seen above 
water, bears evidence of having once be- 
longed to active cones, now extinct. The 
conclusion reached is, that the mud is the 
same as that which is deposited on the 
"blue clay bottom" of the Gulf, outside the 
bar, in a semi-fluid state. In its annual 
advance, the V)ar covers this mud stratum, 
which exists equally higher up the Passes ; 
the increase in weight by vegetation, allu- 
vion, etc., of the new formed land aV)ove, 
as .well as that of the bar below the mouth, 
causes the bottom to bulge ujiwards at the 
points of least resistance, i. e., in the deep- 
est channel. Attention was called to the 
fact, that of all rivers known, the Mississ- 
ippi is the only one exhibiting either mud- 
lump action, or the peculiar narrow lands 
of bank, a<lvancing rapidly toward deep 
water, which are known as "necks," and 
are obviously dependent on the mudlumps 
for their origin." 

Protochloride of Copper. — We take 
the following from the American Chemiat 
for December. It was communicated by 
Dr. Btettger: — "When protochloride of 
coj)peri 1 IJplaced in weak hydrochloric acid, 
and submitted to electrolysii?, the electrodes 
being made of copper, the anode becomes 
covered with snow-white crj-stals of chloride 
of copper, while there is deposited on the 
cathode a thick layer of very loosely-adher- 
ing spongy metallic eopper. When the 
latter is well washed, and next placed in a 
small flask along with a filtered solution of 
bleaching powder (hji)ochloriteof lime), 
that salt is pai-tly decomposed, yielding, 
at first, vei-y pure oxygen gas, but after- 
ward a gas (not sjiecified) which ex- 
tinguishes the light of a burning taper." 

Infinite Slowness of Form Change. — 
"Suppose one foot of coal represents fifty 
generations cf coal plants; and that eixcli 
generation of coal plants took ten years to 
come to matirrity — then each foot-thickness 
of coal represents 500 years. The beds of 
coal in one field may amount to a tliickness 
of fifty or sixty feet, and therefore the coal 
alone, in that field, represents 25,(X)0 j'ears. 
But the actuid coal is but an insignificant 
portion of the total deposit, which maj- 
amount to three miles of vertical thickness. 
Suppose it to be 12,000 feet — which is two 
hundred and forty times the thickness of 
the actual coal — is there any reason why 
we should believe it may not have taken 
two hundred and forty times as long to 
form? I know of none. But, in this case, 
the time which the coal field represents 
would be 6,000,000 years. * * The coal 
Flora, viewed in relation to the enormous 
period of time which it lasted, and to the 
still vaster period which has elapsed since 
it fl(mrished, underwent little change while 
it endured, and, in its peculiar characters, 
differs strangely little from that which at 
present exists. The same species of jjlants 
are to be met with throughout the whole 
thickness of a coal field, and the youngest 
are not sensibly different from the oldest. 
But more than this. Notwithstanding that 
the carboniferous period is separated from 
us by more than the whole time represent- 
ed by the Secondary and Tertiary forma- 
tions, the great types of vegetation were as 
distinct then as now. The structure of the 
modern club-mosa furnishes a comjilete ex- 
planation of the fossil remains of the Lepi- 
dodendra, and the fronds of some of the 
ancient ferns are hard to distinguish from 
existing ones. At thesame time it must be 
remembered that there is nowhere in the 
world, at present, any forest which bears 
more than a rough analogy with a coal for- 
est. The types may remain, but the details 
of their form, their relative proportions, 
their associates, are all altered. And the 
tree-fern forest of Tasmania or New Zea- 
land gives one only a faint and remote im- 



age of the vegetatioJof the ancient world. 
Once more an inval ibly-recnrring lesson 
of geological historyjat whatever point its 
study IS taken up— ti- lesson of the almost 
infinite slowness of flie modification of liv- 



ing forms — the linei 
living things break 
begin to converge." 



Phosphate of 
Distribution. — Dr 
in Nature, a pape 
on this subject. W 
notice: "Mr. Dyer 
dance of phosidiatt 



discuss the possi- 
tion of phosiihoric 
rimeval state of the 
tervention of life, 



of the ])edigrees of 
almost before they 
'rnf. Uuxlei/. 

] Mfi — Sources and 
Lankester notices, 
by Professor Dyer 
I [uote a part of the 
ints out the abun- 
of lime in igneous 
rocks, but hesitates aJont tracing its origin 
in such beds either tJdirect chemical com 
bination, or to the influsion of organically 
formed phosphate in jhe rocks in question. 
He does not, in shor 
bility of the combi 
acid and lime in the 

globe without the _. „ ^ 

which one distinguisled geologist at least 
denies. Mr. Dyer trales the occurrence of 
tricalcic phosphate in Hie various sediment 
arj' deposits with grea care. He consid 
ers the many structun ess masses of phos- 
phatic deposits whicl occur 'as residimry 
evidence of formerly existing life, of which 
they are to some extint the measure,' as 
gi-aj^iite is in other cjses. A greater infiu- 
ence in the productiol of these masses is 
attributed to anim£ than to vegetal 
life, though marine pftnts are stated to l)e 
especially rich in ph<ii>hate of lime, and 
have undoubtedly plaVed their part in its 
introduction into sedinentary strata. Mr. 
Dj-er mentions that thl recent Brachiopod 
Lingula has 86 per cent, of phosphate of 
lime in the mineral ingredients of its shell ; 
and the occurrence of large quantities of 
phosphate of lime in tie great Laurentian 
and Silurian formationi is noticed by him 
in detail, as well as its iccurrence in Devo- 
nian and Carboniferolis limestones. In 
emerging to the gi-ou]^of mesozoic strata, 
we leave behind almost entirely those veins 
and ])eds of 'phosphate' which occur in the 
older and more changed rocks, where the 
segregation of the jdKBphate of lime has 
l)een more completely' efl'ected, owing to 
the gi-eater age of the l)|>ds. In mesozoic 
and tertiary strata we ^nd those nodules 
which have so crroneoijsly been confused 
with 'coprolites.' Mr. 'Dyer accej)ts the 
history of the origin of tkese nodules which 
I have advocated in destfibing those which 
occur below the Suffolk Crags. Clay has a 
remarkable power of deiiu-hing phosphate 
of lime from its solution in carbonated 
water ; and the phosphatic nodules are bits 
of clay which have become imbedded with 
great quantities of bones, and in some 
ca.ses, probably, with sea-veedtoo; whence, 
by the inter\'ention of gas-charged water, 
they have extracted the phos])hate ; henc 
all beds of jthosphatic nodules occur near 
to argillaceous strata of special character." 

Phosphorescence IN Rarf.fied Gases. — 
M. Sarasin details experiments undertaken 
to show the cause of phosidiorescence in 
rarefied gases after the passage through 
them of an electrical discharge. One of his 
conclusions is that this jdienomenon is due 
to chemical action. The gas is decomposed 
by the current, the oxygen contained in it is 
partially converted into na.scent oxygen, or 
ozone, throughout the entire mass of the 
gas. In this condition it has a very strong 
tendency to unite with the other elements 
present; and, indeed, as soon as the current 
ceases it unites with them. This re-combi- 
nation of the nascent oxygen or ozone takes 
place with energy, and may rationally be 
supposed to be accompanied liy a genera- 
tion of heat, which in its turn brings about 
the phenomenon of light which we call 
phosphorescence. 

Nevada Fossils. — Mr. Meek, in ar b'mr 
to Professor Leidy, for publicati< 
scriptions of some fossils collected 
U. S. Geological Survey, under tht 
tion of Clarence King, Esq., says: 
will plea.se state, in presenting thi 
that the trilobites described in 
Eastern Nevada are decidedly pri 
types, and, so far as I know, the 
sils of that age vet brought in fij 
locality west of the Black Hil 
King's collections also establish 
that the rich silver mines of th« 
Pine district occur in Devonian 
though the carboniferous is also 
veloped there. The Devonian bed 
district yet known by their fossi 
mainly to belong to the upper pai 
system. Mr. King, however, hs 
fossils from Pinon Station, Centii 
da, that appear to belong to tlie h( 
the Upper Helderberg limestonj 
New York series." I 



Januaryf/, 1871.] 



kOR'^ESPONDENCE. 



Notes of Tr.vel in Colusa and Yolo 
Counties. 

CWRrrtu roB THE Press.] 
To persons resident in, and familiar with 
Yolo and Cohisi counties, no explanation 
of the accompannng map of Grand Island 
is necessary. But as the work of reclaim- 
ing this section isone of the most extensive 
in the State, and therefore of more or less 
interest to all, I suomit a few explanations. 
Bridgeport, .sliovn in the ujiper end of 
the map, is siiuat d near the north end of 
Grand Island, six '^iles south of Colusa, 
and about eight n^'^s north of the line of 
Yolo county. It (^I'^ists of a store, black- 
smith shop and '^^ Vv dwellings. Eddy's 
Landing, six mile'^*^ V^li of Bridgeport, is 
similarly situatec?"^^ "iijere jg ^ ferry for 
crossing the Sacramento River at this 
point. Grand Island is a village of about 
100 inhabitants, situated one mile south of 
Eddy's Landing, and is a very promising 
little place. John Bader is the village 
blacksmith, and 0. J. & G. E. Diefen- 
dorff are the principal merchants. Knight's 
Landing, the principal shipping port in 
Yolo county, is situated at the lower end of 
Grand Island, on the west bank of the Sac- 
ramento River, and about 10 miles north of 
Woodland, the county seat of the county. 
It contains about 500 inhabitants and just 
now is quite i. lively place, on account of 
the extensive levee (now being built by 
Reclamation Company No. 108), which 
gives employment to some 400 or 500 men. 
Reclamation and Irrigation Plans. 
A. H. Rhodes, Lewis A. Garnett andChas. 
F. Reed are the Trustees of this company, 
and Capt. William Blanchard is managing 
counsel. These parties own 42,000 acres of 
swamp and overflowed lands. The district 
contains 72,000 acres, commencing at 
Knight's Landing on the south and run- 
ning to Upper Sycamore Slough (near 
Bridgeport) , 40 miles distant by the river. 
The imaginary line (see engraving) on the 
west bank of the Sacramento River, is to 
represent the course of the levee now con- 
structing, which will be some five miles 
shorter than the course of the river. J. M. 
Lemon, Esq., of Suisun, is the contractor 
of this immense undertaking, and it is esti- 
mated that it will cost $140,000, or about 
$2 per acre, to reclaim. 

The levee is built four feet high, 20 feet 

wide on the bottom by four feet wide on 

top. About 15 miles are now completed, 

and weather permitting, the entire work 

will be completed by the last of this month 

Tanuai-y) . A small portion of this island, 

it above the Yolo county line, and known 

the "Mormon Basin," has been pre- 

•ly reclaimed, and produced 40 bushels 

eat to the acre last year. At the wp- 

. end of the island, some seven miles 

south of Colusa, this same company are 

putting three large dams in the Upper 

Sycamore Slough, and erecting flumes, for 

the purpose of irrigating this entire tract 

'^g the driest season. The imaginary 

.^.^m the extreme west of the engraving 

.jsents the high land, to which point 

company's claims extend. The sup- 

^n is, that if this comjiany are suc- 

1 and thoroughly reclaim this section 

k I is now not worth one dollar per 

!,;,, in one season it will be worth $15 

fjji e — a splendid fortune for its pro- 

Ififi and perfectly feasible of success. 

''. Reed conceived the original 

. ^ .d sought capitalists in San Fran- 

/ho joined him in this enterprise. 

Mr. Reed's Ranch. 

jroposes personally to seed 1,000 acres 

eat and 500 acres in barley. He has 

18 ranch stock of various kinds, in- 

ing the best breeds extant. He pur- 

«d of Col. Younger, of San Jose, his 

•oughbred bull, "Jeflf Davis," paying 

•efor «1,000. This bull received the 

t premium at our last State Fair. He 



also purchased of J. Guill, of Chico, his 
thoroughbred cow, " Nellie," for $500. In 
addition, he has numerous breeds of thor- 
oughbred horned cattle. Of horses, he has 
colts of the Black Hawk breed, sired by 
Black Eagle, a horse which Mr. Reed pur- 
chased of Jones & Rochnell, of Vermont, 
for $5,000. On Mr. Reed's place he has a 
steam engine, which is used for supplying 
his house with water ; also for the stock in 
his fields. The water from the tanks sup- 
plies a fountain in front of his residence, 
and then passes by pipes to his fields for the 
young stock. He is also the owner of a 
large warehouse in the town, the capacity 
of which is over 5,000 tons. The speci- 
men of wheat I send you, is called 2'ow- 
selle; and from seven pounds sowed by C. 
Barney (3% miles southwest of Knight's 
Landing) , 240 pounds were reaped. The 
specimen of seven i^ounds was from the 



5-inch face and 2 J;^ -inch jjitcli, in which 
works a 10-inch pinion, which is connected 
with the engine by a combination of gear- 
ing so arranged that by the working of four 
clutches the machine can be propelled 
either forward or back from one to 10 miles 
in 10 hours, withoixt any increase or de- 
crease of the speed of the engine. The 
hind wheels are six feet in diameter and 
one foot face, work loose on a crooked axle 
similar to the hind axle of our large city 
trucks. The hind part of the machine 
rests on a rocker placed on this axle, to 
which are attached tiller-chains, which pass 
around the forward end of the machine and 
are worked by a worm gear with a crank, 
which guides or steers the whole machine. 
A few feet forward of the middle of the 
machine is an iron wheel, seven feet in di- 
ameter, to which are attached four knives, 
angular-shaped, and which extends 12 inches 




Department of Agriculture at Washington, 
to Chas. F. Reed, Esq., and $5 per ounce 
was refused for the same at the last Chico 
Fair. This wheat will average 65 pounds 
per bushel. 

At Knight's Landing, Messrs. Rhodes, 
Eves & Co. own a very fine flouring mill, 
run by a 40-horse power engine, and turn 
out about 20,000 barrels of flour annually, 
besides ground feed, barley, corn meal, 
etc. Messrs. Laugenour & Brownell, of 
this place, are the principal shippers of 
wheat, barley and wool. For the 12 
months just past, 10,000 tons of wheat and 
barley, and 25 tons of wool were shipped. 
The cajiacity of their waiehouses is 9,000 
tons. 

Fletcher's Steam Ditcher. 
A. Fletcher's steam ditcher, now success- 
fully at work ditching on the farm of Chas. 
F. Reed, is 41 feet long, 12 feet wide and 
12 feet high, has an upright boiler (8 feet 
long, 44 inches in diameter, and with 109 
2-inch tubes) , attached to which are two 
engines of 7-inch bore and 12-inch stroke, 
which with 100 pounds of steam and 150 
revohitions, give 24% horse-power. The 
machine stands on four wheels. The for- 
ward or propelling wheels are eight feet in 
diameter, with 2-foot face, and are attached 
to the forward shaft like the driving wheels 
of a locomotive. To one of these wheels is 
attached an internal gear, 6-feet diameter, 



each way laterally. This wheel j evolves 
about 30 times a minute, ciitting a ditch 
two feet wide and 4% feet deep. Upon 
each side of this ctitting wheel are knives 
extending from the bottom of the wheel 
upward and outward, like the sword cutter 
of a plow, which trim the oiiter edge or 
side of the ditch, and give the slope, or 
flare, as desired. Following this wheel is 
a scrai>er, the point of which comes under 
the wheel, and extending backwards and 
upwards is an apron or belt of india rubber, 
two feet wide, upon which the wheel drops 
the dirt, cut and piilverized fine. This is 
carried back and up to the rear of the ma- 
chine, where it drops on to a top or side 
apron, which carries it to either side of the 
ditch. This side apron is arranged so that 
it will carry the dirt either to the right or 
left, by moving a clutch. As the cutting 
apparatus is working, the whole machine is 
moving forward, and the quantity of work 
it does is regulated by giving it a fast or a 
slow motion forward, without changing 
the speed of the engines. It costs about 
$5,000, weighs seven or eight tons, and 
was constriicted by I. H. Small, corner of 
Beale and Market streets. San Francisco. 
Woodland. 
Woodland, the county seat of this (Yolo) 
county, is one of the finest looking towns, 
for its size, in the State. It probably con- 
tains 1,000 inhabitantSi Over two-thirds 



of its buildings are fire-proof brick. 
They have as fine .county buildings here as 
anywhere in the interior ; a splendid col- 
lege building, ranking among the first in 
the State, not only as to size, beauty and 
material, but also in the aggregate attend- 
ance of its pupils ; also a fine bank, known 
as the Bank of Woodland, with a capital 
stock of $200,000; and several manufacto- 
ries. The Yolo Brewery building and 
its surrounding shrubbery is a noticeable 
feature near the suburbs. Jas. Sibley 
manufactures all kinds of doors, sasll, 
scroll work, sawing and planing; and 
C. Elliott, Esq., manufactures all kinds 
of carriages, buggies, sulkies, ex- 
press and lumber wagons, also Hiller & 
Elliott's patent improved carriage con- 
.struction, of which an illustration with full 
comments were published in your issue of 
September 24th. Mr. E. employs reg- 
ularly 10 men, andiias on hand specimens 
of nearly every vehicle known in his splen- 
did two-story flre-i)roof brick building, (50 
feet deep by 84 feet front, situated in tli<' 
upper end of the village, on its principal 
street. Gray & Wood are the principal 
dealers in hardware and agricultural im- 
plements, and Dr. D. D. Hunter presides 
over its best hotel. l. p. mc. 

San Francisco Notion versus Boston 
Notion. 

Eds. Peess : — In your last issue, you 
notice a Boston device by which runaway 
horses can be instantly detached from their 
carriage. But is not the San Francisco in- 
vention of Dr. Le Plongeon (recently pat- 
ented through your oflice) , by which runa- 
way horses can be instantly checked and 
controlled and kept by tlie carriage, infi- 
nitely preferable? Detached runaway- 
horses may do much harm to others, biit 
Le Plongeon's contrivance prevents all 
this. His halter is cheap, can be fitted to 
any bridle, and is well worthy of a trial. 
It can be found at Main & Winchester's, 
Battery street. 

[Personally, we should greatlyprefer Dr. 
Le Plongeon's method to the other, and 
coincide fully in the opinion of our corres- 
pondent in believing that it is at least 
"well worthy of a trial."— Eds. Peess. J 



Cool Impudence. 

A couple of New York lawyers send us a 
request to insert an advertisement in our 
paper, to the effect that they will obtain di- 
vorces anywhere, anyhow and for anybody, 
and without any publicity. We suppose 
the last means that they propose to obtain 
divorces without the knowledge of more 
than one of the parties interested. 

This matter of obtaining divorces seems 
to be quite a flourishing business in the 
States beyond the mountains. Almost e\- 
ery day we see accounts of most disgrace- 
ful events of the kind. To such a shame- 
ful extent are these things carried on, that 
people are becoming aroused to the neces- 
sity of taking strong measures in the matter; 
and one New York judge has deelai-ed from 
the bench that he will mete out heavy pun- 
ishment to legal parties who carry through 
the improper divorce cases by unrighteous 
means. 

However our Pacific Coast population 
may compare in other respects with those 
of the Atlantic Coast, we have not yet 
reached the point attained there in this re- 
spect. We consider it exceedingly cool, 
not to say imi^udent, on the part of the 
lawyers referred to, to send us such a projj- 
osition ; and as wo do not propose to play 
the part of pimps, wo decline inserting 
their advertisement. 

Interesting Tide Fioukes. — The height 
of the tide is from 5 to 12 feet on our At- 
lantic coast, and from 2 to 4 feet in the 
centrnji Pacific ocean. In tlieBayof Fundy 
it is from 50 to 70 feet. At this last locality 
the waters of the in-coming tide are raised 
so high that, as they advance, they seem to 
bo pouring down a slope in a turbid water- 
fall of great extent. In the Tsien-tang 
River, in China, the advancing wave 
rushes on like anadvantung cataract, 4 or 5 
miles broad and 30 feet high, and speeds 
up the stream for 80 miles at a rate of 25 
miles an hour! The change from ebb to 
flood tide is almost instantaneous. In the 
Amazon river, the incoming tide passes up 
the stream in five or six waves, each 12 to 15 
feet high, which follow ono another in 
rapid succession. 



^^>^i i»arE ! ii^^i^^ ^^ 



THE NEEDS OF AGRICULTURAL 
COMMUNITIES. 

FOB TUB PRESS — BY DB. E. S. CABE. 
|ProJ. ol Cheiulsir)- «nd Agriculture in the University 

of California.] 

As tlie Army Scout, ivho goes before to 
report obstacles in the way of progress, 
and the strength of the enemy, though he 
claims no capacity for generalship, feels 
himself as truly a soldier as any man in 
the ranks, so I who do not own a foot of 
land, offer you some reflections upon the 
needs of Agriculture and Agricultural 
Communities, gathered during twenty 
years hard lighting in the cause of Indus- 
trial Education. 

I claim too as earlj' and intimate an ac- 
quaintance with this pursuit as the sage of 
the New York Tribmie, for I have ploughed 
when ploughing was not a pleasant ride 
over flowing fields, and mowed among 
boulders and Canada tliistles where every 
bushel of corn cost more in patience and 
muscle than a ship load of California grain. 
I could match Mr. Greeley's experience on 
the barren hills of New Hampshire with 
my own on the Manor of Kenssahier; I 
also know the hardness, the unattractive- 
ness of farm work ; yet at the Summit of 
Life, looking at the ground I have passed 
over, and comparing the farmer's life with 
other callings, I can say there it none as 
useful, on the whole as pleasurable, or 
which rightly understood and followed, 
calls into such constant exercise the whole 
range of human faculties. It holds this 
l)lace in the Oldest Scriptures the Oldest 
Literatures, and yet there is no question 
of more vital imi^ortance before the Nation 
to-day, than this. How shall we educate 
our youth so that there shall V)e more farm- 
ers and more mecfianics in the land ? How 
shall we raise their pursuits to the rank 
they deserve in the Hierarchy of the 
Sciences ? It is in vain to eulogise a calling 
whose votaries forsake it with every oppor- 
tunity, and whose children turn from it 
with ill concealed disgust. Congress 
might give every acre of the unappropri- 
ated pulilic domain to found Agricultural 
and Industrial Colleges, making them not 
only free but giving a bonus ol lands as a 
reward of attendance and their halls would 
remain empty, until the relations of labor 
to Human Nature are understood and car- 
ried out, until out of a sense of loss, failure 
and one sidedness, the farmers shall resolve 
that his children be as carefully cultured as 
thefields, that they shall grow up in pleas- 
ant homes, and until he ' lays up ' for them — 
not dollars and cents alone, but ' capital for 
after pleasures of thought and memory.' 

Let us reason together about this busi- 
ness of Agriculture ; wherein does it fail to 
meet the demands of Human Nature — the 
higher nature ? Why are we here in Cali- 
fornia, as elsewhere, looking to the more 
degraded classes of foreigners for perma- 
nent laborers in our important industries ? 
Is there any real antagonism between labor 
and culture, or is it only l)ecause labor is 
of the hands alone, and not of hands and 
heart and brain, together, that it stultifies 
and belittles us V 

The whole educational world has been 
roused, in the last few years, to find a 
remedy for the growing distaste of Ameri- 
can youth for those employments most vi- 
tal to the public welfare. We are begin- 
ning to realize some of the primary truths 
of social science, such as this — the founda- 
tion must be as solid as the superstructure. If 
the people who live liy and represent our 
great industries are ignorant and unculti- 
vated, we can build over them no political 
or social edifice which will endure. There 
can be no healthy, living community which 
is not made so by the life blood of intelli- 
gence circulating freely through all its 
members, the Church and College and 
Factory and Farm , must be brought into 
closer relations with each other, ere either 
can render their best to Human Science. 

How shall we bring this about? The 
Sal ration that is to say, the Civilization of 
California depends upon doing it, for 
whether she will or no, California must be 
the center of vast forces, either of incalcu- 
lable good or evil. 

I reply — Bi/ education ; and by this I do 
not mean mere scihooling; but a training 
which shall ennoble labor until the meas- 
ure of service becomes the measure of 
greatness. 

This training ought to begin with life, 
and the father and mother should be the 
first teachers. I have seen a good many 
natural and unnatural curiosities in my 
day, but I have never seen a child who 



hated the country, or who did not think it 
lovely to live on a farm. If you can find 
just the place where your boy and girl 
begin to develop a contrary sentiment, you 
will know exactly the seat of a trouble in 
your home or your neighborhood that 
needs remedy, and in nine cases out of ten 
you will find it to be this: — You have left 
the social nature of man, and this ought to 
be a very large j)art of him, out of the 
account. 

It is not reasonable to expect young per- 
sons, at the age when social attractions are 
the strongest, to be willing to dig and 
delve, and submit to the privations which 
many remember as a part of their own 
youth, but which ought to belong to a past 
condition of things. When I remember 
how oft^n the growing boy was overworked, 
how short his time for study and recrea- 
tion, the disadvantage with which he en- 
tei-ed cultivated society, I do not wonder 
that the farmer's son turns toward other 
occupations, or that the ceaseless cares of 
the farmer's wife, in homes where beanty 
had not softened the hard outlines of utili- 
ty, should discourage and disgust her 
daughters. Families who have struggled 
long and hard to gain a competency, no 
sooner accomidish this than the country 
home is abandoned for town life — where it 
is thought there is more to be enjoyed. 

The love of country life seems to be dying 
out among Americans. What shall we do 
to make our paternal acres represent here, 
as they do in Europe, social standing, in- 
telligence, leisure and culture ? The 
highest ambition of the European emi- 
grant is ownership of his land ; we must 
confess to the lack of this sentiment among 
the higher classes of our own people — a 
fact greatly to be deplored, and which 
augurs ill for our future prosperity. 

There are manj' places in the West where 
the social and political economist might 
have learned valuable lessons in the last 25 
or 30 years. One of these is a portion of 
the Valley of the Rock Kiver in Wisconsin, 
which within my own remembrance has 
been twice colonized — once from New York 
and New England, the advance of the wave 
which settled Michigan — and secondly by 
Germans and Scandinavians. The first 
came and took up large tracts of land, 
which they cropped year after year with 
wheat, burning their straw and returning 
nothing to the soil. They cut down the 
sparse timber of the oak openings, and the 
climate being unfavorable to fruit-growing, 
left nothing in its place. By the time their 
lands were well fenced, comfortaVde houses 
and barns and school houses erected, and 
chills and fever had been subdued, they 
discovered that their crops were not so 
heavy as formerly — there were more fre- 
quent droughts, more "chinch bugs." 

Many of the pioneers sold out at a great 
sacrifice and went to repeat the same prac- 
tice in Missouri, Kansas, or on the Pacific 
Coast, or sunk personal influence and capi- 
tal in the towns in attempts to lead a life 
for which their previous habits unfitted 
them. Meanwhile the hardy Norwegian 
peasants who had taken up the less desira- 
ble portions of wild land, sa-vdng, in Euro- 
pean fashion, every scrap of manure, plant- 
ing trees and vines, and settling more in 
communities, grew rich, and in many cases 
were able to buy up the improved home- 
steads of their American neighbors, until 
in some locations the entire nationality of 
a district has been changed — certainly not 
for the worse, if the accelerated increase of 
the population, and the value of the land 
are considered. Wisconsin, Iowa and Min- 
nesota have gained immensely in gaining 
this home-making element. In our own 
State we have a notable example, in the 
thrifty town of Anaheim, of the results of 
social, in contrast with isolated settlements. 

Whenever wo become alive to our own 
real interest we shall be less greedy of im- 
mediate gains, more craving of neighbors 
than of acres. We shall learn to apply the 
principles of co-operation in the purchase 
and use of machinery and in supplying 
food and clothing fo* our households. 

The rapid growth and wonderful pros- 
perity of such communities as that of Vine- 
land, proves a genuine love for rural life, 
where it is not purchased by the loss of 
social privileges. And so the growing ten- 
dency of city population towards suburban 
life, as shown in the formation of our num- 
erous homestead associations, is another 
proof that Nature is still consistent with 
herself. 

In these cases Horticulture, the original 
fine art, which weaves a web of beauty 
around the lowliest home, becomes the link 
uniting city with country. The cultivation 
of the small garden spot, its harvest of pure 
and simple pleasures begets a longing for 
the wider fields and freer life of the farm. 

To the stranger in California, the clump 
of lillies blooming in mid winter by every 
cottage door, the vines wreathed around 



porch and window six»ak more for the char- 
I acter of her people than the product of her 
mines or the wealth of her commerce. 

No social organization, however attractire, 
vill suffice permanently to elevate our indus- 
tries; this can be done only though education. 

I am aware that there is a prejudice con- 
cerning "book farming," and that mother 
wit and plenty of manure are considered 
the great essentials of successful agricul- 
ture. That kind of farming has hiul its 
day, just as pans and rockers have had their 
day in mining. 

When you think that science is simply 
tlie record of experience in these matters, 
giving the reasons why — a history, so to 
speak, of experiments and their results ; 
when you think whether it would be gain 
or loss to have all the agricultural and 
horticultural journals and manuals re- 
moved, all statistical information withheld, 
and the transmission of the most valuable 
knowledge on these subjects left to tra- 
dition, you are prepared to estimate what 
science has done and is doing for us. Still 
more, my "practical" friend, go back to 
the implements which your grandfather, 
who was "no fool, sir," hoed and harvested 
and "thrashed" with, buy a little wheel 
and a big wheel, and a reel and a loom and 
a dye tub for your wife, and tell me, after 
using them a year, what you think of the 
service which inventors of machinery, and 
improvers of the varieties of plants, and 
discoverers sent out by our institutions to 
find whatever can be impressed into man's 
service, and neu-sjjajjer 7nen are worth to 
the world. 

When I meet a mechanic who points to 
successful men who have made their lucky 
hits without much education, and who is 
inclined to follow his calling in a mindless, 
empirical way, realizing none of its con- 
nections with great material and social 
laws, I say, " My friend, all your interests 
are at the mercy of men who have built up 
vast fortunes, secured to themselves mo- 
noi^olies, maile peace and war, burdened 
you with taxation in spite of you, because 
your craft has been only handicraft." An in- 
stinct of self-preservation will drive the in- 
dustrial classes to Education, should all 
other motives fail. 

I am aware that there has been a gulf 
between th.' abstract and practical sides of 
Agi-iculture ; a gulf pretty much bridged 
over, however, in those countries where 
this pursuit is the most successful and the 
most honored. Tliis has been done by a 
S3-8tem of instruction which, by infusing it 
with actual knowledge of facts and prini-i- 
ples, has made it intelligent, and raised its 
rank to that of the professions. 

A Native Evebgeeen Obnamental 
Shbub, and Hedoe-i>lant. — The Ceracus 
illicifolia — a native of our coast mountains — 
called by some the California Holly, is one 
of the finest lawn shrubs, at this season of 
the year to be seen in our travels. It stands 
close shearing and may be trained in al- 
most any shajie, to suit the taste. The fa- 
vorite style seems to be a conical shaj)e 
with the base close to the ground; although 
it is liable to get thin in its lower branches 
if not raised a foot higher. Its natural 
habit of growth is umbrella-form. 

This plant is much used for ornamental 
hedging, and is getting to be quite a stand- 
ard ornamental hedge plant. The leaves 
are a bright clear green, sharply serrated, 
and quite dense, when properly trained. 
Even throughout the summer months it is 
a beautiful shrub, but during the winter, 
when desciduous trees are bare, the Ceracus 
illicilfolia is a pleasing attraction wherever 
planted. The best bight to train this plant 
in hedge is about three to four feet. It 
then shows a vigorous face without being 
either scattering or stunted. 

Salt Bctteb in England is considered 
very little better than hog's lard, and is 
never brought to any respectable person's 
table. It is used occasionally on toast, and 
a good deal in making pastry, but fresh 
butter and fresh meat are eaten by every- 
body in comfortable circumstances, except 
that cold boiled ham and ra.shers of broiled 
bacon are very common for the breakfast. 

SuoaR from Sweet Potatoes. — A gen- 
tleman in. New Orleans from 52 jiounds of 
sweet potatoes, with rude machinery for 
extracting the juice, and by the lu'idition of 
some ingredient known only to himself, 
has lately made two and three-quarters 
gallons of beautiful golden syrup. He 
thinks he can make it at a less price than 
cane syrup. 



[januaT-y 7, 1871. 



'. 1 



MANURING LANDS IN I CALIFORNIA. 

The proper time to applyj |ianure to land 
in California, where dry ai^ rainy seasons 
follow each other, is in the /all or early win- 
ter. The rains then dissolve and carry its 
soluble salts— the strength of the manure— 
into the soil. Land that in freshly plowed, 
and lays rough in furrows, is in the liest 
condition to receive its unpply of manure. 
It is a»lmis.sable to spnad that from the 
stable upon the surface, and either let it 
lay exposed, or else light >y work it into the 
surface soil— the latter is preferable. 

Thoroughly rotted maniire may be plow- 
ed under; but it is besfc^ot the first season 
to deejily cover coars. J iinnure and straw. 
It does not so readiie iil«V)mpose lieneath 
as upon the surface ionk soil. During 
summer, coarse ma''"'' x feVon or near the 
surface, acts as a nig ^^ < soAto protect the 
under soil from dVioal- li; while if fal- 
lowed deejjly under, it )&ves the soil in 
such loo.se condition that it dries out soon- 
er, and the capilary action from below is 
also retarded. On land that is to be irri- 
gated, this latter consideration is of less 
importance. 

The mechanical effect of manures should 
be regarded of equal iajpoitance to the 
chemical. The latter advantages are de- 
rived from such portion! as are held in 
solution in water, alongM-ith the earthy 
salts of the disintegrated soil. 

Plants never eat; they drink, and breathe. 

There is no country where good manure, 
pro])erly applied, will make a^better show- 
ing than in this state; but there are alwaj's 
conditions of soil and seasons, as well as of 
the manure, that must be understood and 
observed, to obtain the liest results. 

The lands on this co.a.st, generally, are 
sadly lacking in the vegetjible mould so es- 
sential to the life of the soil where it is 
cropped year after year. This want may 
be to a great extent supplied by plowing 
under the straw, now so generally buried. 
Green crops, and barnyard manure, might 
also be profitably employed in the same 
way in many localities. But where manure 
is to be plowed under in land exposed to 
drouth, it should be as uniformly distrib- 
uted as possible, and. also l)e plowed nnder 
before the rains are over, Bo that the soil 
can settle; otherwise the ground will soon 
dry down to the buried straw or manure, 
which, under such circumstances, will be 
detrimental, rather than otherwise to the 
growing crop. 

One intelligent farmer, who had a field 
that was quite foul, and which had been 
impoverished by constijct cropping, met 
with complete success, by the following 
treatment :^He thoroughly jilowed his land 
in earlj' winter, then spread it over with 
ordinary stable manure —a generous coat- 
ing — and harrowed it well in. A splendid 
crop of weeds sprung up from the soil and 
manure. When they were a few inches 
high — in March — he sowed on his seed, 
and then, with a large plow-tf)oth cultiva- 
tor, gratled to a 2^^ inch cut in depth, cul- 
tivated and cross cultivated his laud, 
covering the seed gi-ain and destroyir 
weeds. The grain came up clean 
made a large yield of superior qualit; 

The Cad. State Agbicudtttbaij Soc 
holds its annual meeting for the elcctio 
officers in Sacramento on the 27th, as 
be seen by notice in another column, 
hope members will manifest sufficient 
terest to secure a large attendance and ad 
progressive measures which shall increi 
the vigor and usefulness of the society, 

AoEICULTUBAIi IMPLEMENTS. — A JOI^ 

stock company is in contemplation in 8a 
ramento for the manufacture of agri<Miltuil 
al implements in that city on an extensivi 
scale. This is a move in the right directioil 
and can bo madi! to pay. 

Fiftv Dollabs to the Acre.— Mr. C. 
M. Opdyke informs the Santa Barbara! 
/'re.?.'! that he has sold squashes from 2% 
acres of ground to the amount of $100, | 
after taking out enough for his own use. 




' ^ 



January 7, 1871.] 



-^>SI 



B^ 



THE CULTIVATION OF POPPY- 

[By Db. L. Ijanszweeet.] 

A recent analysis of a sample of opium 
obtained from poppies raised in Novato, 
Marin County, by Mr. Baudrye, proves 
that with proper care the culture of the 
poppy for opium, and oil from its seeds, 
would be remunerative to the California 
agriculturist. Although the amount of 
morjjhia in this sample was only 5.75 per 
cent., — a small percentage compared to the 
yield obtained from oi^ium produced in 
Hancock, Vermont, by Mr. Bobbins, 
15.75 per cent., as stated in the Alta, Nov. 
2d, 1870; still, even this yield shows that 
opium of excellent quality can be produced 
in this state. 

It should be borne in mind that the com- 
mercial value of the article dejiends on the 
richness of morphia and other alcaloides, 
which yield will depend on the nature of 
the ground on which the poppy is cultivat- 
ed, the quality and quantity of manure 
emisloyed, the state of maturity of the pod 
from which it has been gathered, and the 
atmospheric influences to which the culti- 
vation of the poppy is subject. For these 
reasons comparative analyses of the sevei-al 
samples of opium obtained in this state 
would be the most valuable, as such analy- 
ses would decide the most favorable place 
for the culture of the poppy. 

It is not necessary to enter into the de- 
tails of the cultivation of the poppy; still 
the following summary of experiments 
made in France, since 1855, has established 
the facts: — 

Ist. That French opium may be jjlaced, 
as to qiiality, by the side of the best opium 
from the Levant; the chances of adultera- 
tions being much greater for the latter. 

2d. That its extraction is remtinerative 
and easy. 

3d. According to the analysis of H. H. 
Benard and Deschamjis the percentage of 
morphia in this indigenous oiiium was from 
16 to 22. 

dth. That Messrs. Benard and Cottas, of 
Paris, have intimated to the cultivators of 
La Somme, one of the dej^artments of 
France where the cultivation of the poppy 
has been conducted on a large scale, (over 
40,000 acres) that all the opium they col- 
lect will be received by them at the price 
of $16 to #20 per kilogramme, 2.2 i)ounds, 
according to its quality. 

The yield of seed upon the above acres 
was 385,168 bushels, valued at 4,480,000 
francs, which gives an average of 352 
francs, or about $30 per hectare. 2% 
acres. 

The value of the opium crop is on the 
increase. The expenses of extraction vary 
from $4 to $6 per kilogramme for dry and 
marketable opium. The price varies from 
$14 to $15, at a standard of 10 per cent, of 
morphia only. Two kilogrammes of the 
milky juice, containing oi)ium, yield about 
one kilogramme of diy opium. It is ad- 
visable, to facilitate the keei)ing of the 
ground in order as well as for the collec- 
tion of the oi^ium, that the seeds should be 
sown in rows at intervals of from eight 
inches to nearly a foot. 

By encouraging this new production an 
important service would be rendered to the 
country population, by the employment it 
would afford to women and children, who 
are more ajDt to this work than men. The 
most effectual means of encouragement 
woiild be to difl'use information upon 
the subject, and to show the advantages to 
be derived from it by every possible means. 
It might be necessary to engage instructed 
teachers to practise their pupils some hours 
for a few days in incising the capsules and 
collecting the juice. Much time, other- 
wise lost by many, would thus be utilized 
and rewarded with immediate profit. 

As soon as the incision is made the juice 
flows out and may be collected. In 24 
hours it is dry. The stock of tools requir- 
ed for the extraction is of the simplest 
kind: — a knife and one or two plates would 
be all that would be needed. 

The greatest yield of good opium in In- 
dia is stated at 41 i)ounds per acre, and the 
average at 20 to 25 pounds. To this opium 
is frequently added an inferior matter, ob- 
tained by subjecting the poppy heads to 
liressure, and even by boiling the heads in 
water and concentrating the extract. The 
percentage of morphine in the opium used 
by the Chinese for smoking is from two to 
five. As already stated, the commercial 
value of opium depends on its richness of 
morphia, and the following table shows the 
average percentage of this alcaloid in 
opium in soft or dry state, and may be a 



guide in the selection of seed for varieties 
to cultivate: 

Average Percentage of Morphia in various Opium. 

Soft Dry 

State. State. 

Turkish or Constantinople Opium 12.35 14.78 

Smyrna or Anatolia 12.35 14.72 

Alexandria or Egypt 6 00 8.20 

Persia (containing 8 per ct. of Narcotine) 11.37 

India. Benares, Putna, Malwa 6.50 

Algeria 12.00 

French Department of Landes (General 

Lamarque) 18.00 

French Departme t of Loir and Cher 

White Poppy (E. De Morgan) 14.99 17.22 

French Purple Poppy (Aubergier of Cler- 
mont) 14.96 

French Pavot oeillette (Odeph) 21.00 

Do do do (Benard d' -Amieus) 17.22 

Do do do (Kenard) 22.88 

Do do do (E. De Morgan) 15.00 17.30 

Do do do (LePage de Gisors) 13.79 15.46 

Three varieties of poppies are cultivated 
in France under the following names: — 
Pavot a' liuile, Pavot noir, Paoot oeillette. 
According to the researches of M. Eoun, 
of Eochefort, the Pavot oeillette furnishes 
the best opium. 

The consumjition of opium by the Chi- 
nese in California is estimated at over 2,000 
pounds monthly. The value obtained by 
Mr. Baudrye, for his California opium, from 
a Chinese firm in this city was at the rate of 
fieven dollars per pound. From the seeds a 
better and sweeter article of salad oil and 
for other culinary purposes may be produc- 
ed than the most of the article sold here 
under the euphonious name of olive oil. 
The average yield of oil from the poppy 
seed is from 25 to 27 per cent., and the 
pressed seed cakes are valuable for fatten- 
ing fowls, etc. 

San Francisco, Dec. 12, 1870. 

By reference to our advertising columns, 
persons desirous of entering upon this im- 
portant branch of industry may learn where 
they can obtain the seed which produces 
the best and most profitable quality of 
opium. 



Tl|i Swifli HeI\D. 



RELATIVE FOOD VALUE. 

As fodder, the straw of our leading 
grain crops grades as follows — the best 
first: Oat, barley, wheat, rye. It is doubt- 
ful whether there is a better root than the 
I)otato for feeding for milk. A farmer in 
Ohio has found that 36 quarts of carrots 
gave him 32 pounds of milk, and 36 quarts 
of i)otatoes gave him 40 pounds of milk. 
The other food given the cow was dry liay. 

Dr. Wiggins, inspector at Providence, 
R. I. , has been comparing milk with other 
foods as to cost, and his results are given 
as follows: 

"I estimate sirloin steak (reckoning loss 
from bone) at 34c. per pound as dear as 
milk at 24c. a quart; round steak at 20c. as 
dear as milk at 14c; eggs at 30c. a dozen as 
dear as milk at 20c. a quart. Many laborers 
who pay 17c. for corned beef would on- 
sider themselves hardly able to pay 10c. 
for milk, when, in fact, they could as well 
afford to pay 15c. If the money expended 
for veal and pork were expended for milk, 
I doubt not it would be an advantage both 
to the stomach and pocket, especially dur- 
ing the warm season. Relatively speaking, 
then, milk at 10c. , or even 12c., a quart 
is the cheapest animal food that can be 
used." 

AGRICULTURAITIrEPORTS— SEEDS. 

Having had numerous enquiries for 
copies of the Annual Agricultural Reports, 
we addi'essed a note to the Commissioner 
Capron, from whom we have received the 
following reply: — 

Editors of Pacific Rural Press. Sirs. — 
Your apphcation for copies of the Annual Re- 
port for 1869, has been received. In answer I 
regret to state that the limited number allotted 
to this department by Congi'ess, will prevent 
me from complying with your request. 

The Annual Report of this department is 
printed by Congress and mainly distributed by 
its members to their constituents upon applica- 
tion by letter or otherwise. Out of two hun- 
dred and twenty-four thousand five hundred 
copies ordered by Congress, but twenty-three 
thousand are allowed for the use of this oflSce. 
It will doubtless require this entire number to 
supply our regular statistical correspondents, 
the " agricultural societies and clubs, library 
associations, and foreign exchanges, all of 
which we are expected to supply from this 
limited number. 

Very respectfully, yours, etc., 

Horace Capron, Commissioner. 

It will be seen from the above that those of 
oiu* friends who wish these reports should 
apply to the members of Congress from their 
respective districts. The Commissioner states 
in another letter that : 

"The major portion of the seeds intended 
for distribution, the coming season, were or- 
dered from Paris, and I am fearful the depart- 
ment will not receive them in time, if at all. 

Nothing on hand now but Swedish oats, and 
barley, samples of which I have sent you to- 
dav. 



CURRYING HOGS. 

Prof. Johnson, the well known agricultu- 
ral writer relates an experiment which he 
made of the use of friction in the treatment, 
of hogs, the skin of which animal is much 
like that of the human race. He treated six 
pigs with a curry-comb for the space of sev- 
en weeks, and left three others in the same 
pen untouched. The result was a relative 
gain of thirty three pounds more in the 
weight of the animals so treated, than the 
neglected ones, together with a large saving 
in the amount of food respectively fed out. 
This result was due to the fact that by means 
of friction, in the use of the curry-comb, 
all the functions of the body were more per- 
fectly performed — the skin was kept free 
from filth and the pores in a condition to 
perform thair functions to the best advan- 
tage. The same advantage is thereby gain- 
ed for the pig which accrues to the human 
system from bathing, friction and general 
cleanliness. 

A calculation has been made from simi- 
lar premises by which it is estimated that 
a man, by proper care of his skin, may save 
near thirty-one dollars a year, in the value 
of food from that which his system will re- 
quire, when bodily cleanliness is neglect- 
ed. Every horse fancier knows and appre- 
ciates the value of friction and cleanliness in 
the care of his favorite animal; and numer- 
ous experiments are on record of the large 
increased yield of milk obtained by the care- 
ful and frequent currying of cows. Conven 
lent scratching posts should always be pro 
vided for animals, and especialy for swine, 
in the absence of more painstaking care. 



CLEAN PIGS AND DIRTY PIGS. 

Pigs enjoy the reputation of having a real 
liking for dirt; and certainly, the way in 
which they are kept on some itarms would 
show that their owners are determined to 
give them ample opportunities for carrying 
out this liking. No notion can, however, 
be more erroneous than this, as none is cer- 
tainly so productive of loss to the keeper. Let 
any one not convinced of this, try the two 
modes of pig-keeping — the dirty and the 
clean — the food in both cases, and other gen- 
eral treatment being the same; and the re- 
sult will show him which of the two is the 
best in the end. A great deal depends up- 
on the mode in which they are housed. Mr. 
Raines, of Mills, adopts the following: A 
large out-house is inclosed at the sides, so 
as to be warm and dry. The floor is paved, 
and sprinkled over with burnt clay, and ash- 
es obtained by burning weeds ; i in this the 
pigs are fed; while for resting and sleep- 
ing they have a compartment railed off at 
the other end, and which is amj^ly provided 
with clean straw. In another case, the prin- 
ciple of box feeding has ben applied, the 
pigs being kept in a pit, into which the 
manure from the ox or cow stables and the 
horse stables is put. The pigs tread this 
down, and enjoy themselves amazingly. In 
one case, where this plan has been adopted, 
the farmer states that his pigs "have given 
nim a profit of their meat and left the dung 
— as goocf as guano — for nothing." — Mark 
Lane Express. 

Peofit of Raising Hogs. — About a year 
ago F. O. Staples of Suisun, purchased two 
small pigs and put[them in a floored pen near 
his stable, feeding them during the year on 
slops from his kitchen, and corn which cost 
him just $18. He recently sold the hogs 
to Bihler, Williams &Co., for $56— the two 
weighing 932 pounds. 

Immense Hogs. — In company with Ash- 
bery and Steinmitz of the Woodland Mar- 
ket ,we ( Yolo Democrat) took a look at some 
of the fine stock on hand. A couple of hogs 
are worthy of particular mention ; the lar- 
gest of which measures six feet seven inch- 
es in length, from snout to root or tail; two 
feet eleven inches from hip to hip, and in 
girth seven feet three inches. The estima- 
ted weight of the two porkers is 860 and 
775 lbs respectively. 

How TO Fat a Hog Quick. — An Ohio 
hog-grower says that the following treatment 
will make the biggest hog out of a pig in 
twelve months: Take two parts of barley, 
two of corn and one of oats. Grind them to- 
gether; then cook and feed cold. He says 
it is the cheapest food, and that any pig of 
good improved breed can be made to gain 
a pound a day until a year old. 



04\ P@ilLT^y fl@-[ 

ADVANTAGES OF BLOODED FOWLS. 

It seems difficult to convince many per- 
sons that a ten dollar fowl may be more 
economical to breed from, than one that 
costs only one dollar ; yet nearly every one 
is ready to admit the advantages of blooded 
horned stock on a farm. 

Many farmers who can readily see that 
the same amount and quality of food will 
produce varying results in the retu rn of 
milk, butter or beef, according to the 
breed of the animal fed, are slow to apply 
the same arguments to fowls ; and that, 
too, Avithout any reference whatever to the 
less importance of the latter in the general 
economy of a farm. The matter of the 
selection of fowls is regarded quite too 
much as a mere individual fancy. 

It has required full half a century to 
force the conviction of the importance and 
value of blooded stock upon the minds of 
the farming community generally ; but 
from what has been accomplished during 
the last decade, we have reason to believe 
that an equal advance will be made in the 
quality of our poultry within a very short 
time. As an evidence of the progress being 
made in this direction, we note the frequent 

Importation of Blooded Fowls 
at this port, designed for different i^arts of 
the Pacific coast. 

Our attention has been especially called 
during the past week to a recent importa- 
tion by Messrs. Nichols & Willard, who 
have a choice collection of blooded fowls 
across the Bay in Brooklyn. Among those 
just received were buff Cochins ; black Af- 
rican bantams, a very small, fine fowl, 
weighing less than one pound each, and 
kept chiefly for fancy ; Houdans ; dark 
Bramahs, and the Aylosburg ducks — a very 
fine layer and table bird, and one which 
brings double the price of any other duck 
in the London market. 



Bone Dust fob Poultry. — Last winter 
I procured two barrels of bone, intending 
to use it for Irish potatoes and other garden 
crops. My wife apjiropriated some of it 
for her roses in the flower garden, by sim- 
ply strewing it on the surface of the ground 
around the bushes. The fowls have free 
access to the garden, and were discovered 
eating the meal very eagerly. Thinking 
that it might be of service to them, we gave 
them some for several weeks, and I assure 
you that it was but a short time before the 
eggs began to come in such numbers as we 
had never known before. If a nest was 
broken up to prevent a hen from setting, it 
was but a few days before she was laying 
again; and thus it continued to the present 
time. One hen has taken possession of a 
barrel that has some bone meal in it, and is 
laying in the meal. Whether she will lay 
the barrel full or not, time will show. My 
wife thinks that care and bone meal are 
great institutions for her poultry-yard and 
very extraordinary in their effect; but as 
the hen does an unusual amount of cackling, 
she fears it may bring on bronchitis. The 
manuring of hens to make them lay, we 
think is original, but we have no idea of 
taking out a patent for it, and hence leave 
the discovery open to the use of all who 
may choose to try it. — [Exchange. 



A Raise Collection op Poultey. — Mr. 
R. B. Woodward, in view of the great and 
growing interest which is being felt in the 
introduction upon this coast of rare and 
blooded fowls, has made arrangements for 
the^ introduction into his Gardens, on Mis- 
sion street, of a full collection of all the 
choice varieties which are attainable. This 
collection will not only form a new and im- 
portant attraction to the sight seers who 
visit that famous place of resort ; but will 
also serve a most imfiortant end in creating 
a more healthy and improved interest in 
a large and important branch of home in- 
dustry. 

High Peiced Fowls. — Among the novel- 
ties exhibited at a recent poultry show in 
Connecticut was a pair of buff hens, said to 
be valued at $1,000. 



■<^ggMiES^^i^ 



[January 7, 1871. 



^^griculturalS'ndustry 



Cotton Culture in California.— No, 1. 

BY JOHN Ij. strong. 

[Written for the Press.] 

It is ilifticiilt to define the precise limits 
within whieh cotton may be suceesafnllj 
j)rodiice(l in California. With reference to 
climate, the isothermal lines may be taken 
aa safe latitudinal boundaries. 

Reference to a physical atlas will disclose 
the fact that nearly the entire state lies 
within the cotton zone. At latittide 36' the 
isothermal line of 00' — which is assumed 
as the northern boundary of the "cotton 
belt" of the United States — curves north- 
ward. Following the western slope of the 
Sierra Nevadas, it extends beyond the 40tli 
])arallel at Fort Heath, and then curves 
downward again following the eastern slope 
of the Coast Bange mountains until it 
reaches the Santa Barbara islands, where it 
again turns northward. 

Limiting the southern boundary of the 
"cotton belt" of the United States to the 
isothermal line of 70', we descend, in Cali- 
fornia, to San Diego. The question of 
profitable production on the vast arid jilains 
embraced in tliis region must be deter- 
mined by practical tests in the future. One 
test made in 1870 on these plains in INferced 
county, with seed sent fi-om the writer's 
plantation on the Mississippi river, result- 
ed in a fine yield of cotton; while corn 
planted beside it perished from the effects 
of drought. But leaving out these arid 
plains, there remains an immense area 
within which corn is now successfully and 
]>rofitably ]iroduced, without irrigation. 
We may safely assert, that wherever corn 
can be grown without irrigation, cotton 
will be a profitable crop, sui)7)osing the in- 
terval between spring and autumn frosts to 
be sufficiently long to admit of its matur- 
ing. This necessary interval may be stated 
to lie between the Ist of May and the 15th 
of October. The October frost is suppos- 
ed to be a freeze, such as will harden the 
earth and blight all vegetation — "a killing 
frost." A light frost, which only caiises 
the leaves to drop and dries up the sap in 
the stalk, is beneficial to cotton in hasten- 
ing maturity. On all such land as above 
described, that will return to the planter a 
yield of 30 bushels of corn, per acre, he 
may safely calculate to gather 500 pounds 
of lint cotton per acre. 

The importance of the successful inaug- 
uration of cotton production to the future 
prosperity of California, cannot be over 
estimated. A stranger, traversing the 
state, finds labor without em])loyment from 
the time the grain crop is planted until the 
harvest begins ; and from the close of the 
harvesting season until planting is resum- 
ed. In the intervals which elaps" between 
these two working seasons, an idle po))ula- 
tion haunts the villages, towns, and cities, 
and the fruits of idleness are everywhere 
visible. To the amelioration of the condi- 
tion of the working classes, the efforts of 
the wise and good are constantly directed ; 
and he who succeeds in such efforts de- 
serves the benison of his kind. It is said 
with truth, that "he who causes two blades 
of grass to grow where but one grew be- 
fore, is mightier than the conqueror of a 
city." With how much greater emphasis 
may it be said of him who calls into exis- 
tence a great industrial enterprise, profita- 
bly employing idle populations, repressing 
thereby vice and crime, and giving a 
mighty impetus to the development of the 
jirosperity and wealth of the state. It is in 
this spirit, and with no meaner purj)ose 
that the writer has sought to introduce the 
culture of cotton in California. Wliether 
his efforts be successful or not, he claims' 
the merit of unselfish endeavor. 

The rules which govern the true and sci- 
entific culture of the cotton plant are gen- 
eral, and are, therefore, to a certain extent 
applicable to all conditions of climate and 
soil. All general rules are subject to mod- 
ification. In culture — and especially in 
that which claims to rest upon a scientific 
basis — these modifications are determined 
by the tests of practical experience — the 
safest of guides. Practical tests develop 
the peculiarities of climate and soil. Thus 
while the general principles which govern 
culture in the moist region of the Missis- 
sip j)i river bottom, are the same as those 
which must be adopted, in practice, in the 
dry climate of California, practical experi- 
ence teaches us that there are special dif- 
fei-ences in both climate and soil which ren- 
der necessary changes in the prevailing 
systems of preparation, planting, and cul- 
tivation of that region, in order to insure 
success in o\ir own. 

The true principles of culture in both 
climates involve a thorough preparation for 



planting, by deep breaking and i^erfect pul- 
verization of the soil. It is rendered nec- 
essary by the nature of the cotton plant, 
wliicii neither climate nor soil can change. 
Depending for sustenance upon one main 
or lap root, which strikes down deep into 
the earth in search of nourishment, its 
downward progress must be unobstructed; 
else to the extent of that obstruction its 
perfect development is retarded. But in 
the climate where the abundant moisture 
generated by the "Gulf Stream" is diffused, 
the water in the planting season, often lies 
upon the surface for two or three days con- 
secutively, even though the soil be broken 
to the depth of ten inches or more. Hence 
the necessity for jilanting u])on "raised 
beds." For the germination of the seed the 
plant requires a generous warmth. 

In our dry climate, on the contrary, the 
absence of precipitation during the plant- 
ing season admits of level planting, in fact 
demands it. While the variable climate of 
the Atlantic States affords the planter no 
certain criterion upon which to base his 
l)lans for cultivation, we have uniform and 
changeless seasons. In the one ease, there 
may be alternate floods of rain and parch- 
ing droughts; in the other a single princi- 
ple governs your system — that of providing 
for the al)sori)tion of the greatest quantity 
of moisture and its gradual exhaustion to 
supply the even development of the plant. 

We lay down then, as an inflexible rule 
for the observance of the California jJlanter 
— level planting. 

The soil should l>e first broken to tlie 
greatest possible depth, then thoroughly 
harrowed. The land is thus prei)arpd to 
absorb all the moisture that falls. The soil 
is made light, loose, and is readily warmed 
by the sun, and a raj)id germination insur- 
ed when the seed is deposited. 

The rows should be "marked off" in 
spaces. A rule which will apply almost 
universally is — four feet each way. But 
this is subject to modification in the case of 
very strong soils, where the plants should 
have more distance — say five feet east and 
west, and three feet north and south. The 
time for planting will be as e.arly as possi- 
ble after the latest frosts of spring. 

The seed must be deposited in the checks, 
by hand, from eight to ten seed in each 
check. The best and simplest method of 
carrying the seed, is to have the hand or 
laborer who jilants the seed, wear a long 
apron made of burlajjs or some cheap, 
coarse material, fastened around his neck 
by a strap. He will gather it over his left 
arm in the form of an open bag. This will 
be filled with seed and dropiied by the 
right hand. 

For covering the seed so droi^ped, either 
of two methods may l)e adopted. 1st. One 
hand may follow the sower with a hoe, cov- 
ering carefully to the dejjth of from two to 
three inches, or 2nd. A harrow may be 
used, constructed as follows: Take apiece 
of 3 by 4 hard w'ood, 18 inches in length. 
Leave space in the center to fit on the stock 
of a common shovel plow; then fill with or- 
dinary harrow teeth at intervals of one and 
a half inches. Run this over the rows cov- 
ering the checks. This ends the work of 
planting. 

Beet Suoab. — The San Jose beet sugar 
enterprise is now in a fair way of going 
into early operation. A large amount of 
stock has already been taken, and arrang- 
ments have been made to procure seed for 
the spring planting. The enterprise may 
be considered as fairly inaugurated. 

Sacramento has not given up the man- 
ufacture of beet-sugar. Machinery has 
been sent for, and the managers are deter- 
to succeed. 



Cabeful Faeming Pats. — Charles L. 
Sh.irpless is a farmer who carries the pre- 
cision and exact noting of the counting- 
room, where he has amassed a great for- 
tune, to tlie farm; and what he knows is 
valuable, because he can give his knowl- 
edge in figures. For instance, he says he 
can winter a cow in the best condition and 
at the gi-eatest profit on this daily ration: 
Hay, 15 pounds; meal, 8 quarts; carrots, 4 
quarts. He feeds about equal meals morn- 
ing, noon and night. It is doubtful 
whether anybody has better Jersey cattle 
than Sharpless. 

Dogs — What it Costs to Keep Them.— 
If all that the dogs of this country eat 
were fed to hogs, it would make $50,000,- 
000 worth of pork. And these dogs do no 
good, to say nothing of tho 800,000 sheep 
they kill. 

A Tboy gardener has raised a grape crop 
of over 0,000 pounds on a space of less 
than 1,000 square feet. 



California Agricaltoral Notes. 

Moee MuiiTicAULis Trees. — Dr. J. 
Strentzel, of the Alhambra Farm, in Contra 
Costa county, is planting 2,000 morns mo- 
retti mulberry trees and 1,5000 inullicaiiUs 
cuttings. Mr. John Thorpe, of Placer 
county, is also planting 2,000 mulberry 
trees — one-half of the moretti variety, and 
the other half nvl/icaulis. A number of 
the neighbors of Mr. T. are also planting a 
less number each. 

Optcji Culture. — C. W. Reed, the well 
known orchardist and nursery man of Yolo 
county, is preparing to enter into opium 
culture this coming season. 

Impobted Pio. — Cary & Mitchell, of 
Colusa, have a little pig which they have 
just imported from St. Louis, two and a 
half feet from "tip to tip," which weighs 
144 po\inds. 

Coal Oil for "Sr.*.B." — Parties are 
using oil from the San Fernando oil springs, 
for the purpose of healing scab in sheep. 
It is said to be an excellent remedy. 

Wool Statistics. — The statistics of the 
San Fransisco wool trade show a receipt of 
about twenty million pounds here besides 
what may have been retained for manu- 
facture at the Marysville, Stockton, and 
other interior mills; and it is estimated that 
the increa-se next joar will bo fully 25 per 
cent. 

Big Things.— The San Diego Union has 
seen a beet weighing 01 pounds and a sweet 
potato weighing 17% i)ounds, both from 
the Sweetwater Valley in that neighbor- 
hood. The latter was eaten a few days be- 
fore the notice was made, and found to be 
mealy and sweet. 

Hops in Oakland.— The Oakland N^ews 
says that 4,600 pounds of hops, of excellent 
quality, were raised, the past season, on 
the Haas place, near the San Leandro 
bridge. This yield was from cuttings 
jdanted last February— the yield being 
about equal to that of old vines. 

R. B. Smith, Esq., who resides on the 
west side of the San Joaquin, in Stanislaus 
count3% has already sown over 3,000 acres 
in wheat, and calculates before the seeding 
season is over to have in upward of 8,000 
acres in grain. 

Str.\wbeery Profits. — A widow lady, of 
Santa Criiz, received over §500 for straw- 
berries grown on half an acre of poorly 
tended ground last season. The cultivation 
and care of small fruits might be miule 
both a pleasure and a jjroflt to females in 
this State, as it already is in many of the 
Eastern States. 

Jerome C. Davis, of Yolo county, has 
l)een 8i>orting a pair of $8,000 horses in 
Washington City. They have beat<m 2:30. 

A Wild Goose, of the "Honker" .sjjecies, 
weighing 14 pounds and seven ounces, was 
shot in Tehama county, Dec. 20th. 

Gold in the Cbaw.— A mallard duck, 
shot near Castroville, last week, had sev- 
eral particles of gold in its craw. 

The Locheb Steam Plow at Wobk. — 
The Chico Enterprise says the Locher steam 
plow is engaged on the Henshaw ranch, in 
Hamilton township. Its work is thirty 
acres per day and ten inches of soil turned 
up. It is, we are glad to say, a success; 
and must result in a revolution in this item 
of agriculture in our county, as well as a 
handsome fortune to its proprietor. 

Eastern Agricultural Notes. 

Labge Pottltet Establishment. — A 
man in Lowell, (Mass.) has built a poultry 
establishment capable of containing 3,000 
hens. 

SiNOULAE Fabm Peoduct. — It is said 
that a farmer in Massachusetts made $2,01)0, 
last year, by selling burdock roots. 

It is saed that pork will be lower this 
winter than for the past ten years, as the 
Western markets will be over-stocked. 

Wheat in Illinois. — Winter wheat is 
looking well in Illinois. The quantity 
sown this fall is much larger than hereto- 
fore. The jirospect for the coming croj) 
is the finest ever known in tliat section. 

Illinois is shipping milk direct to New 
Y'ork City — six car-loads a month — but it is 
condensed first. 

Cheese Maker's Convention. — Two 
thousand cheesemakers are expected to 
meet in convention in Utica, ]S . Y. , on the 
10th of this month. There will undoubt- 
edly be some valuable talk there. Several 
l)rominent dairymen will deliver especial 
addresses. 

Potatoes in Coloeado. — Colorado 
seems to lead off in potatoes. A farmer 
on the Cache, near the new town of Gree- 
ley, reports a yield of 248 pounds of tubers 
from 1 % pounds of the Early Rose. The 
N. Y, Tribune doubts the report. 



BEET SUGAR— A SUGGESTION. 

The success of the Beet Sugar Factory in 
Alameda County is attracting the attention 
of capitalists and agriculturists in many 
parts of the state, and already there are 
companies forming in many localities for 
the purpose of purchasing land, planting 
beets and manufacturing sugar therefrom. 
We are glad to see this. It will be of 
great benefit to tho stote in many ways. 
We shall be glad to assist all such enter- 
prises by disseminating reliable infoi-ma- 
tion concerning all dejjartments of the 
business. We would mention a fact in 
this connection which shows a degree of 
wise prudence in the Alvarado tompany, 
and which is at least suggestive to all other 
companies to be organized for similar pur- 
poses. Before purchasing their land and 
before expending much money anywhere, 
they sent a quantity of beets produced at 
or near their contemplated location to 
Illinois, where their present Superintend- 
ent was then engaged in a beet sugar fac- 
tory, and had them manufactured. Thus 
they in advance obtained a demonstration 
that the beets grown at Alvarado were of 
good quality for sugar making. 

Would it not be equally wise and prudent 
for other companies to avail themselves of 
the skill of the Superintendent and the 
machinery of the Alvarado Company to 
determine the character of the beets grown 
at their contemplated localities? We 
would like to see a test made with beets 
grown on alkaline soil. 

Obanger in Yolo. — J. W. Snowball, of 
Knight's Landing, has left at the office of 
the Yolo Democrat some oranges raised by 
himself. That pai)er says: " Mr. Snow- 
ball has one tree 12 years old with a hun- 
dred oranges glistening ui)on its branches, 
and another 10 years old with quite a num- 
ber ; and we are informed that Mr. St. 
Louis, of the same place, has a thoiisand 
oranges now ripening. The (juestion is 
not what can, but what cannot lie raised in 
this county." 

We would remark that we are well ac- 
quainted with both Snowball's farm and 
that of St. Louis, and know that they are 
no more protected from the north or south 
winds than are locations generally on the 
Sacramento River. We also know from 
personal exjjerience that the orange tree 
will live and thrive well where the water 
will kill the peach, plum, apricot, necta- 
rine and cherry. As this is the season for 
planting trees, the^bove hints should be 
read and remembered in connection with 
the above facts as stated by the Demo- 
crat. The orange tree will grow from the 
seed of any ripe orange as readily as the 
api)le tree will grow from the seed of the 
apjilc. 

Annual Waste of Iron on a Faem. — A 
London jiaper, sometime ago, made a cal- 
culation as to the amount of iron wasted in 
the cultivation of land. On a certain 
farm of 450 acres, it was found that there 
was an annual consumption of 4 pounds to 
the acre. But this was considered too 
high for the average, on account of si)ecial 
conditions, and the consumption generally 
was computed as between two and three 
pounds per acre yearly. 

Eggs. — New York, we are told, devours 
about a million of eggs daily, which is one 
egg to each inhabitant. For about three 
cents per inhabitant, this great city de- 
prives the country of three hundred and 
sixty-five millions of possible chickens 
yearly. We reflect on this fact every time 
we pay six bits for a descendent of a rooster. 



The Potato had about as hard a time as 
the tobacco plant in its early introduction 
among European nations. For more than 
two centuries its use was strongly opposed, 
until at last Louis XV wore a branch of its 
flowers in i)ublic, and this royal sanction 
overcame popular prejudice and the con- 
sumption of the root became universal in 
France. 



January 7, 1871.] 



-^r^ 




The Census of 1870. 

The increase in the population of the 
United States during the last ten years is 
less than has been commonly supposed. 
The increase in our Pacific states, more 
especially in California, during the last 
year, has also been less than was ex- 
jjected ijreviously, although it cannot be 
complained of. We jaublish the following 
comparative tables of population from the 
best sources at our command; and for ref- 
erence they will be found particularly val- 
uable. The figures have been carefully re- 
vised and corrected. 

CALIFOKNIA. 

CoiintieK. 1870. 1800. Inc. Dec. 

Alameda 24,218 8,926 15,2!I2 

Alpine G86 New Co. 686 

Amador 9,600 10,933 1,333 

Kutte 11,315 12,107 792 

Calaveras 8,896 16,302 7,106 

ColUBa 6,171 2,274 3,897 

Contra Costa 8,468 5,328 3,140 

Bel Norte 2,113 1,992 121 

El Dorado 10,326 20,562 10,2.36 

Fresno 6,336 4,605 1,731 

Hnmboldt 6,109 2,694 3,415 

Inyo 1,9.52 New Co 1,952 

Kei-u 2,3.35 New Co 2,335 

Klamath 1,678 1,803 125 

Lake 2,873 New Co 2,873 

Lassen 1,331 New Co 1,.331 

Los Angeles 15,100 11,336 3,764 

Marin 6,775 3,.334 3,441 

Mariposa 4,572 6.243 1,671 

Mendocino 7,025 3,967 3,0.W 

Merced 2,810 1,141 1,669 

Mono 431 New Co 431 

Monterey 9,889 4,739 5,150 

Napa 7,1.55 5,515 1,640 

Nevada. 19,134 16,447 2,687 

Placer 11,376 13,270 1,894 

Plumas 4,490 4,363 127 

Sacramento 27,102 24,145 2,957 

San ncmiirdino 3,934 5,564 1,620 

San Diego 4,789 4,326 463 

San Francisco 1.50,272 56,805 93,467 

San Joaquin 21,064 9,434 11,630] 

San Luis Obispo 4,786 1,782 3,004 

San Mateo 6,648 3,214 3,434 

Santa Barbara 7,788 3,.545 4,243 

Santa Clara 25.2i;9 11.912 13,3.57 

Santa Cruz 8,782 4,945 3,837 

Sierra 5,337 11,389 6,0.52 

Shasta 4,191 4,360 169 

Siskiyou 6,851 7,629 778 

Solano 16,396 7,170 9,226 

Sonoma 19,679 11,867 7,812 

Stanislaus 6,510 2,245 4,265 

Sutter 4,5.50 3,390 1,160 

Tehama 3, .597 4,044 447 

Trinity 3,173 5,125 1,952 

Tulare 4,.544 4,638 94 

Tnolumne 8,171 16,229 8,058 

Yolo 9.913 4,716 5,197 

Yuba 10,865 13,671 2,806 



Total... 
Increase.. 



557,375 380,016 



222,792 45,430 
177,359 



OREGON. 

Counties. 1870 

liaker 2,663 

Benton 4,5.53 

Clackamas 6,992 

Clatsop 1,255 

Columbia 863 

Coos 1,638 

Curry 514 

Douglas 6,1.54 

Grant 2,2.52 

Jackson 4,7.59 

Josephine 1,204 

Lane 6,438 

Linn 8,717 

Marion 9,964 

MuHnomah 11,,513 

Polk 4,711 

Tillamook 408 

Umatilla 2,875 

Union 2, .555 

Wasco 2,489 

Washington 4,260 

Yamhill 4,999 



1860 

3,074 
3,466 
498 
632 
384 
393 
4,614 

3,736 
1,622 
4,780 
6,772 
7,088 
4.1.50 
3,625 
95 



1,689 
2,801 
3,245 



Total ^90,776 52,464 

Increase T , 



NEVADA. 

Counties. 1870 

Cburchill 196 

Douglas 1,216 

Elko 3,448 

Esmeralda 1,353 

Humboldt 1,916 

I..ander 2,815 

Lincoln 2,185 

Lyon 1,840 

Nye 1,087 

Ormsby 3,666 

Pah Utah 765 

Koop 133 

Storey 11,.(73 

Washoe 3,253 

WhitePine 7,190 



Inc. 

2,663 

1,479 

2,526 

7.57 

331 

1,254 

121 

1,640 

2,252 

1,023 

1,658 
1,945 
2,876 
7,363 
1,086 

313 
2,875 
2,5.55 

800 
1,4.59 
1,754 

38,730 
38,312. 

1863* 

1,500 

4,000 
4,500 
6,500 

3,500 

3,500 



18,000 
3,500 



Dec. 



TERKITOKY. 



Total 42,636 45,000 

Decrease 1863 to 1870 2,364 

Increase 1800 to 1870 35,779 



* Estimated. 

WASHINGTON 
Counties. 

Chehalis 

Clallam 

Clarke 

Cowlitz 

Island 

Jefferson 

King 

Kitsap 

Klikitat 

Lewis 

Mason 

Pacific , 

Pierce 

Skamania 

Snohomish 

Stevens 

Thurston 

Wahkiakum 

Walla Walla 

Wliatcom 

Yakima 



1870 
380 
394 

3,081 
730 
626 

1,270 

2,164 
847 
329 
889 
273 
679 

1,411 
133 
075 
678 

2,246 
223 

5,.302 
991 
409 



1863 
285 
270 

2,384 
406 
294 
631 
427 
644 
230 
384 
162 
420 

1,115 

285 

77 

674 

1,507 
42 

1,917 
352 



23,760 12,306 

Increa6e"1863 to 1870 11,444 

Increase 1860 to 1870 12,582 



11,168 



IDAHO TEBRITOKY.* 

Counties. 1870 

Ada 2,600 

Alturas 750 

Boise 4,700 

Idaho 1,119 

Lemhi 1,300 

Nez Perce 950 

0\vyhee 1,725 

Oneida 621 

Shoshone 500 



U,265 



Estimated. 



MONTANA TERRITORY. 

Counties. 1870 

BeaverHead 721 

Big Horn 38 

Choteau 517 

Deer Lodge 4,356 

Gallatin 1,578 

Jeflerson 1,537 

Lewis and Clark 5,030 

Madison 2,864 

Meagher 1,387 

Missoula 2,555 



20,.583 
UTAH TERRITORY. 



Counties. 

Beaver 

Box Elder. . . . 

Cache 

Davis 

Iron 

Juab 

Kane 

Millard 

Morgan 

Rich 

Rio Virgin 

Salt Lake 

San Pete 

Summit 

Tooele 

Utah 

Wasatch 

Washington... 
Weber 



Increase. 



86,864 



1860 
785 
1,608 
2,605 
2,904 
1,010 
672 

'7i5 



11,295 
3,815 
193 
1,008 
8,218 

691 
3,675 

39,229 
47,635 



ALASKA. 

Total population in 1870 12,000 

NEW ENGLAND STATES. 



Maine 

New Hampshire 

Connecticut 

Massachusetts. . . 

Rhode Island 217,319 

Vermont 333,235 



1870. 

630,426 

317,916 

637,998 

1,448,055 



1860 

628,279 
326,073 
400,147 
1,231,066 
174,620 
316,098 



Inc. 
2,147 

77',85i 

216,989 

42,699 

18,137 



Dec. 



Total 3,484,949 3,135,283 357,823 8,1.57 

Increase 349,666 

MIDDLE STATES. 

NewYork 4,370,346 3,880,735 489.611 

New Jersey 780,000 ' 672,036 107,965 

Pennsylvania 3,800,000 2,906,115 893,885 

Delaware 125,000 112,218 12,782 

Maryland 780,000 687,049 92,951 

Total 9,855,346 8,258,152 1,597,194 

Increase 1 ,597,194 

SOUTHERN STATES. 



West Virginia 

Virginia 1 

North Carolina l,i 

South Carolina. . . . 

Georgia 1, 

Florida 

Alabama 1 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Arkansas 

Texas 

Kentucky 1, 

Tennessee 1, 



447,943 
209,607 
072,000 
735,000 
,m5,000 
189,995 
,002,000 
834,190 
715,384 
486,103 
850,000 
,323,264 



376 

1,219 

992 

703 

1,057 

140 

964 

791 

709, 

435 

604, 

1,155 



,742 
337 
,622 
,708 
,286 
,424 
,201 
,395 
,002 
,450 
215 
,684 



71,201 

79,37'8 

31,292 

127,714 

49,571 

37,799 

42,795 

6,.38a 

50,663 

245,785 

167,580 



9,730 



,258,326 1,109,801 148,525 



Total 11,308,812 10,259,867 1,068,675 9.730 

Increase 1 ,048,945 

WESTERN STATES. 

Ohio 2,652,302 2,339,592 312,710 

Indiana 1,688,169 1,3.50,428 337,741 

Michigan 1,184,158 749,113 435,045 

Illinois 2,540,216 1,711,951 828,265 

Wisconsin 1,052,160 775,871 276,295 

Minnesota 460,037 172,023 288,014 

Iowa 1,082,933 674,690 408,243 

Missouri 1,714,102 1,132,012 582,090 

Kansas 353,182 107,206 245,976 

Nebraska 116,838 28,481 88.357 

Total 12,844,103 9,041,367 3,802,736 

PACIFIC STATES. 

California 557,375 380,016 177,.359 

Nevada 42,636 6,857 35,779 

Oregon 90,776 52,464 38,312 



Total 690,787 439,337 

TERRITORIES.* 

Alaska 12,000 

Arizona 

Colorado 

Dakota 

Idaho 14,265 

Montana 20,583 

New Mexico 

Utah 89,864 39,229 

Washington 23,750 11,168 

Wyoming 



251,450 



47,636 
12,582 



*We can find only partial returns. 

KECAPITUL.\TION. 

1870. 1860. 

New England States. . . 3,484,949 3,135,283 

Middle States 9,855,346 8,258,162 

Southern States 11,308,812 10,259,807 

Western States 12,844,103 9,041,367 

Pacific States 690,787 439,337 

Total 38,183,997 31,134,006 7,049,991 



Inc. 

349,666 
,.597,194 
,048,945 
,802,736 
251,450 



Chicago has one hundred Protestant 
churches, two theological seminaries and 
two Universities, beside the Garret Bibli- 
cal Institute ; and yet its record of crimes 
places it among the worst cities of its size 
in the world ! 



The cows of San Jose have taken to swal- 
lowing gold coins of late. The inhabi- 
tants rejoice thereat, believing that the 
breed of golden calors will shortly in- 
crease. 



Lake Tahoe. 

fWKITTEN FOB THE PEEBS.] 

My wanderings having brought me to 
this beautiful sjiot, I have had an opportun- 
ity for resting a short time from my labors, 
and send you a few lines from this moun- 
tain lake. I left the rail-road at Truckee 
Station, at which jjoint I arrived at 3.30 

A. M., and thence came by stage to the 
lake. 

Truckee is a famous lumber station. 
Here is a large number of saw-mills, stead- 
ily cutting the logs into proper shapes and 
sizes, and in quantities sufficient to supply 
the railroad and many districts along its 
line. Here a large planing mill has been 
in successful operation during the past 
year, and here a San Francisco party is 
about erecting large smelting works, this 
position having been chosen in great part 
on account of the abundance of fuel and 
the existence of the very best of Avater 
privileges. 

From Truckee to Tahoe City, a distance 
of 15 miles, one has a delightful ride in 
the fine stages of Messrs. Burke and Camp- 
bell. The road leads through a pass in 
the Sierra and follows the windings of the 
Truckee. At Tahoe City we secure rooms 
at the excellent Tahoe House, kept by W. 

B. Lyon, and then wander out to enjoy 
the fine scenery. Here is one of the grand- 
est of all mountain lakes, stretching out 
35 miles in length and fifteen in breadth, 
and hemmed in by snow-cajiped hights. 

From our host of the Tahoe House we 
can procure horses for riding or boats for a 
sail. Embarked on the lake we can visit 
Carnelian Bay, to seek for agates, or Sugar 
Pine Point, or the Glenbrook House, or 
a hundred other delightful localities. Or 
we can fish with rod and line, or (at night) 
with spears and torches. Three varieties 
of trout, — the silver, the speckled, and the 
black, as they are called, — the white fish, 
and other kinds, give us delightful sport 
on the clearest and purest of all waters. 
The largest fish ever captured in this lake, 
as far as known, was taken out last year, 
and weighed 29 pounds. This was sent on 
to President Grant. 

Boats on the Lake — Hot Springs. 

There are two schooners on the lake, of 
about 20 tons each, for pleasure parties. 
Messrs. Howl and and Coy have a small 
steamer, the "Truckee," for the same inir- 
pose. It is 40 feet long, 9 feet beam, and 
will carry some 50 passengers. The boat 
was built by A. Rewrick and cost $2,500. 
The 15-horse power engine and other ma- 
chinery was manufactured byLockheadand 
Co., of San Francisco. The "Emerald," 
another small steamer, 46 feet long and 
10 feet beam , was sent up to the lake by 
Ben HoUaday. The engine has been taken 
out, and a new one is to be put in, and 
everything made complete for next season. 

Near the mouth of the Truckee Eiver, I 
noticed still another steamer being built, 
which will cost about $15,000, and which 
will be the lai-gest on the lake, — 100 feet 
long and 20 feet beam, with a 70-horse 
engine. This is owned by H. Burk, Esq., 
and is to be a ferry boat for the transporta- 
tion of passengers, wagons, etc., to difiei'- 
ent points on the lake. It is a side-wheel- 
er, is constructed of the pine timber found 
in the vicinity, aud will be finished next 
June. The builder is Mr. A. Rewrick. 

Mr. W. B. Cami^bell owns a very pleas- 
ant place here known as the Hot Sj^rings, 
where he is building a fine hotel and cosy 
cottages for the accommodation of families 
and parties visiting the lake. He is jiro- 
viding every accommodation, and the hot 
baths added are quite a feature. With all 
the improvements, this will be a most de- 
lightful jjlace for a summer resort. 

There can be no real, comijlete enjoy- 
ment without due attention to bodily com- 
forts. If my notes are mostly concerning 
the prejiarations made for the last, they 
are no less valuable and hardly less inter- 
esting than if they were only concerning 
the natural beauties of the place. Per- 
haps months of travel may have had some- 
thing to do with the tone of my letter, 
making it less romantic but more statistical 
with regard to the creature comforts. 
Still I think they will i^rove acceptable to 
the reader, although not quite after the 
general order of ^jucli letters. 



Lake Donner. 

Quite different from Lake Tahoe, yet not 
less interesting, is Donner Lake. Only 
3% miles long and one mile wide, it still 
has a peculiar beauty of its own, which 
causes one to hesitate long before awarding 
it a second place. Formed by the side and 
terminal moraines of an old glacier, 
hemmed in by woods and mountains, with 
its own natural curiosities and its own his- 
torical tragedy, well stocked with fish, and 
with pleasant hotels, it will ever attract 
many visitors who seek for the beautiful. 

The tragedy which gave name to the 
lake has been widely told, yet may be new 
to some of your readers. About a quarter 
of a mile from the Grant House are still to 
be seen the indications of a cabin. Here a 
party of immigrants, from Illinois, were 
imprisoned by the snow in 1846. They 
suffered terribly, but finally a portion suc- 
ceeded in getting away. A man named 
Donner, his wife arid a German remained. 
Those who escaped brought back a rescu- 
ing party, who found Donner and his wife 
dead and the German alive, but alive from 
subsisting on the body of Mrs. Donner, 
whom he was suspected of having killed to 
preserve his own existence. 

In the year 1863 there was quite a mining 
excitement in this section, on the Truckee 
Eiver. Many claims were located, shafts 
were sunk, tunnels run in, and a town 
sprang into existence. But the results did 
not justify the expectations, the excitement 
died away, and now there is no one here to 
work or prospect. 

From Donner we return to Truckee, 
where, either going to or coming from the 
lakes, we stop at Mr. W. B. Campbell's fine 
hotel. The trains arrive here early in the 
morning, but the accommodations and the 
kindness of mine host reconcile the traveler 
fully to the early hour. Mr. Campbell 
likewise runs the stages; and as all his 
charges are moderate and all his Avorks 
good, I can recommend his house and his 
line to all visitors; and I can heartily 
recommend all to pay these lakes a visit, 
being confident that they can nowhere 
spend a i)leasanter summer. w. h. m. 

Ancient Aqueducts.— Many have believed 
that the Ancients were ignorant of the law 
that fluid in pipes will rise to the level of 
its source, because in all the ruins of their 
aqueducts, the channel is a regular slope. 
Some of the aqueducts, as works of mag- 
nitude, are not inferior to the great wall of 
China, or the Egyptian pyramids; yet at 
the present day, a single j^ipe of cast iron 
is made to answer the same purj^ose, and 
even more perfectly . It i s now ascertained , 
however, that it was not ignorance of the 
principle, but want of fit material for mak- 
ing the 2>ipes, which cost our forefathers 
such enormous labor. — Br. Amott. 

All the Gold in the World. — Esti- 
mate the yard of gold at .$10,000,000, (.says 
an English writer) , which it is in round 
numbers, and all the gold in the world 
might, if melted into ingots, be contained 
in a cellar 24 feet square and 16 feet high. 
All the boasted wealth already obtained 
from California and Australia (up to 1858) 
would go into an iron safe nine feet square 
and nine feet high, — so small is the cube of 
yellow metal which has set j302)ulations on 
the march, and roused the world to won- 
der. 



Coffee. — The coffee-plant is a native of 
Abyssinia. Thence it spread into Arabia 
and thence to Egyjjt and Turkey. From 
the last-named country it was brought to 
England in 1650. It grew quite rapidly in 
favor here and became fashionable, as may 
be inferred from Pope's lines: — 

"Coffee, which makes the politician wise, 

And see through all things with his half-shut eyes." 

A NEW GUN has been manufactured by 
Krupp, and sent to the Prussian army before 
Paris for oiierations against the French 
balloonists. This gun is of cast steel, the 
barrel being five feet long with IJ^ inch 
bore. It rests on a column and can bo 
turned in any direction. 

The first silver money was coined at 
Rome, 482 years after the foundation of 
that city. The fact that the mint was in 
the temple of Juno Moneta, gave origin to 
our word "money." 

The Examiner, sjieaking of the Porter- 
Grant letter, says the worst bottle a man 
can indulge in, sometimes, is the ink bot- 
tle. 



T' 



8 



^5^ 



[January 7,'i87 1 




PUBLISHED BY 
A. T. DEWEY. ». B. EWEB. Q. H. STKONO. J. L. BOONE. 

Pkinoipal Edit(/B W. B. EWER, .\. M. 

Office, No. 414 Clay Ktreet. whore friends and patrunH 
are invited to our Scientific Pbesb Patent Agency, En- 
graving and Printing ttitabliHljment. 

SuBHCBiPTioNs pavjible in advance — For one year $4: 
6 monthB, $2.2.5; thrcB luouthB, $1.25. Clubs of ten 
names or more $V each per annum. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January 7, 1871. 



A. CARD. 

Having sepu the prospectus of the P.^cipic 
Rural Prks.s, and believing there is jareat need 
iu our comparatively new agricultural districts 
of such 11 journal as therein proposed, the un- 
dersitfued do not hesitate to state that from the 
standing reputation and success of its pub- 
lishers, (Messrs. Dewey & Co., proprietors of 
the ScENTiFic PuKss, ) we believe the new jour- 
nal will be worthy of universal trial l>y our ag- 
ricultural and rural population, and that its 
publication will be fniitful of much usefulness 
to its subscribers and in forwarding the devel- 
opment of our natural wealth and prolific re- 
sources. 

CHAS. F. REEU. President State Agricultural Society. 
DR. J. S. CURTIS, Yolo Co. 

WM. H. PARKS, late Prest. Iforth'n DiRt. Ag. Society. 
ROB'T BECK, Sic'y Cal State Agricultural Society. 
C. T. WHEELEK. Member itati; Board of Agricultiu-e. 
EOB'T UAMILTON, mcnilwr St. Board of Agriculture. 
E MILLS, Member Stale Board of Agriculture. 
I. N. HOAfr. late Scc'y State Agricultural Society. 
O C. WHEELEU. formerly Sec. State Agricultural Soc. 
ft. N SWEZY. Prest. North'n Dist. .\g. Society of Cal. 
J. K. DO>K. PreRt. San .Joaquin Agricultural Society. 
BOBT WATT, State Controller. 
JOHN BIDWELL, Prest. Chioo Ag. Society. 
EZRA S. CAKR. Prof, of Agriculture and Ag. Chem., 

Cal. State University. 
E. J HOLftEN, formerly Prest. San .ro«(|uin Ag. Society. 
HARMEN BAY, Prest. Upper Sacramento Ag. Society. 
E. HALI.ET, Kccv. Upper Sac. Ag. Society. 
K. B. SWAI.N. Prest. Chanilxr .if Commeroe. S. F. 
H. N. BOLANDER. Prest. Bay Dist. Horfl Society. 
A. 8 HALLIDIE, Mcchanii- Institute of the city of 8. F. 
HENRY KIMBALL, Prest. Odd Fellows Library, As'n S.F. 



OUR WEEKLY CROP. 

After digging and delving for years on om- 
coast, working with hand and with brain, we 
have at last succeeded in raising our first crop 
of purely agricultural jiroduce, which wo pre- 
sent to our readers in this initial number of the 
RtJRAL Pbbsis. What we have provided, we will 
here sum up. 

The preparation of our land is the first step 
in fanning. The Grand Island Irrigation 
Scheme is well described and illustrated, as one 
epoch of land cultivation, and the Use of Ma- 
nures (a homely but important subject) is also 
treated of. Then we are ready for further steps. 
Shall we raise Cotton? The first of a series of 
articles on its cultivation, is here given. Do 
we intend paying attention to Silk Culture or 
Poppy Culture? All of these are treated of in 
articles which show the peculiar requirements 
of our coast, and which are to be continued. 
What we can do in the way of Cultivating Trees, 
is here shown. What our prospects are in the 
Manufacture of Beet Sugar, with a new and 
cheap process thereof, and the advantages of 
raising Melons rather than beets, are all told. 
Our California Fruits are described and illus- 
trated. Finally our Market Reports give much 
valuable information to farmers and others. 

Besides our manual labor, we should attend 
to the improvement of the mind. One of Cali- 
fornia's most eloquent lecturer has written 
down for us some excellent ideas on the Needs 
of Agricultural Communities. Not to fall be- 
hind the age, we keep a concise record of Me- 
chanical and Scientific Progress, and one of our 
Coast Inventions. And we learn of the growth 
of our country from the comparative tables of 
the Census, a little dry perhaps, but excellent 
for reference. 

So far we have had pretty solid fare. But 
the illustration of our beautiful Yosemite Valley 
brightens up the scene, and a wanderer tells us 
of our mountain lakes, Tahoe and Douner. The 
illustrated description of Woodward's Gardens 
gives us an idea of what has been and can bo 
done here in the way of Ornamental Gardening. 
Our Home Circle and Household Reading 
take up two pages devoted to the family, — a 
short story, a little sentiment, and some fanci- 
ful ideas are given as a fitting desert to our meal. 
With this sample of what we can do for agri- 
culture on our coast, we commence a new career 
which, it is to be hoped, may result iu benefit- 
'ng our readers and ourselves. 



(From our sample Isbue, Dec. 17, 1«T0.] 

THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 

In presenting to our readers the preliminary 
or sample number of the Pacific Ritbal Press, 
we do not claim that it is what it should be, by 
any means; but the eftbrts of the publishers in 
conducting and building up the Sciknitfic 
Pbe&s, is suflicient guarantee that no efforts will 
be spared to elevate their new paper, as fast as 
circumstances will permit, to such a standard 
of excellence and usefulness as ■will make it 
worthy and fit to represent the great and grow- 
ing agricultural interest of the Pacific Coast. 
AU we ask is the prompt and hearty co-opera- 
tion of our friends in extending to it such a 
support as will warrant the necessary outlay to 
make the i)aper what it should be . Being al- 
ready provided with an able corps of writers 
and workers in every department, a well equip- 
ped office, and a reputation for integrity and 
energy, which has been accorded by a generous 
public and which has proved of the highest pe- 
cuniary value, we venture upon our new enter- 
prise with the fullest assurance of success. 

The object of the paper will be to please, in- 
terest and instruct all who peruse its columns. 
It will contain nothing which can offend the 
most fastidious— nothing which -will either di- 
rectly or indirectly inculcate improper ideas or 
principles in the minds of cither old or young. 
Our only aim will be to benefit and interest. 

No pains or reasonable expense -will be spared 
to make the paper what its jjatrons desire to 
have it, and what its proprietors mean to make 
it. Earnest labor, thought and study \vi]l be 
exercised to this end. 

Its miscellany will be neither trashy or tri- 
fling; and while it will be designed to elevate 
and instruct, it will at the same time be made 
to interest and please. 

The farmer w ill find the Aobicpitural De- 
p.tRTMENT well filled with really useful informa- 
tion, designed especially for use and practice 
on the Pacific Coast. 

The Housewife will find something in everj- 
issue to assist her in economizing her means, 
or in adding to the comforts of her home and 
the luxuries of her table. 

The Home Circle will always find much of 
interest and instruction for both old and young. 
Useful lessons will be given in the amenities of 
life, and in the simple laws of health. The 
children will not be forgotten; as we propose to 
establish a department for their especial benefit. 
We shall f^ve an original New Year's story for 
the children in the first regiilar issue of the 
Rural. 

Our illustrations and embelishments will be 
of a high order — having utility and the elevation 
of taste and thought in constant view. Noth- 
ing in this line will be presented to pander to a 
vitiated taste. Improvements in this direction 
will be our constant aim. The beautiful Cali- 
fornia ilhistration which we present to-day, is 
one of a series of similar ones which we have 
already on hand and which will be given from 
time to time; to be followed by others of equal 
or greater interest and beauty of execution. 

The publishers aim to make the PAcinc Rtr- 
RAi. Press, just the paper which Califomians 
and other residents on this Coast should select 
as the one above all others which they would 
desire to SEND TO THEIR FRIENDS IN 
THE EAST, as a representative of California 
interests and as a remembrancer to the "old 
folks at home, " that they are not forgotten in 
this far off land of gold, and busy industry. 



TAKING YOUR HOME PAPER, 

If it is a good one, is not only a pleasant 
duty, but a profitable investment. "We do 
not expect the people of this coa.st to j)at- 
ronize the Press alone because it is printed 
on the Pacific Slope, but if, all things con- 
sidered, it is equally as good a paper for 
their pur])oses as any other, we certainly 
should have the preference, as a komejonr- 
nal, supporting home interests and develop- 
ing home resources. We have the advan- 
tage of the situation, and we intend to 
produce a paper w ith which the agricul- 
turists of the Pacific Coast will be satisfied, 
and of which they will be proud. The 
])ublishers of this paper never failed of 
fulfilling their promise. Give us a trial 
and see if we fail you now. 

Thanks to our cheerful co-woraers who 
encouraged us to start and have jn-actically 
aided us in successfully commencing this 
new paper. We feel a'friendly obligation 
for every kind word spoken and written. 
They insi^ire a desire to merit them truly. 



BEET SUGAR ITS PROSPECTS— A 
NEW PROCESS. 

Industry is a great success in California. 
On the 17th day of November last, the 
Alvarado Sugarie nimle its first sugar. No 
difficulty occurred. The machinery w orked 
well, and every process was a success from 
the beginning. Better sugar we never 
saw. There are several metliods of making 
beet sugar. By the Alvarado method, the 
beets are washed and rasped, and the juice 
is extracted by a centrifugal screen. De- 
fecation is cfl'ected bylime, and purification 
by carbonic acid gas, and by animal char- 
coal. They use a vacuum pan for the final 
boiling ; and, again, centrifugals for ex- 
trfvcting the molasses from the crystalized 
sugar. The machinery for this method is 
complex and costly. The mill and all its 
appointments cost §125,000. Its capacity 
is 50 tons of beets a day, producing four 
tons of sugar — which shows eight per cent, 
of sugar in the Ijeets. The cost of pro- 
duction scarcely exceeds seven cents, and 
the average market price may be quoted at 
12 cents per pound, leaving a good profit. 
They paid §3.50 i)er ton for beets delivered. 
This may advance .some hereafter. Twenty- 
five tons is about a fair yield per acre, to 
good culttvation. Chinese labor is em- 
l)loyod in the mill, and it gives good satis- 
faction. 

The Co. has 3'-^ tons of seed for 1871, 
and 600 acres of land will be put in beets. 
It may be mentioned that this sugarie is 
under the working direction of Messrs. 
Otto & Kleinau, experienced German man- 
ufacturers. 

Alvarado is some 25 miles from San 
Francisco, on the opposite side of the Bay; 
and the land thereabouts is a very rich 
loam, with a moist subsoil. 

Ayear before the Alvarado mill was built, 
the Sacramento City Company, organized 
by Mr. Wadsworth, put up an exi)erimeutal 
mill, and proved the fact that our beets 
were good for sugar. Under this assurance, 
a 70-ton mill was ordered in Germany, and 
an experienced superintendent engaged. 
The company, however, conceived the idea 
that it would be prudent to verify AVads- 
worth's experiments by a new trial under a 
French gentleman, who held out induce- 
ments. Thus the year was lost and with it 
the honor of priority. The company now 
feels encouraged, and it is seeking in Ger- 
many for machinery, which will probablj- 
be of more recent improvement ; and we 
may expect its erection in time for this 
year's crop of beets. Six thousand pounds 
of seed are on hand for planting in the 
spring. 

A New Process. 
The new process of extracting the saccha- 
rine matter from the beets, that is sup- 
planting all others in Etirope, is called 
"Robert's Diffusion Process." It differs 
materially from tliat employed at Alvarado. 
Mr. Julius Koberts' system claims to ex- 
tract the saccharine juice leaving behind 
the impurities. The beets are ciit into 
slices one-sixteenth of an inch thick, and 
treated with some cheap chemical. A 
pressure of five or six atmosjihercs is ap- 
plied. It is claimed that this chemical 
either renders the alkaline elements inso- 
luble (?) or prevents theii- exit from the cells 
of the beet; so that the water extracts only 
the sugar. This being accomplished, cen- 
trifugals, which are so costly, and which 
take so much steam power and attendance, 
are dispensed with. Defecation is com- 
paratively trifling, and two-thirds of tlie 
workmen are not wanted. 

Mr. Wadsworth, who learned this process 
in Euroije, where more than a hundred 
factories have adojited it, hojies to find 
parties to join him in putting uj) a sugarie 
here. Persons desirous of advancing the 
interest of their neighborhood, far more 
than can be done by a college of any sort, 
may address Mr. W. at Sacramento. He 
has a full supply of beet seed and a Euro- 



pean contract for works at an advantageous 
price. 

In the Eoborts diffusion process, it is of 
no consequence how much alkali is in tlie 
soil or beets ; for the alkalies are prevented 
from interfering ^vith the sugar. 

Wo may also hope soon to have a melon 
sugarie. Watermelons contain the same 
sugar as beets. But an acre of melons 
yields more than an acre of beets. The 
cultivation and gathering cost less than 
half, and the manufacture is still cheaper ; 
for there are no impurities to be removed. 
Melon sugar gives a fine table syrup of 
fruity flavor, and tlic seeds yield a table 
oil of fine quality. The i^ulp is also supe- 
rior for feeding stock. The mode of 
making melon sugar is very simple ; and 
Mr. Wadsworth, who understands it, recom- 
mends a melon sugarie to begin on, to be 
followed, after a time, by combining with 
beets. Melons are of two classes — sum- 
mer and w inter melons ; which give a long 
period of steady work for a sugarie. We 
venture to recommend Wadsworth's melon 
sugar project to earnest consideration, 
esjiecially on account of the very small 
comparative cost of the works required and 
the 8ui)crior production of melons in ('ali- 
fornia ; iu places, too, where beets will not 
grow to perfection. 

CORRESPONDENTS. 

We are authorized to announce the fol- 
lowing, among the well known writers on 
this coast, who will write regularly or oc- 
casionally for the columns of the Pacific 
Rural Press: Prof. Ezra S. Carr, of the 
University of California; I. N. Hoag, Sac- 
ramento; W. Wadsworth, Sacramento; T. 
M. Logan, M. D., Sacramento; Rev. O. C. 
Wheeler, Sacramento; E. S. Holden, M. 
D., Stockton; J. S. Harbison, Sacramento; 
S. H. Herring; Dr. Anderson, of Santa 
Cruz; besides several others — ladies and 
gentlemen — whom we may be at liberty to 
announce hereafter. 



Our Advertisers. — A more worthy list 
cannot be found in any journal. Much of 
the limited space allotted to advertising is 
already engaged. 

To Correspondents. — We have a large 
number of communications on hand marked 
for insertion — among which are favors from 
"W. W.," of Sacramento; "F. M. S.," of 
San Diego; "A. B. B.," of Petaluma; "S. 
H. H.," who writes from San Mateo and 
Pescadero; and "E. P. H.,"San Francisco. 
We have also several others, some of which 
we have not yet had time to examine. 

Sampled. — We acknowledge the recep- 
tion of a sample box of sugar from the Ala- 
meda Beet sugar factory, the like of which 
is now being manufactured at that estab- 
lishment. We hail it as an e\-idence of the 
successful inauguration of a new and 
important productive industry on this 
coast. The sample before us is a beatitiful 
article of granulated sugar, white as tlie 
driven snow and beautifully crystalised. 
No better sugar of the kind has ever been 
seen on this coast. 

The product of the pioneer sugar works 
of California is now before the people of 
this coast. It is a very superior article, 
beyond all question, and can be furnished 
as cheajj as that obtained from any other 
source. Consumers here should give the 
enterprise a helping hand, by calling for 
and using home made and Itotne grown 
sugar, in jtreference to that of foreign 
growth. By so doing this business may be 
encouraged until we shall bo able to pro- 
duce all our own sugar, and thereby 
save some four millions of dollars that we 
now send abroad for this imijoi-tant neces- 
sary of life. 

Music— Mr. Louis F. Gehrke, of Chica- 
go, sends us a couple of collections of 
waltzes of his composition, entitled 
"Sounds from the Minnesota," and 
"Charms of Night." 



January 7, 1871.] 



-^^m 



CHROMOS. 



The engraving -which we print on this 
page is from the celebrated chromo-litho- 
graph of Hill's Yosemite, a scene which has 
been painted at by every artist who has ever 
visited this coast and become familiar with 
the subject, either by visiting the valley or 
by the aid of the numberless photographic 
views from time to time brought out. But 
of all who have attempted the difficult task 
of reproducing in colors on canvas a 
general view of the valley (we believe 
this is conceded by every one conversant 
with art matters) no one has yet produced a 
picture of this beautiful scene which excpls 
the one referred to. The best proof of this 
is the fact that the painting sold for a lar^e 
price to a representative Califor- 
nian, who is thoroughly conver- \ 
sant with the scene Mr. Hill es- f 
eayed to portray. 

It is true that many good, and 
some very fine, works of art have 
been produced, founded on the 
much-hackneyed Yosemite; but 
they were generally like the sto- 
ries "founded on fact," — a re- 
semblance — but one rather diffi- 
cult to trace. Now we need some- 
thing more than a resemblance. 
Scant meed of praise would our 
Eastern friends award an artist of 
the present day who should jsaint 
Niagara Falls in any other man- 
ner than as the scene actually ex- 
ists. To make a pretty picture, by 
taking liberties with nature and 
allowing the pencil to roam over 
the canvas wherever fancy die. 
tates, is one thing; to portray 
nature upon canvas is quite an- 
other matter. The last only is 
true art. '" 

Much has been written of late about 
chromo-lithography. Many suppose it to 
be an American invention and comparative- 
ly new. This is not so. The process has 
been in use nearly a century and was first 
discovered in Munich, Germany. A know- 
ledge of chromo-lithographing would con- 
vince any one that it could not well have 
been invented in any other locality, seeing 
that all lithographing is done upon a pecu- 
liar kind of stone found only in Bavaria 
in the neighborhood of Munich. Watt 
would have stood a poor chance indeed to 
have been the inventor of steam had he 
lived in a country where fire was unknown. 
The advance of chromo-lithography, how- 
ever, goes to show that not so much results 
from the invention as from adapting to the 
popular demand or taste. This last is what 
Mr. L. Prang, of Boston, has done. Fac- 
similes of paintings by this process are of 
no recent date; but the bringing out of 
popular subjects, executed in a superior 
manner, from the finest paintings, has made 
the United States not the cradle but the 
drawing-room of the art. In a future 
number we propose giving some reasons 
why we excel Europeans in this branch; 
and we shall from time to time print en- 
gravings from the most popular American 
chromes. 

The chromo of Hill's Yosemite has met 
with good success on this coast, and all at- 
tempts to equal it have so far failed. It is 
the only chromo published by Prang which 
has been exclusively a Csabscription pic- 
ture. 

We have often heard laments that we 
have no public art gallery in this city. 



benefit by the institution by sending for 
the catalogues and price lists, which are 
furnished free on application, together with 
engravings of some of the most popular 
chromes. 



HILL'S YOSEMITE. 

In regard to the engraving of this beauti- 
ful and renowned California valley, which 
we present to our readers this week, a few 
words concerning the principal points in- 
dicated may be acceptable to those to 
whom the features of the place are not 
familiar. On the left hand, or north side, 
is El Capitan, or Tutucannla as the Indians 
call it, which rises up from the valley to a 
hight of 3,600 feet. On the right hand 
are the cliffs on the face of which is seen 



confidence of still larger and more numer- 
ous accessions to our list of readers and 
subscribers than we have been favored 
with heretofore. 

Of course much of the miscellaneous 
matter which usually appears in the Scien- 
tific Pkess, is equally appropriate for the 
Pacific Ruhal, and will accordingly ap- 
pear in both journals, for we shall not be 
able to find anything better. Either paper 
will be served to subscribers, as they may 
desire. Both are of the same size and 
price, and the yearly volumes will com- 
mence and expire at the same time; hence 
no difficulty or confusion will arise at any 
time by transferring names from one sub- 
scription list to the other. 




YOSEMITE VALLEY. 



the Bridal Vail Fall, about 1,000 feet in 
hight. Behind this is a part of the Cathe- 
dral Rock which rises up 3,000 feet. Fur- 
ther back, about the center of the picture, is 
Sentinel Rock, with its obelisk, itself 1,000 
feet high, rising up to over 3,000 feet 
above the level of the valley. Then comes 
the Half Dome, a crest of gi-anite 4,737 
feet high, and with the face trward Tenaya 
Creek nhxohitehi vei-tical for 2,000 feet down 
from the summit: while in the background 
is seen North Dome, 3. .568 feet in elevation 
above the vallev. Add to these fignires the 
elevation of the valley itself, 4,060 feet 
above the sea, and we get some respectably 
high figures. 



EXTENSION 



OF BUSINESS — TWO 
PAPERS. 



The rapidly increasing circulation of the 
Scientific Peess, and the broad field 
which it had undertaken to fill, suggested, 
some months since, to the publishers of 
that paper the propriety of issuing two 
editions — one for the mining and the other 
for the farming interests of the Pacific 
Coast. The success of that enterprise has 
been beyond our most sanguine anticipa- 
tions; and now, at the urgent solicitations 
of numerous friends and correspondents 
we have determined to give a still gi-eater 
distinctiveness to our efforts in behalf of 
these two leading industries of this coast, 
by advancing the two editions to separate 
and independent journals. 

The Scientific Pbess will continue, as 
heretofore, to represent and encourage the 
Mining Interest, while our Agriciiltural 



Industry will be represented and sustained 
What public spirit has failed to produce is | |^y ^^^ Pacific Rueal Pkess, the first 
supplied, however, to a great extent by regular number of which is to-day pre- 
sented. 

The acknowledged advantages already 
derived from our late system of two sepa- 
rate editions will be greatly enhanced by 
the is.suo of two independent journals, and 
each class of our readers will receive addi- 
tional benefits; while from the words of 
encouragement and assurance which we 



extent 
private enterprise. There is a good col- 
lection, where one can profitably cultivate 
the finer sensibilities, at the establishment 
of Messrs. Snow & Roos (Goupil's depot), 
21 Kearny-street. These gentlemen are 
the agents of Mr. Prang for this coast, and 
at their place, besides other artistic efforts, 
the choice productions of Prang & Co. can 
be seen. Those living at a distance can 



OUR HEAD. 

Having spent considerable time in pre- 
paring and embellishing our head (by 
which term, to avoid any possible misun- 
derstanding, it may be well for us to say we' 
mean that which stands at the top of the 
first page of the Press) , we may be per- 
mitted to call attention to its general ajj- 
propriateness. 

As the labor of the mechanic is of the ut- 
most importance to the farmer, as the value 
of improved agricultural imjjlements can- 
not be over-estimated, it will be perceived 
at once that it is eminently proper to place 
at the foundation of all things rural, designs 
to this eifect ; wherefore there are to be seen 
beloTV, the hammer, the anvil, the saw and 
other mechanical tools on the left, and the 
I plow, the harrow, the scythe, etc., the 
simpler forms of farming instruments, on 
Many of those who are now forming or | the right. Also, on the right, is seen a 

waving field of grain, falling be- 
' -^^gj iffr" ""'"'"^'^'^ - - ~: =j:7=^;r- -.-^^ fore the im^jroved harvester, whose 

' excellent working is indicated by 
the smile on the farmer's face, not 
;|' visible at jiresent, because the 
head is not turned in this di- 
rection. The richness of our soil 
is shown by the luxuriance of the 
crops, and by the full heads of 
grain, entwined with the blossom- 
ing wild flowers, in the upper 
right-hand corner, and the fruit 
and grajjes in the other upper 
corner. 

Close by the grain -fields are de- 
signs illustrative of three other 
departments included within the 
scope of our paper: — stock-rais- 
ing, poultry-raising and pomolo- 
gy. Here too is indicated the j^e- 
CTiliar character of our Western 
Slope. Where else in the ^^*)rld 
can a man be found plucking 
l^ears from a shade tree? or roost- 
ers of larger size than children? 
The size of that rooster will enable 
us at all times to utter a most 
lusty and prodigious crow. 

The central design indicates 
that the grand scenery of our 
coast will receive its projier share 
of attention at our hands. The 
financial proprietor wished a saw-mill erect- 
ed at ' that water-fall ; but although the 
spirit of improving all natural resources, 
thus evinced, was commendable, yet the 
artistic editor absolutely i-efused any such 
infringement on the realm of fine arts. 

The railroad train and telegraph and the 
spirited head of the noble horse, explain 
themselves, and properly have an elevated 
position. The industry of the conductors 
of this journal is indicated by the bee-hive; 
our readers will obtain the sweetest and 
purest honey therefrom. The fine man- 
sion on the left, with the handsome grounds, 
shows that the Peess will not only tell its 
readers how to attain a handsome compe- 
tency, but also give them designs and plans 
for building pleasant homes. Finally the 
rustic letters of the name denote the solid- 
ity and value of our paper combined with 
a due appreciation of the beautiful, as the 
fanciful vegetation takes its abode on the 
sturdy forest trees. 

Such is a brief and partial account of the 
hints given by our head. As we have taken 
considerable care and trouble in the prepa- 
ration of this very commencement of our 
Ijaper, and have called to our aid the best 
available talent, — the well-known artists, 
the Nahl Brothers, having helped us in the 
present instance, — so we intend for the 
future to spare no pains, and to bring into 
requisition the labors of those best quali- 
fied to make the Pacific Rueal Peess, the 
most practical, complete and seasonable 
agricultural paper of the coast and the one 
best adapted to the wants of our people. 



icopynyiii' 



arc about to commence the forming of 
clubs for the Pacific Rueal Pkess will 
notice that this arrangement may gi-eatly 
facilitate their efforts, as their lists may in- 
clude names for both papers. 

To this brief preliminary announcement 
of enlargement of business we will only 
add that the prospects of the Scientific 
Pkess were never so brilliant as now, and 
our ratio of increase of subscription never 
so large, notwithstanding the great depres- 
sion in business which has so long prevail- 
ed. 

All who have visited us within the past 
few months will bear us out in saying our 
office presents a busy scene in its evei-y de- 
partment, whether in our Patent, Editor- 
ial, Printing or Engraving Rooms. The 
efi'oi-ts to keejD pace with the increasing de- 
mands of business are taxing the energies 
of the publishers and their various corps 
of assistants to their utmost. But we are 
never weary of well doing, and shall still 
continue, as heretofore, to do all in our 
power to interest and instruct our readers. 

Raped Gkowth of Poplaks. — We have 
seen this season, in the nursery owned by 
John Rock, of San Jose, Carolina poplars 
that have gTown 15 feet high from cuttings, 
planted last s^jring — the average hight of 
the lot being ten feet. The Lombardy 
poplars from cuttings of the same age have 
attained about the same size. These trees 
grow rapidly for several years, making 
large trees very soon, the wood of which 
is valuable for fuel. The timber of the 
Lombardy poplar is very straight and 
strong, and where kept sheltered from the 
weather makes good framing timber for 
buildings. It is much used for this i>ur- 
pose in some districts. 

There are Lombardy jioplars on Mr. 
Rock's place thi-ee years old, that stand 30 
feet high, and are four inches in diameter 
of trunk. Many of these trees are being 
planted for street and ornamental purposes. 
The natural growth of the Lombardy po^)- 
lar is spirit orm ; but if cut back at 12 to 30 
feet high, it will become branching, and 



are constantly receiving, avo feel the fullest | make a spreading head. 



Co-operation with the Local Press of the 
Pacific States. 

Not intending that our paper should 
interfere with the patronage of the local 
papers of the interior — which are the head 
sources of our local news, and the nurseries 
of our best literary men— we will make 
more liberal oilers for clubbing the Pkess 
with publishers of newspapers on this 
coast than those announced by the most 
far-reaching i^roprietors of eastern journals . 
Ours will be the most populor paper that 
publishers on this coast can club vyith 
their own, and subscribers can receive it at 
once, and in case of change of residence, 
can quickly inform us of their new address, 
and be sure of getting every number of 
the paper promptly. Publishers in the in- 
terior should send for our special rates for 
clubs. We willnotonly "live and let live," 
but are disposed to "live and help live." 



10 



-^^ 



[January 7, 1871. 




BT OVR LADY EDrTORS. 



ALWAYS TAKE A KISS. 

There's a jolly Saxon proverb 

Which i» j)retty much like this, 
That a man is half in heaven 

When he has a woman's kiss; 
But there's danger in delaying — 

And the sweetness may forsake it; 
So I tell you, bashful lover, 

If you want a kiss, why, take it. 

Never let another fellow- 
Steal a march on you in this; 

Never let a laughing maiden 
See you spoiling for a kiss; 

There's a royal way to kissing, 
And the jolly ones who take it 

Have a motto that is winning — 
If you want a kiss — why — take it! 

Any fool may face a cannon, 

Anybody wear a crown, 
But a man must win a woman 

If he'd have her for his own; 
Would you have a golden apple. 

You must find the tree and shake it; 
If the thing is worth the having. 

And you want a kiss, w-hy, take it. 

Who would burn upon a desert, 

With a forest smiling by';' 
Who would give his sunny summer 

For a bleak and wintry sky? 
Oh ! I tell you there is magic, 
< And you cannot, cannot break it; 
For the sweetest part in loving 

Is to want a kiss, and take it! 



WAS IT A DREAM ? 

A New Year's Story ior Children, Old and Young. 

BY NELL VAX. 
[WairrEN foe the Pkess ] 

It was the last night of the year, and we 
were all at grandfather's sijending the holi- 
days, as was our custom, and had assem- 
bled around the blazing fire, after our 
games were over, to chat together and tell 
stories before going to rest. On either 
side of the wide fireplace sat grandfather 
and grandmother in their old-fashioned 
arm-chairs, while Uncle Ned, who sat in 
our midst, was amusing the youngsters 
with tales of early California life. 

"Now my lads," said grandfather, during 
a pause, "you shall have my story, and 
when it is done, tell me, was it a dream ? 

"It was a bitter cold winter's night — that 
New Year's eve, long ago, when your 
grandmother and I, with our six boys and 
girls gatliei-ed around our fireside, talking 
over the past and forming new resolutions 
and plans for the future. Eobert was 
about entering college, as he may remem- 
ber, and was full of bright anticipations. 
He can tell you how many of them have 
Iwen realised. 

"His mother and I felt .sad at the pros- 
jiect of a seiJaration,aud urged him to keep 
a sharp look out, and avoid the companion- 
ship of all who might lead him astray. 
We charged him, above all things, to ab- 
stain from even a taste of spirituous 
liquors and tobacco — the acknowledged 
enemies to health and morality." 

At this I well remember little Ned's 
bold remark, "that he did not care, he was 
going to smoke and drink just as soon as 
he was as big as Rob., 'cause father did, 
and so did all the men." A sad earnest 
look from that gray eye of mother's check- 
ed the boy; but he soon asked, in a (juieter 
tone, "When will a fellow get to be a man, 
if he don't learn to smoke and drink while 
he is young? I believe in it anyhow." 

"Were those my youthful sentiments, 
father," spoke a deep-toned, manly voice 
at our side; "if so, I out-grew them before 
reaching manhood; for I early made a vow 
which I have never broken, to live my life 
through without knowing the difference 
in the taste of the various kinds of liquors, 
and to never touch tobacco." 

Grandfather continued, " Now at this 
time my prospects in life were fair, as I 
held the position of book-keejier in a large 



forwarding house in New York, and being 
of a social turn I was in the habit of taking 
an occasional smoke and glass of wine with 
a friend. I had often received a reproach- 
ful glance from mother's soft gray eye 
upon returning after an evening spent 
away, and any brief allusion to the smell 
of tobacco smoke in my clothes caused a 
slight twinge of conscience. Her early 
experiences in life had taught her how 
much suffering the love of strong drink 
brings into a family; and I had been plead 
with from time to time to join one of the 
'teetotal societies,' as they were called. 
But my reply invariably was, that such 
societies were intended to reclaim the 
drunkard rather than to restrain the mod- 
erate drinker, such as I claimed to be, who 
needed no such check to prevent indulging 
to exces-s. Moreover, I was resolved I 
should never take a jjledge that circum- 
stances might force me to break. 

"Well, my lads, ujjon that night our 
advice to the l)oy sent many a home thrust 
into my bosom, and I was glad to turn the 
conversation to other subjects. We drew 
out the girls on their various i)lans for 
self-improvement, and strove to awaken in 
them desires for becoming practical and 
u.seful. Then, with tender thoughts and 
throbbing hearts, we bade each other good 
night and separated. 

"I laj' awake a long time that night, 
restless and unhappy, till at last I dropped 
into an uneasy slumber, from which I was 
suddenly awakened by a gentle touch upon 
my forehead, and opening my eyes, saw in 
the pale mooidight, the figure of a woman 
standing by my bedside. I spoke aloud — 
"Is it you, Susie'?' supposing it to be our 
eldest girl; your Aunt Susan, boys, who 
married and died in the same year, poor 
child! A soft voice answered, 'Do you not 
know me, Richard?' It was Esther's voice, 
and I thought I must be dreaming. I 
rubbed my eyes and pinched myself to be 
sure I was awake. Just then I heard a 
<listant clock striking the midnight hour; 
while before me stood the girlish form and 
well-remembere<l features of that darling 
sister who had been my guardian angel 
from my boyhood. 

Thoiigh younger by two years, I had 
ever looked up to Esther for guidance, as 
she did to me for protection. We never 
had a thought but the other shared it; and 
when heart-broken and sad, because of a 
misplaced afi'ection, she turned to me for 
comfort and consolation, I felt how utterly 
unworthy I was of the love and confidence 
of such a truly noble woman. 

"Her life from this time became one un- 
wearied effort to reclaim the outcast, and to 
improve the mental and moral condition of 
all young persons within her reach. She 
often gathered about her, on Sunday after- 
noons, a number of children of all sizes, 
and, sitting under the .shade of a large tree, 
would anmse and interest them for hours 
with stories and good, mf)therly talk on the 
virtues of cleanliness, industry, temi)erance 
and health. She walked for miles around, 
stopping at houses and giving books to the 
farmers' wives to read, and spending even- 
ings, both conversing and reading, with 
the farm hands, who flocked around her as 
eagerly as if she had been a fortune teller. 

"What Florence Nightingale was to the 
dying soldiers' bedsides, your Aunt Esther 
was to these New England homes. 

"But there came a time when we heai-d 
from her no more! Where she had gone 
we knew not, and all we could ever learn 
was that she was last seen journeying alone 
near the foot of the White Mountains. 
Brother James started in search of her, and 
though he scoured the country in every di- 
rection, making inquiries of all he me( , he 
never gained any further tidings. I had 
always believed that Esther would return 
to us again, alive and well; and as I looked 
into the familiar face, on that eventful 
niglit, I said, half aloud, 'It is indeed 
Esther, and I told them she would surely 
come home again — or am I dreaming?' 

"Again I heard her gentle voice assuring 
me it was no dream, but her own self 
standing before me, at the same time bid- 
ding me listen to her warning, which was 
to save more than one human soul from a 
sorrowing future. 

"She then described a lovely country 
through which she had been wandering, 
and the beautiful children who were her 
companions; and that she had learned 
many a lesson since we parted, which she 
desired to share with me. She charged me 
to remember that if one wished to impress 
a truth upon the plastic mind of youth, a 
practical illustration of it, in the daily 
walks of life, had a far wider influence than 
any amount of mere words of counsel. One 
vicious companion may contaminate a 
wliole crowd, and one example of virtue 
may create a desire for well doing among 
hosts of earnest hearts. In like manner 
should parents beware of censuring chil- 



dren for faults already their own, and 
should strive to stimulate them to good 
works by themselves li\ing uj) to their 
highest ideal; thus proving the truth of 
the adage — 'Example is better than pre- 
cept.' 

"Overcome with emotion, and anxious to 
give expression to my feelings, I sought to 
clasp the loved form to my heart, when she 
vanished, and I was alone with the uncon- 
scious sleeper at my side. I^ cannot tell 
how long I lay pondering over the truths 
thus solemnly presented, and forming new- 
resolutions which kindled in my heart a 
desire to struggle with temi)tation till I 
should be victorious. 

"The wrestlings of that night w-ere never 
forgotten. At breakfast, the next morn- 
ing, I related to my wife and children the 
events of the night, and also the effects 
produced upon myself; and as I glanced 
from one to another of that tearful grouj), 
and felt the holy calm gathering about us, 
harmonizing and uniting us more clo.sely 
than ever before, I a.sked the question, 
' Was it a dream ?' 

"From that day I became a rising man. 
Studiously avoiding my former com- 
l)anions, whose habits soon ajJiieared dis- 
tasteful to me, I never was know-n to taste 
either liquor or tobacco again, and formed 
new friendships among a noble class of 
men, against whom I hod hitherto been 
prejudiced, on account of their strict views 
on subjects of temperance and reform. 
Though I never quite reached my standard 
of excellence, yet having the full possession 
of all my faculties, I was enabled to think 
clearly. The result was, I rapidly rose 
from the jjosition of book-keeper, with 
which I had been content for years, to that 
of proprietor, and finally became possessed 
of wealth, which, properly invested, yielded 
a handsome income. Our present beautiful 
home was jjurchased, and here our children 
have grown up to bless us. 

You know- the rest, my' lads, and how 
great is our enjoyment to bring the chil- 
dren and grandchildren together, to glad- 
den our hearts diuing the holiday season. 
And now, my dears, was it a dbeam?" 

Beauty an Evidence of Perfection. 

Beauty, whether in jjlants and animals, 
or in men and women, is the grand exter- 
nal sign of goodness of organization and 
integrity of function; and the highest pos- 
sible beauty can indicate nothing less than 
l>erfection in these particulars. In the 
proportion, therefore, that we ai)proach 
Ijhysical perfection, we become beautiful; 
"the idea of beauty" being, as the learned 
Dr. Pritchard truly says "synonymous 
with health, and a perfect organization." 
Phj-sical goodness (or health) and beauty 
will always be found to bear a strict rela- 
tion to each other, the latter being every- 
where the sign or symbol of the former. 
A lack of beauty in any member or system 
of the body indicates a lack of goodness or 
health in that member or system. A de- 
formity of limbs shows clearly enough a 
want of goodness in the locomotive sys- 
tem; a bad complexion not less certainly 
indicates something wrong in the vital sys- 
tem; and a malformation of the brain, 
made manifest by the shape of the cranium, 
is a sure sign of want of balance or syme- 
try in the mental system. 

Don't Cultivate the Mind at the Ex- 
pense of the Body. 

The distinguished Dr. Spurzheim says: 
"Experience has demonstrated that of any 
number of children of equal intellectual 
power, those w-ho receive no particular care 
in childhood, and who do not learn to read 
and w-rite until the constitution begins to 
be consolidated, but w-ho enjoy the benefit 
of a good physical education, very soon 
surpass in their studies those who com- 
mence earlier, and read numerous books 
when very young. The mind ought never 
to be cultivated at the expense of the body; 
and i)hysieal education ought to jjrecede 
that of the intellect, and then proceed sim- 
ultaneouslj' with it, without cultivating 
one facility to the neglect of others; for 
health is the base, and instruction the or- 
nament of education." 



Teuths are at first clouds, then rain, 
then harvests and food. The philosophy of 
one century is the common sense of the 
next. Men are called fools, in one age, for 
not knowing w-hat they w-ere called fools 
for averring in the age before. We should 
so live and labor in our time that w-hat 
comes to us as seed may go to the next gen- 
eration as blossom, and that what comes to 
us as blossom may go to them as fruit. 
This is what we mean by progress. 

He that would have a wife without a 
fault must remain a bachelor. 



THE BRIGHT NEW YEAR. 

Janus, of old, is made immortal, through 
the name of his fair bride, the Queen 
Month, to whose merry Court cometh 
ever, with its young voice of joy and love, 
the bright New Year. We in the city ai- e 
rejoicing with holidays, and there are sounds 
of gladness wherever young children 
gather round a happy fire-side, from which 
Comfort and Love are not banished, by 
the hard hand of Necessity, that knoweth 
no changes, save those of labor, and want 
and pain. Daily and nightly the city ex- 
hibits scenes, that almost rival the marvel- 
ous legends of Fairy Land. 

Let us not forget in our own rejoicings, 
the unfortunate ones, who stand amid the 
cruel storm, crying for shelter, or sit by 
the way-side, w-ith mute gestures imploring 
bread. But may all who rejoice in good 
gifts, give also to such as can not repay 
again, except in the blessing of the poor. 
The good deed in its sim2)lest form, shall 
not fall to the ground inert; but it shall 
spring up, and bear blessings, a thousand 
fold. The country, too, exhibits its own 
peculiar phases of enjoyment. Over the 
plain, perching on the hill-side, nestling in 
the valley, or half hidden in a chink of the 
mountains — wherever the cottage fire 
smiles to make the lan(lscai)e beautiful 
with a home of love, or the prouder man- 
sion rears its stately front, there are gath- 
erings of the young and hajjpy — now here, 
now there; w-hile from over our Eastern 
borders comes the sound of merry sleigh- 
bells, that lend their inspiring music, 
and announce the coming of gay groups to 
the festive scene, mingled with the ringing 
chime of young voices, that make the keen 
night air mtisical. 

They gather round the glowing flrc-side, 
w-ith cheeks and eyes brightening with 
health, love and joy; and as the evening 
glides on, and the apples are duly named, 
bright cheeks are seen to blush at the many 
pointed allusions. When the nuts and 
jokes are all cracked, they make the circle 
smaller that they may draw nearer to the 
aged grand-sire, who tells the thrilling 
stories of the adventuroits California pio- 
neer, wilder and strange in tlie sheer truth 
than the broad fictions of the Arabian 
Nights. He tells them that when he met 
the grizzly face to face, the bear was as 
much astonished at the man as the man at 
the bear. An hour thus passed swiftly 
away, and happy as the little circle may he, 
we must aljruptly bid them good night, 
and close our New Year's talk with the fol- 
low-ing: 

Canzonet for January. 

Children of the humau race, 

WhcreHoe'er your dwellinR place, 
Touched with smile or tear. 

Whether cabin hall or cot, 

Shadow forth your earthly lot — 
Hail the bright New Year. 

Ere the circle In begim 

Or a grain of sand hath run 

From Time's unopened sphere. 

With a deep and earnest thought, 

Bound this genuine season wrought— 
Hail the glad New Year! 

Whether with life's tide shall flow 

Floods of joy or depths of woe, 
Seasons liright or drear; 

Yet if ye are true and just, 

Y'e may hail, with perfect tnist. 
The fair, the glad New Year! 

Soothe to-day the heart of ijorrow, 

80 shall angel Hopes to-morrow 
Oild the darkest fear: 

Every hand has work to do; 

Then with purpose strong and true- 
Hail the bright New Year! 

r. H. MC D. 



HosriTALiTY. — The Hindos extend their 
hospitality to their enemies, saying: "The 
tree does not withdraw its shade even from 
the woodcutter." 



Garments of beauty may cover, but they 
can never impart worth to abandoned 
characters. 



He that makes himself an ass, must not 
take it ill if men ride him. 



Loving hearts are like beggars; they 
live on what is given them. 



January 7, 1871.] 



-^r^ 



u 



ousehold4Readi ng. 



Sunshine. 

Sunshine is of almost as much impor- 
tance in gaining or retaining health as good 
air. Who does not know how much more a 
bright and sunny day gladdens and invigo- 
rates both the strong and the weak than 
one overcast with clouds ? Let the bright 
Bun shine into your dwellings ; draw the 
curtains and swing back the blinds that the 
Bun may dry uis the damjjness which feeds 
the mould and ftingias that breeds disease; 
that drives the rose tint from the face and 
lips. Let the glorious sunshine have free 
access to every part of your house where it 
is possible for it to enter. It will bring 
light and life, and sometimes im^jarts vigor 
when all other means fail. 

The nations of antiquity seem to have iin- 
derstood and ajipreciated the blessings of 
sunlight far more than we moderns do. 
The most refined of those nations generally 
held their i^ublic meetings in the ojjeu air. 
Their schools were for the most part in 
groves or in porticoes — colonades, sup- 
l>orted upon lofty pillars, beneath which 
the air and sunlight had the freest access. 
The magnificent Coliseum of Kome was 
without a roof. Little is the wonder that 
many of them, in the simplicity of their 
understanding, were induced to pay divine 
honors to the sun, as the source of life, 
light and heat. 

Every lady exhibits wisdom and care in 
securing all possible available sunshine for 
her pet plants. She would sooner see them 
die than linger out a sickly existence in the 
shade. Sunlight and air are of no less im- 
portance to the beautiful, animated flowers 
of the household, than to the lillies, the 
geraniiims and the fuchias. 

Too little attention is jsaid to this par- 
ticular in the construction of our dwell- 
ings. Set flrem so that the sunlight will 
find its way into the largest possible num- 
ber of rooms. Eooms upon the northerly 
side of houses can often be constructed 
with l)ay., windows, or with recesses, by 
which a side light can enter, and the room 
be enlivened and warmed l)y the sun for a 
shorter or longer time. An hour's sun- 
shine in a room is well worth arranging 
for. Secure every ray of the winter's sun- 
shine that is possible, for the little ones 
and for the infirm and sick, who cannot go 
out of doors to reach it. Such persons, if 
kept in rooms with only north windows, 
will suffer as much from the lack of sun- 
shine, as will plants which are compelled to 
vegetate in the shade. Let us give not 
only the feeble ones, but all and every one 
the fullest measure of sunshine. 

How WE Eat and Deink.— Dr. Dio 
Lewis, in his "Talks about People's Stom- 
achs," gives the following picture of the 
way in which too many Americans are in 
the habit of "bolting" their food at meals, 
and washing it down with floods of liquids: 
"Well, then, let me tell you, that during 
my six years' residence in America I saw 
nothing which surprised me so much as 
the way in which the Yankees eat and 
drink. Why, I really think it is worth an 
admission fee to stand at the end of a din- 
ing-room and see a hundred Yankees at 
the dinner table. Each one has something 
to eat in one hand and something to drink 
in the other. When the food hand goes up 
the drink hand comes down, and when the 
drink hand goes up the food hand comes 
down. It always reminded me of one of 
those walking beams on a steamboat — when 
one end is up the other end is down. Now, 
sir, I think that is the reason the American 
people are such dyspeptics. Why, sir, I 
believe that in a world's exhibition of dys- 
peptics your country would show more in 
number, and stronger in quality than all 
the rest of the world." 



A Ne'KT Bread Fruit Tree. 

Dr. Steven, of New York, writes as 
follows of a Bread Fruit tree which is a 
native of Brazil, and largely employed 
by them for food. The Dr. writes:— "The 
plant resembles very closely our sassafras ; 
it has the same rough bark and the same 
palmate leaf. The food is derived from 
the root, and it probably produces a larger 
amount of food from a given area of ground 
than any other plant. A yield of 3,000, 
4,000 or 5,000 bushels to the acre is not un- 
common, and the cultivation is of the rough- 
est kind. In fact, it has no cultivation, 
except i^lanting. The universal South 
American knife, the machete, isused to cut 
a hole in the sod, the plant is inserted, and 
left to take its chance. It is sure to take 
its chance however. It will root out all 
other j)lants,and connot itself be destroyed. 
The root is grated in mills, the milk flows 
away, and the pulp is dried for food. The 
milk is wasted by tlie hogshead. I have seen 
a river white Avith it for a long distance 
below the grating mill. This milk is 
poisonous, and it contains the saponaceous 
principle." 

The ordinary bread fruit tree of the 
tropics, as is well known, in-oduces a 
soft spongy fruit which is generally eaten 
as plucked from the tree. It may also be 
sliced and dried, and in that condition kept 
for quite a long time, and ground or 
pounded into a kind of flour or coarse 
meal. 



Domestic Economy is a science — a theory 
of life which all sensible women ought to 
study and practice. No young lady is fit 
to be married until she has been thoroughly 
educated in the deep and profound myste- 
ries of the kitchen. See to it, all ye who 
are mothers, that your daughters areaccom- 
plirhed by an experimental knowledge of 
good housekeeping. 



The Tallow Teee. — A tree called the 
tallow tree, grows in China, the fruit of 
which contains a seed covered with a white, 
solid, fatty matter, which the natives con- 
vert into candles. It is proposed to intro- 
duce this tree into South Carolina, the 
south of France, and Algeria, where there 
is every prospect of its being successfully 
cultivated. In China it forms vast forests, 
and gives rise to a considerable branch of 
local commerce. The government of Brit- 
ish India has introduced it throughout the 
different regions of the Peninsula, it now 
being ascertained that it grows equally as 
well in the Punjaub and the north-west 
provinces as in China. The fatty matter 
produced by the tree favorably compares 
with the finest tallow, and when manufac- 
tured into candles, burns with a clear, 
white flame of great brilliancy, and emits 
neither smoke nor disagreeable odor. 

The Way the Money Goes. 

New York city spends $8,500 per day for 
bread, and $10,000 a day for cigars. The 
United States invests $40,000,000 annually 
in the cigar trade alone, and $600,000,000 
anniially for tobacco in other forms, in- 
cluding expense of producing. The anniial 
expense to the human family is not less, 
yearly, than $1,000,000,000. Liquor is 
sold in the United States amounting, in the 
year, to $600,000,000, one-fifth the total 
amount of the National debt; or, according 
to Commissioner Wells, the total amount 
disposed of per annum is $1,000,000,000, 
enough to paj the debt in three years. 

It is time our wives, mothers and sisters, 
were alive to the importance of their in- 
fliience upon this subject, and felt it their 
sacred duty to use every means in their 
power to keep this giant monster from 
ruining, not only the fortunes of many, 
but the souls and bodies of our best men 
and women! Only think of the vast 
amount of money expended in the actual 
degradation of mankind! And just imag- 
ine the sufi'ering, disease, starvation and 
crime sure to follow the sale of liquor! 
The Chinese government will not license 
the sale of opium to its people, knowing 
its evil effects upon mankind; though a 
large revenue would accrue to the govern- 
ment by so doing. Would that our gov- 
ernment were equally humane to its peo- 
ple. If woman has an influence upon so- 
ciety — and all admit that she has — let it be 
for its elevation, and let us begin now to 
make public opinion a temperance one — 
by voice, by pen and by example. 

L. p. J. 



Household Receipts. 

CoBN Bbead.— An Oeiginal Eeceipt. — 
To make corn bread equally well without 
as with eggs was discovered Ijy a California 
miner who recently communicated the 
method to us. Our friend occupied a 
"camp" and of course did his own "cook- 
ing." On one occasion finding himself 
short of meal for his corn bread, he eked it 
out by mixing therewith a quantity of cold 
"mush" which had been set aside from a 
l^revious meal. His astonishment was 
great at perceiving the decided improve- 
ment the previously cooked meal produced 
on his "corn bread." He repeated the ex- 
periment with the same result, and has since 
communicated the discovery to many, all 
of whom are unanimous in pronouncing 
cooked meal as good as eggs to make corn 
bread light. Mix liberally, say one third. 

Good Kolls. — The famous Parker Hoiise 
rolls are said to be made in the following 
described manner: Make a hole in two 
quarts of flour, and pour in one pint of curd 
milk that has been boiled, with a cup of 
butter melted in it. Add a quarter of a cup 
of sugar and half a cup of good yeast. Let 
it stand without mixing two or three hours. 
Salt to taste. Then knead it, and set it to 
rise a few hours; then mold it, and rise 
again in the pans before baking. The rolls 
require about fifteen minutes to bake in a 
qiiick oven. 

Sweet Apple Pickles.- — Three pounds 
of sugar, one quart of vinegar, one peck of 
api)les. Dissolve the sugar in the vinegar, 
steam the apples until tender; let them boil 
up until clear in the sugar and vinegar. 
This is vei-y nice for sauce. 

To Keep Moths Away.— Take a piece of 
flannel, wet it with turpentine, and put 
among your woolen clothes and yarn. 

Cold Soap may be made as follows: — 20 
pounds of grease, 22 jiounds of potash, 
three-quarters of a pound of rosin. 



Mechanical Hints. 



Life Thoughts. 



Adveesity overcome is the brightest 
glory, and willingly undergone, the great- 
est virtue. 



When lovers quarrel the only presents 
not returned are kisses. 

The road to ruin is always kept in good 
repair, and the traveler pays the expenses 
of it. 

He that is good will become better, and 
he that is bad, worse; for virtue, vice and 
time, never stop. 

Few take care to live well, but many to 
live long; though it is in everybody's 
power to do the former. 

Eeading, says Lord Bacon, makes a 
full man; conversation a ready man; writ- 
ing an exact man. 

Eeplect before you act, but, when the 
time for action arrives, stop thinking. 

No snow falls lighter than the snow of 
age; none heavier, for it never melts. 

OuE prayers and God's mercy are like 
two buckets in a well — when the one as- 
cends, the other decends. 

A Good Thought Well Spoken. — No 
young woman, says a contemporary, ever 
looks so well to a sensible man as when 
dressed in plain, neat, modest attire, with 
but little ornament about her person. She 
looks then as though she had worth in her- 
self, and needed no artificial rigging to 
enhance her value. If a young woman 
would spend as much time imjaroving her 
mind, training her temper, and cherishing 
kindness, mercy and other good qualities, 
as most of them do on extra dress and or- 
naments to increase their personal charms, 
she would at least be recognized among a 
thousand — her character would be read in 
her countenance. 



To Polish Maeble, etc. — Marble of any 
kind, alabaster, any hard stone, or glass 
may be reiiolished by rubbing it with a 
linen cloth dressed with oxide of tin (sold 
under the name of putty powder) . For 
this purpose a couple or more folds of line 
should be fastened tight over a piece of 
wood, mat or otherwise, according to the 
form of the stone. To reiJolish a mantel- 
piece it should be first perfectly cleaned. 
This is best done by making a paste of lime, 
soda and water, well wetting the marble, 
and applying the paste. Then let it re- 
main for a day or so, keeping it moist dur- 
ing the interval. When this i^astehas been 
removed the polishing may begin. Chijjs 
in the marble should be rubbed out first 
with emery and water. At every stage of 
polishing the linen and putty powder must 
be kej)t constantly wet. Glass, such as 
jewelers' show-counter cases, which become 
scratched, may be polished in the same 
way. — Scientific American. 

To Bend Mahogony oe Walnut Mould- 
ing. — Take two pieces of lumber, one to fit 
the inside, the other the outside of the 
moulding (the lumber of course cut to the 
curves required;) soak the moulding in 
boiling water for ten minutes; then put it 
between the pieces of lumber; then cramp 
them together slowly bending the mould- 
ing; let it stand for three days; and it will 
be fit for use. 

Spots on Mahogany. — Stains and spots 
may be taken out of mahogany with a little 
aquafortis or oxalic acid and water, rub- 
bing the part by means of cork, till the color 
is restored; observing afterwards to wash 
the wood well with water, and to dry and 
polish as usual. 

White Polish foe Light Woods. — Take 
white (bleached) shellack, 3 oz.; white 
gum benzoine, 1 oz.; gum sandarac, % oz.; 
spirits of wine or naptha, 1 pint, in which 
to dissolve. 

Oil Cloths. — To ruin them — clean them 
with hot water or soap-suds, and leave them 
half-wiped, and they will look very bright 
while wet and very dingy and dirty when dry, 
and soon crack and peal off. But ifyouwi.sh 
to preserve them, and have them look new 
and nice, wash them with soft flannel and 
luke-warm water, and wipe thoroughly dry. 
If you want them to look extra nice, after 
they are dry, drop a few spoonsful of 
milk over them, and rub them with a small 
dry cloth. — ^festern Rural. 

Gold Liquid is made by mixing bronze 
powder with gum water; a little spirits of 
wine will make it keep better. The pro- 
portions are easily ascertained by trial. 
Piecefc of glass are put in the bottle to as- 
sist in shaking up the heavy powder, which 
would settle at the bottom. 



A Sentiment from the "Plow." 

San Jose, Dec. 15th, 1870. 

Messes. Dewey & Co. — Gents : I cannot 
refrain fiom an expressien of satisfaction at 
the iirosi^ect of at last getting a first-class 
agricultural newspaper in this State. Had 
the "sami)le number," now before me, 
emanated from'an unknown source, I might 
have felt some doubt as to the success of 
the enterprise ; but, being a constant reader 
of the Scientieic Peess, I feel well assured 
that the same talent and enterprise exhibit- 
ed in that journal will also be carried into 
your new enterprise, and will prove a 
guarantee of its success also. Moreover, a 
long and intimate acquaintance with your 
firm, as business managers and patent 
agents, still further increases my confidence 
in the ability that leads and the stability 
that will secure success for your new jjaper, 
the Pacific Eueal Peess. The need of 
such a ijaper on this coast has long been 
felt; and the present time, for many 
reasons, appears to be a most o^jportune 
one for starting. 

Not only is farming now taking the lead 
of all industrial pursuits, but our farmers 
are feeling the need of a more intelligent 
and diversified culture. Our agricultural 
resources and possibilities are almost un- 
limited ; but as yet we are only in the in- 
fancy of our development. 

Our Eastern agricultural journals lead 
those of Europe ; and have not we on the 
Pacific Coast a right to expect even to 
equal or excel our neighbors of the East? 
The acknowledged ability, independence 
and freshness of our Eastern magazines, 
over the staid, classical European litera- 
ture is apparent. But we of California can 
boast of an Overland Montlih/ that outshines 
them all — that in its bold freshness and 
sterling ability, sparkles Avith lustrous 
brightness. Why, then, can we not sup- 
port and maintain a Rural paper that Avill 
lead? Surely we have tlie country for it, 
and I believe that we have the people also. 

Our California experience is already in- 
valuable to us, but is something that our 
Eastern papers cannot comprehend. What 
we want is a progressive, California agri- 
cultural paper, that will take the lead in 
the promulgation of plans and ideas for the 
development of the agricultural resources 
of the State. 

As a friend to this enterjirise, and as a 
farmer in the field, you may reckon me as 
one of your subscribers ; and as the season 
progresses, I may occasionally add my 
mite to contributions for its columns. 

Y'ours truly. Plow. 

The Pueblo Land Case, at issue betAveen 
the trustees of the city of San Diego and 
the holders of the ex-mission grant, and 
which involved the title to nearly all the 
land property Avithin the city limits, has 
been decided in favor of the city. 



12 



-Ogj 



[January 7, 1871. 



SEi\^SQf<i\^BLE 4^T'Ct.ES. 



I. N. HOAG, Editob, Sacbambnto. 



Under this head we shall present in each 
number of the Rural, well considered orig- 
inal articles and suggestions upon agricul- 
tural and horticultural subjects. The pai-- 
ticular subjects will be chosen with refer- 
ence to their special adaptation to the sea- 
sons with a view to inducing immediate 
trials or tests of the practicability and cor- 
rectness of the suggestions advanced, on 
the part of our agricultural readers. 

Owing to the peculiarities of the soils 
and climates of tlie Pacific coast, agricul- 
tural and horticultural operations are found 
to require very diflerent management here 
from that ^iracticed in most other countries. 
Honce the lessons inculcated by eastern 
and foreign joTirnals on agriculture and 
horticulture, however well timed and val- 
uable in the countries where they are pub- 
lished, are almost wholly inapplicable and 
valueless here, both as to time and sub- 
stance. We shall endeaver to bear these 
facts continually in mind and jjresent our 
readers with fresh thouglits and sugges- 
tions adapted to the immediate wants and 
necessities of our 0T\'n cultivators of the 
soil. 

Again, as a result of the conii)letion of 
the overland railroad and the probable 
building of others across the continent in 
tlie immediate future, and the consequent 
changes in our industrial relations with 
other portions of the world, it becomes 
nece.ssary for us to bring about such 
changes in our agricultural and horticul- 
tural operations as will enable us success- 
fully to compete with the agriculturists 
and horticulturists of those countries Avith 
Avhom we have thus been brought in more 
immediate contact. 

We .sluiU give all the new relations aris- 
ing from these changes of circumstances 
our careful and constant attention and 
study, and endeavor to keep our readers 
well informed as to the bearing and influ- 
ence of these relations on their diflerent bus- 
iness interests. 

Nearly all the greatest and most impor- 
tant questions touching the agricultural in- 
terests and producticms of this coast remain 
yet to be solved. Indeed in our hurry and 
eagerness to make money we have sc^arcely 
thought of them. Have we yet any defi- 
nite idea as to what should become our 
leading stai)le agricultural and horticultu- 
ral products ? In other words as to what 
wc should produce only for home consump- 
tion — and what we can Avith the greatest 
profit and benefit produce for our ex- 
(•hanges — for commerce ? All these great 
•inestions remain yet to be answered, and 
the sooner Ave give them our attention the 
better. 

One of the most common and least jus- 
tifiable mistakes of all new American ag- 
ricultural communities, is the sameness 
and limited A^ariety of crops, and neglect 
and consei^nent rapid exhaustion of the soil. 
Our people here are no exception to this 
rule. They have fallen into this common 
mistake and are already suffering its conse- 
quences. We shall endeavor to keep be- 
fore our readers inducements to change 
this course and to adopt the opposite sys- 
tem of culture — the cultivation of a diver- 
sity of crops — the careful and judicious 
nursing and improvement of the soil. 

We believe that one of the most impor- 
tant and necessary conditions to the agri- 
cultural and g(meral prosperity of a coun- 
try is a division of the land into moderately 
small farms, the titles to which should be 
in the cultivators themselves. 

To bring about this condition of things 
on the Pacific coast in an amicable manner 
and in the interest of all concerned Avill be 
our constant aim and untiring endeaA'or. 
The settlement of the mountain counties, 
and the cultivation of those extensive and 
rich hillsides and valleys in products atlapt- 



ed to their soils and locations, Avill claim 
our earnest attention and constitute one of 
our most cheerful tasks. 

The introduction of improA-ed breeds of 
hogs, sheej), cattle, horses and all other 
varieties of stock, and a discussion of 
the rules of breeding of eai-h will re- 
ceive our liveliest co-operation and consid- 
eration. 

In short, to Avhatever will healthfully 
and permanently adA-ance the material in- 
terests of the coast and of the country we 
l)ledge our cheerful and unwavering sup- 
port and attention ; and in this manner and 
in no other shall Ave strive to deserve, and 
hope to secure the patronage and assistance 
of a descerning and intelligent peojile. 

SILK CULTURE. 

We are almost daily in receipt of in- 
quiries in regard to this industry in Cali- 
fornia. Many of these inquiries are from 
our own citizens Avho contemijlate entering 
into the business, and many from people 
in the Eastern States, Avho are thinking of 
coming to this state for the same purjjose. 
The inquiries cover all the practical opera- 
tions of the business from the nature of 
the soil t« be chosen for the cultivation of 
the mulberry, to the completion of the 
cocoons and making the eggs for the 2>rop- 
agation of the Avorms. The inquiries being 
so general, and coming from so many quar- 
ters, we conclude that our opinions as 
stated in this paper last week — that the 
Fi'anco-Qerman Avar is most favorable to 
the successful and profitable prosecution 
of the industry in the United States, and 
especially in California, are generally con- 
curred in, and that people ai-e about to en- 
gage in it very generally. Being generally 
ignorant of the details of the business they 
are earnestly seeking the necessary infor- 
mation. We shall therefore, as far as we 
are able, give that information, and thus 
once for all ansAver all inquiries. And fii'st 
as to 

Location and Soil. 

There are many things to be taken into 
consideration Avhen about to select a loca- 
tion for the silk business. As to the mul- 
l)erry tree, it Avill groAV and flourish where 
almost any other tree will grow. It will 
grow on swamp lands Avhen the surface is 
coA'cred- with water from three to six 
months in the year almost as surely and 
thriftily as the willow. It will flourish 
upon the hard dry soil of the open i)rairic 
lands and strike deep down into the earth 
its straight tap-roots in search of moisture. 
Or if ])lanted on the hill or mountain side 
it is still at home and is still one of the 
most hardy and rapid groAvers. Being so 
hai-dy and so well a<lapted to all localities 
and soils, and at the same time possessing 
such a dark green luxuriant foliage, the 
mulberry tree, and more especially the 
Alba and Moretti, make most excellent 
trees for shade and ornament. We consid- 
er them in this respect superior to the 
locust or Lombardy poplar, now so much 
in use iu this state. 

In selecting a location for the silk busi- 
ness, hoAvcA-er, there are other things of 
more importance than the rapid growth of 
the tree. The soil must be sweet, contain- 
ing no alkali or other mineral substances 
obnoxioiis to insect life and health. It 
should not be too rich or moist, for such 
soils are likely to force too much water 
into the leaf of the tree, and such leaves 
are apt to predispose the worms to disease. 
Again the location should be chosen so as 
to avoid the fogs of the coast and the cold 
sea breezes of the broad open plains. A 
plenty of air is good both for the health of 
tlie tree and the worm, but that air should 
not bring too much moisture for the leaf 
of the tree, and should not be too cold for 
the Avorm. As a general thing a soil that 
will grow good Avheat or produce good 
corn or make good grapes, combined with 
a climate which in the spring is dry and 
uniform — not bringing too great extremes 
betAveen day and night — maj' safely be select- 
ed for successful silk culture. In our oAvn 
state, after adhering to the above rules, 
one can scarcely go amiss of good locations. 
I am of the o})inion, howcA'er, that the 
very best localities are to be found in the 
foot hills either of the Sierra Nevada or 
coast range mountains. In these localities 
the diff'erence betAveen the temperature of 
day and night is considerably less than in 
the broad valleys. It is a fact that the 



cocoons made in the foot hills and sheltered 
locations in the valleys are generally more 
compact and contain more silk and that of 
a stronger fibre. Such is the experience, 
not only here, but in other silk growing 
countries as well. 

Mr. F. O. Adams, Secretary of the Eng- 
lish legation in Jap.an, has, in accordance 
Avith the instructions of his government, 
been giving a great deal of his time for the 
past two or three years to investigating this 
industry in that country. His statements 
are uniformly to the cfTect that the greatest 
success attends the efforts of those Avhose 
plantiitions are among the hills where the 
soil is light and somcAvhat gravelly and the 
atmosphere uniform and dry in the spring 
of the year. 

Thus it will be seen that a rather poor 
and light soil is better for silk culture than 
that Avhich is very rich, and a rather dry 
soil better than a damp one. When land 
has become exhausted by constant cropping 
Avith wheat, the mulberry will thrive and 
produce good and valuable leaves for the 
Avorms, and will at the same time recuper- 
ate the soil. Silk culture, fruit culture 
and grape culture go well together, and the 
conditions of soil and climate adapted to 
the one are Avell adapted to the other. Silk 
culture Avill insure the first returns and re- 
quires the least expenditure; and may Ije 
looked to for an income while waiting for 
grape A-ines and fruit trees to come into 
bearing. We will next si)eak of the varie- 
ties of mulberry trees and mode of culti- 
vation. 



MELONS VS. BEETS FOR SUGAR. 

The following very interesting and in- 
structive article from W. Wadsworth, we 
take from the Sacramento Union of Dec. 
31st:— 

The sugars from cane, maple, beets, 
parsnips, the sweet-gourd and all the vari- 
eties of melons, when manufactured per- 
fectly pure, are chemically identical. In 
Hungary and Italy there are numerous 
large estal)lishments for the manufacture of 
melon sugar. I have seen them. The 
cost of melon sugar as comjiared with beet 
sugar, is in favor of the melon. Every 
German or French authority on the culture 
of beets for sugar, admits the necessity of 
at least tAvo, and recommends three, deep 
and thorough plowings of the land to prop 
erly tit it for the culture of beets. With 
melons it is quite otherwise. To secure 
the largest yield and best beets, the seed 
should be planted iu rows two feet apart 
and from eight to ten inches apart in the 
row. Melons are usually planted in hills, 
six to eight feet apart, but they are better 
planted in rows twelve feet apart, and 
eight inches apart in the roAv. For beets 
all the land — for illustration say fifty feet 
in width — must be plowed at least twice. 
For melons, only four beds, tAvelve feet 
apart and each only four feet wide, or six- 
teen feet in width of plowed land against 
fifty for beets. 

The great expense of beet culture is in 
the hand-hoeing and Avceding of every row, 
and in most lands as many as three of these 
weedings are required in a season, before 
the leaves are large and spreatling enough 
to keep down the weeds. The difference 
between the weeding of four roAvs of 
melons and twenty-flA'e rows of beets is 
very considerable; whilst the exhaustion of 
the fertility of the soil is in the same pro- 
portion. With both crops, the land be- 
tAveen the rows is kept free from Avceds 
Avith the horse-hoe or cultivator at the 
same expense. Young melon plants are 
not as tender and delicate for the first eight 
days as beets. It is evident, therefore, that 
the expense of culture is largely in favor 
of melons, it being less than one-third the 
cost of beets per acre. 

In gathering the two crops the differ- 
ence is again in favor of melons, for. they 
only have to be picked from the vine and 
thrown into carts; then, without washing 
or other process, are ready for the mill. 
Beets must be first pulled, thrown into 
heaps to i)rotect them from the sun, then 
each beet must be handled in haAang its 
crown of leaA'es and rootlets cut off, and 
then, before it is ready for the rasp or cut- 
ter, must be Avashed thoroughly clean. 

The gathering and handling of melons 
is an agreeable and cleanly operation com- 
l)ared Avith thatof beets. Large (juantities 
of melons in certain localities can be sold 
for direct consumption in the early ])art of 
the season or whencA'er worth more in tliat 
way than for sugar, spirits or Aanegar; it 
is not so Avith beets. Siigar-making can 
commence a full month earlier from mel- 
ons than fi'om beets, and Avith winter 
water-melons, is in Hungary, continued as 
late as Avith beets. Melons yield their seed 
every year with no extra expense for culti- 
vation. Beets require a second year, Avith 



land and careful culture and gathering of 
the seed. Melon seeds Avill yield sixteen 
per cent, of their weight of excellent table 
oil. Beet seeds are of no value beyond 
what are needed for seed. The oil "from 
the surplus seeds of melon sugaries in 
Hungary, pays one-half the cost of culti- 
vating the entire melon crop. The yield 
of melons per acre in favorable soils is 
equal to that of beets. The yield of sugar 
is as seven jjer cent, from melons, to eight 
per cent, from beets; but the cost of man- 
ufacture is decidedly in favor of melons; 
they requiring less time, less bone black, 
less machinery, less po\<'er and less fuel, 
because no water is added, Avhich cannot 
be said of beet juice by the ordinary jjro- 
cess of extraction. 

The natural purity of the juice of mef- 
ons is so superior to beets, that Avhilst the 
melons furni.sh an agreeiible "food and 
drink," and a delicious sAveet, the juice of 
beets is so acrid and herbaceous as to b 
Avholly unpalatable. The defecation and 
refining processes for melon juice and 
sugar is therefore attended Avith far less 
trouble and cost. The part of the beet 
which in many instances grows above 
ground exposed to the sun, is of little or 
no value for sugar; whilst the hotter the 
sun and the dryer the better and sAveeter 
the melon. The larger the melon, the 
sweeter generally; whilst the reverse is 
true of beets. 

Beet juice and pulp Avill turn bliu-k in 
fiflef.n minutes exposed to the air, and fer- 
mentation commences immediately from 
the rasp. Melon juice and pulp Avill not 
blacken at all, and Avill not begin to fer- 
ment in the open air before the third dai/ 
from the midon. Beets are remarkable for 
their power of extracting alkaline and 
saline substances from the soil, Avhich in- 
jures their A-alue for sugar. Melons are 
equally remarkable for letting these salts 
entirely alone in the soil. 

No centrifugals or presses are required 
to separate the juice from the pulp, as 
with beets; but all except the rinds and 
seeds go into the defecating kettles to- 
gether. Cloth filters, concentrators and a 
vacuum pan arc as necessary as for beets. 
The buildings are less costly, becau.se re- 
quiring less strength to hold in jiosition 
the centrifugals and other necessary ma- 
chinery of beet sugaries. The chemical 
proces.ses of melon sugar-making do not 
differ materially from those for the making 
of beet sugar, except in their •simplicity. 
Spirits in large (juantities can be ex- 
tracted from the fermented juice of melons 
and the refuse of the sugarie, and "jjure 
cider vinegar" is made therefrom in ten 
hours that cannot be distinguished from 
the genuine article. The melon rinds, 
Avith dry grass or straw, make an excellent 
food for milch cows. 

NoAv, while I have been drawing com- 
jmrisons favorable to melon sugar as against 
sugar from Ix'cts, except in one instance — 
the actual per cent, of sugar obtained — I 
do not in any way desire to detract from 
the merit of the beet as a sugar yielding 
prodiict of our soils, well knowing and 
acknowledging its almost inestimable 
A'alue. 

But it is this that I Avish to inculcate, 
that, whereas a beet sugar establishment 
is a costly concern, a melon sngarie coats 
comjjaratively but little, whilst both can 
be made exceedingly profitable. A small 
\teet sugarie, that will pay an annual divi- 
dend of 30 per cent, upon the entire in- 
vestment Avill cost S75,000. A melon su- 
garie that will pay 34 per cent, per annum 
on its cost, can be put in oi)eration for 
S20,000. 

A beet sugarie to pay a dividend of 35 
to 45 i)er cent, per annum, will cost from 
$100,000 to 150,000. 

ItE.sorK(^E8 OF CAiiiFOBNiA. — At a late 
session of the Massachiisetts' Stiite Board 
of Agriculture, one evening Avas devoted to 
a lectiire by the Hon. Marshall P. Wilder 
on "California; a Comparative View of her 
Climate, Resources, and Progress, with 
Observations made in a Recent Tour to the 
Pacific Coast." The lecturer described 
vineyards of a thousand acres, ai)ple orch- 
ards of 150 acres, i>ear orchards of 75 acres, 
■V) acres of strawberries, 40 acres of cur- 
rants, and rows of almond trees half a mile 
long. He closed by a comjiarative A'iew of 
the resources of California and New Eng- 
land, according to the latter those influen- 
ces of education and civilization which liad 
done so mucli to develop California. 

Decembeb Roses. — We acknowledge 
the receipt of a choice bouquet of roses 
and other beautiful flowers from Alameda, 
sent by a lady subscriber who is success- 
fully cultiA-ating some of the rarest and 
most beautiful foreign trees and plants in 
her fine garden. 



January 7, 187 i-] 




One of our Parks. 

Woodward's Gardens, one of the fii-st 
places shown to travelers visiting our city, 
have been called by some the " Central 
Park of the Pacific." Whatever name may 
be given to these grounds, they certainly 
deserve and have received the highest 
praise and admiration, and we propose giv- 
ing a brief description of their prominent 
points for the benefit of those of oiir read- 
ers who have not been able to visit them 
in person. 

Mr. R. B. Woodward, one of the wealthi- 
est and most liberal of our citizens, laid 
out these gardens in 1860 as private 
grounds around his residence. Possessed 
of a refined taste, and of adequate means to 
gratify this taste, he spared no expense in 
beautifying them. They are provided with 
choice plants, both foreign aud native, a 
museum and several conservatories were 
built, and a trip to Europe was taken in 
1861 by the proprietor with the special 
view of supplying these last. In selecting 
works of art, he was aided by Bierstadt and 
Virgil Williams, both of whom contributed 
to his Art Gallery. The garden statuary 
was produced by sciilptorsof Car- 
rara Italy, expressly for Mr. Wood- 
ward. 

As the various additions were 
made, and the gardens grew in 
beauty, their fame spread far and 
wide, and many came to see them. 
The beautiful plants and strange 
trees, the fine buildings with their 
novel architecture, the i^onds and 
mossy rocks, the roar of the wild 
beasts, excited the curiosity of 
persons, to the most of whom the 
picket fence formed an impassi- 
ble barrier. The proprietor was 
strongly urged to open his place 
to the public. There was a great 
need of some such public garden. 
It would serve to instruct the ma- 
ny to whom no oi^poi-tunity was 
otherwise given of harmless and 
improving amusement. Mr. 
Woodward had always been most 
hospitable in allowing hisf riends 
free use of the grounds. He list 
tenod to the broader projaosition 
andconsented so far there to as to 
open them for a time, early in 1866, for the 
benefit of the Sanitary Fund. A com- 
mencement having thiis been made, they 
were definitely made public in May of the 
same year, a trifling admission fee being 
charged to defray the expense of keej^ing 
everything in proper order. 

The gardens cover four acres of land, 
between 13th and 14tli aud Market and 
Mission streets, and about an acre south of 
14th street, this last constitiiting an amphi- 
theater and being connected with the other 
portion by a tunnel under 14th street. The 
gardens contain level ground and eleva- 
tions, the walks are gi-aveled and meander- 
ing, the grassy sward is dotted with every 
variety of flowering vines and shrubs, with 
trees of different climes. The 'lake is 
decorated with a margin of lilies and by 
large colored globes of glass, mounted on 
posts, which heighten the general effect. 
Pandora, Jupiter, Bacchus, Venus, Ceres, 
Terpsichore, Psyche and the "Dancing 
Gii-1," in marble forms, are found here 
and there in quiet nooks. A rustic foun- 
tain spouts by the side of the stream flow- 
ing into the lake, and benches and chairs 
invite to rest. 

On the hill, in a grove of dwarf oaks, are 
the saloon and restaurant, with the plat- 
form for the band, and the observatory. 
On the side of the hill is an arbor built af- 
ter the fashion of a Turkish mosque. The 
main building fronts on Mission street, 
and the lake is in the rear of this. There 
are five conser\'atory and plant houses, of 



an aggregate length of 300 feet and an 
average width of 30 feet. The engraving 
gives a correct representation of the prin- 
cipal one, and will serve to give an idea of 
a small part of the beautiful grounds. 
There are, besides, a hennery, a pigeon- 
house, and a grapery. A gymnasium is 
fitted up for those fond of athletics. A 
rotary boat, schooner-rigged, capable of 
seating a hundred persons, floats around in 
the lake. 

The Art Gallery contains some seventy 
oil-paintings of merit and two marble 
busts, one by Hiram Powers. In the ad- 
joining Miiseum of Miscellanies are two 
statues, a collection of birds and birds' 
eggs, one of ujiwards of a thousand coins 
of all ages and nations, idols, weapons, 
minerals and hundreds of other articles. 
The library contains 1,600 volumes, many 
of them very rare and costly. The collec- 
tion of alcoholic specimens is quite exten- 
sive. There is another collection of stuffed 
birds of the highest value, which is exquis- 
ite in its colors and varieties. 

The Zoological Department is very ex- 
tensive, and a catalogue of the animals 
would of itself occupy a large share of our 
space. Here are animals of various kinds 
from all countries and all zones. The col- 



The rink will be built on ground now out- 
side of the garden and will be in the shape 
of an L, with sides, each 125 feet long, and 
of a width of 40 feet. In the angle formed 
by the two sides there will be a circus I'ing, 
and back of this, extending from the wing 
of the rink to the other, terraced seats will 
be arranged to accommodate several tlioii- 
sand f)ersons. In the rear of the seats 
there will be an orchestra-stand. 

Other additions are contemplated. All 
varieties of pure breeds of poultry will be 
kept on exhibition ; there is to be an aqua- 
rium, so that the finny tribe may be more 
largely represented, etc., etc. It requires 
now several visits to get a decent idea of 
what is to be seen, and at the present rate 
of increase to the attractions, one will soon 
be obliged to make frequent and periodi- 
cal calls to keep up with the times. 

It may well be imagined that these gar- 
dens represent a large amount of capital. 
A million of dollars would not replace 
their contents were they destroyed. The 
expense of kee^jing the gi-ounds and build- 
ings in repair, of attending to the i>lants, 
and feeding and caring for the animals 
miist be very large. Woodward's Gardens 
are now an important and indispensible 
feature of our city. They are visited daily 




OONSEEVATOEY OF PLANTS AT WOODWAKD'S GAEDENS, SAN PKANOISOO. 



lection is by far the largest on the coast 
and is continually being increased. The 
cages of the live animals always attract a 
large crowd, while the stuffed collection is 
hardly less interesting. There are Califor- 
nia grizzlies, Oregon pantheis, Mexican 
panthers. South American Jaguars, and 
Bengal tigers. Camels from Arabia, dogs 
of the Esqiiimaux, and kangaroos from 
Australia are foiind here. Deer and elk, 
badgei's, racoons, marmots, foxes, weasels, 
ant-eaters, oppossums, black and brown 
bears, monkeys of all sizes, and very many 
other animals live in close proximity. 
Pheasants, turkeys, quails, ducks, geese 
and chickens, eagles, sparrows, cranes, 
doves and canaries, of various breeds and 
hues and from countries remote and near, 
are confined in cages. Besides all these, 
which are alive, there are stuffed specimens 
of bears, snakes, tigers, leopards, hyenas, 
boars, apes, monkeys, etc.; double-headed, 
double-bodied and double-tailed calves and 
horses, etc.; while curiosities and montrosi- 
ties of all kinds, alive and dead, swell the 
catalogue. 

The Zoological Department has just 
been removed into the ami^hitheatre, 
which is as before stated, on the south 
side of 14th street. In this amjjhitheater, 
which will accommodate 10,000 j^ersons, 
exhibitions are being continually given — at 
2)resent a hippodrome forming an attrac- 
tive feature. The lumber for an extensive 
skating rink has been purchased, and this 
additional attraction will shortly be gi'.en. 



by largo numbers of residents and so- 
journers, and we may therefore be allowed 
to call the place " one of our parks." They 
are a public benefit to the city, espe- 
cially to children and to the poorer classes, 
and to Mr. Woodward are due the hearty 
thanks of our population. 

Uncle Sam.— Immediately after the last 
declaration of war with England, Elbert 
Anderson of New York, then a contractor, 
visited Troy, where he iiurchased a large 
quantity of provisions. The inspectors of 
these articles at that place were Ebenezer 
and Samuel Wilson. The latter gentleman 
(universally known as "Uncle Sam") 
generally superintended in jjerson a large 
number of workmen, who, on this occasion, 
were employed in overhauling the pro- 
visions 2:iurchased by the conti'actor. The 
casks were marked "E. A. — U. S." This 
work fell to the lot of a facetious fellow, 
who, being asked the meaning of the mark, 
said he did not know unless it meant 
Elbert Andemon and Uncle Sam, alluding 
exclusively then to the said Uncle Sa7n Wil- 
son. The joke took and became very 
current. — Frosfs Naval History. 

How Oils "Explodk." — The expression 
often used that an oil is explosive conveys 
a wrong idea. The oil does not explode. 
An oil may even extinguish a burning 
match when thrust into it, and ,yet be high- 
ly dangerous to use as a burning fluid. — It 
is the vapor of these oils, mixed with air, 
that is dangerous, as far as explosioii is 
concerned. Where a partly filled lamp 
has the portion above the oil filled with a 
mixture of vapor and air, it may explode. 
When a lamjj is filled while lighted, the 
mixture of air and vapor in the can or fill- 
er, exi)lodes upon coming in contact with 
the flame ; the oil itself does not really ex- 
plode, though it does serious injury when 
scattered by tho explosion. 



Pa\t^{it§ ^r«D ifivfiHi^ 



Notices of Recent Patents. 

Among the patents recently obtained 
through Dewey & Co.'s Scientific Press 
American and Foreign Patent Agency, the 
following are worthy of mention: 

Appakatus for Collecting Precious 
Metals.— J. M. McDougall, S. F. This is 
an improvement on the api)aratus jDatented 
some three years ago by Mr. McDougall, 
which we have heard praised as most effi- 
cient in saving gold even after the ore had 
passed through the most ap^sroved gold- 
saving api^aratus. This former invention, 
it may be well to state, consisted in using 
metallic standards placed in an ordinary 
sluice, the bottom'of which had been previ- 
ously covered with amalgamated plates. 
The standards were, according to the pat- 
ent, composed of copjier and iron, by the 
combination of which metals a retaining 
amalgamating surface was presented and 
an electrical action induced, which would 
serve to collect and precipitate even the 
finest particles of gold or other metals. 
The present invention relates to an improv- 
ed method of securing the copper in the 
(hollow iron) standards in firm contact 
with the iron; to the emjjloyment in the 
sluice of any square obstructions in ylaco 
of the metallic standards, said obstructions 
being i:)laced in a similar manner to that 
employed with the metallic standards, in 
order to imjjart to the water a rocking mo- 
tion, by which the particles of metal are 
precipitated without the electrical influence ; 
and lastly to coating the jilates on the bot- 
tom of the sluice with gold or silver amal- 
gam or the amalgam of some of the base 
metals, in order to give a heavier body of 
quicksilver with less fluidity. Mr. Mc- 
Dougall has spent a long time in working 
and improving his apparatus, and has been 
very successful in his endeavors, if com- 
mon report is to be credited. 

Device for Exhibiting Photographic 
Pictures.— A. G. Walton, S. F. This 
device is an excellent substitute for parlor 
albums, for it contains in a small sj^ace a 
large number of pictures, which are, more- 
over, protected, while they can be examin- 
ed at pleasure. It consists of a small box 
in which the pictures or cards, after having 
been placed in siiital)le frames, are arrangp<l 
horizontally in a pile, one above another. 
Two wheels, placed one at each end of the 
pile and driven from the same shaft, ai-c 
provided with pins which, as the wheels 
revolve, take the cards or frames in succes- 
sion from the bottom of the jiile and carry 
them up to the glass window through 
which the pictures are viewed. After car- 
rying them past this jjoint, they drop them 
with their opposite faces downward upon 
the top of the pile, and thus, after the 
whole number of cards have been passo<l 
around and insjsected on one side, tliey are 
again carried around in a similar manner 
with the opi^osite side to the front. In 
this way, each card having a i:)icture on 
each side, two views are given for eacli 
frame in a most simple and ingenious man- 
ner. The device can be used with advant- 
age also for exhibiting advertising cards. 

Medical Compound.— A. J. Jenkins, 
Virginia City, Nev. This is a jireparation 
which is said to be most effectual as a cure 
for rheumatism, and which, if siibstantiat- 
ing this claim, must prove a great benefit 
to the very large army of rheumatic suffer- 



New Post Offices have been established 
at Mono, San Luis Obispo county; Bell's 
Bridge, Shasta county; Munckton, Mono 
county; Felton, Santa Cruz county 
(sijecial) ; Rumburgh, Siskiyou county 
(special) ; Ballard's, Santa Barbaracounty ; 
Pleito, Monterey county; Potter Valley, 
Mendocino county; Ceres, Stanislaus 
county. The post office at Diamond Moun- 
tain, Nevada, has been discontinued, as no 
logner needed. 

A Liberal Spirit. — Hon. Thos. H. 
Selby, Mayor of San Francisco, has donated 
the whole of his salary as Mayor and as 
Funded Debt Commissioner — amounting 
to .1j;4,200 — to the charitable institutions of 
this city. 

Lime Water for Fowls. — Lime w.ater is 
most beneiicial for fowls. It is a preven- 
tive to many diseases, and assists the form- 
ation of bono and eggf^. Prepare as fol- 
lows : Pour over quicklime some water, 
and when the lime is slat^kened and settled, 
draw the clear water off'. 



.4 



[January 7, 1871: 



r 



[AD^'ERTIBEMEhT.] 

A NEW PAPER rOR 1871. 






A First Class Pacific States Agri- 
cultural and Home Journal. 

Will be issued weekly on Saturdays, com- 
mencing Jan. 7th, 1871, containing sixteen pag- 
es devoted to 

ABrlculturo, Hortloiilture, StocK 
na.l)!iin8;> T>oii»eMtlc licoiioniy. 
Home >£a.nMtactiires Me- 
chanics, Industries, etc. 

With an able and ample corps of editors, spe- 
cial contributors and con-espondents, we shall 
pubUsh a liberal variety of articles, entertain- 
ing as well as instructive, which will not only 
make the Kdral Press an able assistant to its 
patrons, but an attractive and welcome visitor 
to every reader in every intelligent 

Home Circle, 

in the Pacific States. And more than this, we 
shall 'reight its columns with fresh thoughts, 
and new ideas, which hastened across the con- 
titvnt by rail, shall awaken and quicken the 
zeal of the more staid and gradual moving cul- 
turists of the eastern and European States, to 
their 

Pleasure and Profit. 

We shall not only make a good paper for all hus- 
bandmen and homestead owners, (who now, more 
than ever require a knowledge of new discover- 
ies in science and mechanical improvements, ) 
but shall also render the journal a desideratum 
for those who contemplate becoming freehold- 
ers, and a large class of 

Mechanics, Teachers, Students, Business, 
Professional and Trades Men, 

Ise interests are more or less identical with 

Vessful farming, and the active develop- 

of our vast and rich resources. Few there 

male or female — who will not find pleasure 

ennoblement in the study of progressive 

ing and gardening. 

)nest, intelligent and coi-rect information 
be faithfully given, in behalf of, and urging 

,.\n improved Cultivation of the Soil ; 

,^reatcr Diversity of Products; 

.*tter Breeds of Stock; 
.Better Varieties of Fruits ; 
The Culture of New Products; 
Creation of New Home Industries; 
Adoption of Improved Implements; 
Higher and Hapi)ier Aims in Life, etc. 

Valuable and Timely Hints, 

will be given weekly to lessen the labors of the 
farm, the household and the shop, and add to 
the health, the wealth and the wisdom of every 
patron of industry. 

How to Farm in the Pacific 
States. 

As the conditions and circumstances of isoil 
and climate and seasons on this coast are so pe- 
culiar that many of the approved methods of 
eastern agriculture are not at all apphcable on 
our side of the Continent, — -special attention 
will be given to considering the need, extent and 
character of the modifications necessary. This 
will alone render the paper of great practical 
value to our home readers and more essential to 
them than all the distant publications oV)taina- 
ble, without such auxiUiary and modifying in- 
structions. 

The following are among the specialties upon 
which the Pacific Rubal Pkess will treat : 

Silk, Cotton and Sugar Beet Culture ; Nurseries, 
Orchards, Tropical and small Fruits ; Steam- 
plowing, seeding and harvesting for large 
tracts; Reclamation of swamp and un- 
productive lands ; Hill and mountain farm- 
ing; Grape growing; Fig, Rasin and Fruit 
drying; Irrigation; Lessons and Lectures on 
the chemistry of growing crops and on fer- 
tilizing lands; Practical Fai-mmg vs. Specu- 
lation; Taxation of unimproved lands; 
Railroads and improved transportation for 
crops and the better class of immigrants; 
Farmer's Clubs, lecttu-es and associations; 
Co-operation in farming, mechanism, man- 
ufacturing and other industries; Govern- 
ment lands for settlers whether sold by R. 
R. operators or the U. S. ; Reliable whole- 
sale and retail market reports ; Brief notices 
of Mechanical and Scientific Progress; 
Instructions for regular and farmer me- 
chanics; Household Reading; Health and 
domestic receipts; a sprinkling of sprightly 
reading; Life thoughts; Poetry, condensed 
stories, items of news, etc., will be given. 

A Plain and Simple Style 

Of writing will be our endeavor. Necessaiily 
dealing largely in researches for facts we believe 
it desirable to present them in an inviting shape 
and in so comprehensive language that our 
special journalism shall advance in popularity 
and common relish. 



iV'o edUoriala or selections of unchaste or doubt- 
ful influence; or lottery, muick or other disrep^iMtle 
ad\xrtise)nents, icill be admitted into its columns. 

Arrangement of Matter. 

Our reports of agricultural, horticultural and 
other fairs, lectures, farmers' chibs and social 
literary meetings [the improvement and in- 
crease of which we shall especially advocate] 
will be carefully prepared in a valuable form for 
preservation; and the matter of our entire col- 
umns will be so classified as to be convenient to 
readers of various minds and individual tastes 
for ready penisal and future reference. 

Interesting Illustrations of Pacific States 

and Eastern Inventions and Machinery, 

Fine Arts, Science, Fruits, Rare 

Stock and Natural Scenery, 

Of special or pecuUar interest to our readers 
will be pubUshed weekly in liberal variety. 
No pains or reasonable expense will be spared 
to furnish a 

Large and Kichly Pilled Journal 
Nicely printed on fine paper, which will favora- 
bly compare with the long established class 
journals of more populous fields and older com- 
munities. Although the latter have less oppor- 
tunities than new communities to be benefitted 
by printed information of discoveries. 

And Neighborly Experiences, 

the reading of agricultural newspapers and 
books is lately increasing with a rapidity 
quite astonishing, and with the most profitable 
results. 

We enter the field after a careful consider.\- 
tion and consultation with many of our leading 
agriculturists, with the strong conviction that 
such a journal on this coast is greatly needed 
and earnestly desired by the most prospectively 
flourishing and rapidly progressing community 
in the Union if not in the world. We know 
the task before us, — two of the proprietors and 
editors having experienced respectively 18 and 
13 years of successful journalism in this state. 
SUBSCRIPTION IN ADVANCE. 

One copy one year $4 00 

One copy six montbi< 2.25 

One copy three months 1.25 

Single copies 10 

CLUB RATES. 

Ten copies or more, first year, each $3.00 

[A free copy or preuiiuni sent to getter up of clab.] 

A select variety of advertisements only will be insert- 
ed. Circulated widely among the most thrifty of our 
population, the P. R. P. will be the cheapest and 
most effective medium for a largo range of first class 
advertisements in the Pacific states. 

Correspondence is respectfully sohcited from 
every worthy source. 

Local Canvassers Wanted for every town,- 
city and county. Special inducements oflered. 

Parties desiring to get up clubs or act as 
agents, will be furnished sample copies and pros- 
pectus free. 

OEWETf Sc Co., 
Publishers Patent Agents and Engravers, No. 
414 Clay st., San Francisco. Nov. 21, 1870. 

[Being also publishers of the Scientikic Pbess, we 
would say here that no change will be made in that 
paper except to improve It in its present character. 
Each journal will be published entirely distinct from 
the other.— D. & Co.] 



TREES AND PLANTS ! 



Trees for Silk and Trees for Shade. 




T am thinning' ont my MrLBEiuiY PLAyTATiONfi and 
will fcfil my HiirpluH trecK 

VERY CHEAP. 

1 j-ear old Mutticauleis lg20 i)er thousand. 

2 and 3 yv, old do from $25 to $35 according 
to size. 

2 to 3 yr old Alba and Moretti from 830 to 
$40. 
Liberal discount on large oKlers or to the trade. 

Shade Trees! 

The large Wbtte and Black MulWrry's are the best 
shade trees lu the State. I will sell well grown trees of 
these kinds from 12 to 20 feet high, at 2S and 60 cents 
each. 

Silk Worm Eggs and. Silk Manual Free 

to customers fur tref-s. Send your (jrclni-H to 
Ivl-tfr I. N. HOAG, Saoram«nto. 



NEW SEEDS AND PLANTS. 

WE (irrEB FOB SALE 

CHOICE SEEDS, BULBS AND PLANTS 

from Australia, .Japan and Sandwich Islands. Ramie, 
the celebrated China Grass. Vegetable, Orass and Flow- 
er Seeds; new and rare Plants, Fruit Trees etc., at the 
OLD STAND. •=^"Seud for Catalogue. '"^ 
£. E. MOORE, 425 'Waahlnrtou St., S. F. 
Ivl-lmi 




By the 100, 1000, or 
100,000, both at 

\VH0LEB.\LE OB KETAH-, 
AT LOWEST MARKET 

RATES. 

Fruits guaranteed tnie to name. My 
stock embraces all the leading fruits of 
the country from the Apple to the Straw- 
berry — including the 

ORANCtE, LEMON AND I.IME. 

Also all the leading and favorite 
SHADE AXD ORNAMENTAL TREES, 
SHRUBBERY, VINES AND PLANTS. 

MULBERRY TREES AND CUTTINGS, 
AND SILK WORM EGGS, ALSO THE 
Osage Orange Hedge Plant for fencing farms. Potent 
Grafting wax for top grafting, and the common Grafting 
Wax for top or root grafting. 

Send for Circulars, Catalogues, Printed Directions and 
Price List. 
Send 25 cts for Hoag's Treatise on Silk Culture. 

AddrcH KOBEKT At'II-I^IAMSOSr. 
Capital Nurseries, U St., bet. l.')th & 16th 

Sacramento Cal. 
1 am also a partner in the Tree yard of Savles & Wil- 
liamson on K St., bet. 8th & 9th streets, Sacramento. 
lvl-3mr 




SAN LORENZO NURSERYI 

Established in 1853. 





LOS GATOS NURSERY, 

On the Los Gstos Creek 2 miles south of San .lose. 
This new nursery now contains as tine an assortment 

— OF— 
FRUIT TREES, ORNAMENTAL TREES, FOREST 
TREES, NUT TREES, SHRUBS AND PLANTS, 
AMERICAN, EUROPEAN AND AUSTRAL- 
IAN EVERGREENS, AND 
PALM TREES I 

as any first class nursery in 
the State of California with 
this advantage, viz: we have 
no old scrubby stock Ui get 
rid of. Every care has been 
taken to secure 

Reliable Standard Sorts, 

AND 

BEST VARIETIES; 

Proper Training, and "VlKoroua Growth! 

We invite Ncbsertmen, Dealers and Planters, to 
examine our 

STOCK AND PRICES. 

Our large and splendid collection of 

NUT TREES, 

we deem worthy of special mention. These include 
2000 Chestnuts, 1, 2 and 3 years old. 5000 Pecan Nut, 1 
2 and 3 years old; Wood very valuable for timber. But- 
ternut, 1 and 2 years old. States Black Walnut, 1 and 2 
years old. California Black Walnut, 1, 2 and 3 years old. 
Hickory Nut. English Walnut, l.and 2 years old. 
Sweet Almond. Soft Shell Almond. Paper Shell Al. 
mond, etc. 
Orders promptly attended to. Address 

SYLVESTER XEDTHALL, 

Proprietor I..oh Gutos Narscx'y, San tJose. 

Ivl-4iu3m 



SHADE AND ORNAMENTAL 

T JbC M*l E* ^5 
Orax>e Vines and. Outtlngs- 

WE OFFER A LABOE LOT OF THE 

"White Mulberry, (Morus Alba^ 

Of euitable Bize for ehade trees. 

The Mulberry is the moKt desirable 
tree to be had for shade or Ornament, 
and as rapid growera au the Locust. 
They are long lived and will flouriKh 
on any Boil where other trees will grow, and will live 
in overflowed land as well an the C%")ttonwood or Willow, 
and can be used for Silk business if desired and are 
also valuable for timber. 



THE ELM, ASH AND OSAGE ORANGE, 

All very desirable Trees for shade and ornament. 
ALSO, 




Grape Roots and Cuttings. 



Of all tho choice varieties of Foreign and California, or 
Mission. Mulberry trees can be supplied by the lOO or 
1000 to the trade at low prices. 

•yAll orders must be accompanied with the cash. '^51 

Direct to A. P. SMITH, 

lvl-lin3mr Smith's Oardens, Sacramento. 



Fruit and Ornamental 



rss i%> £^ jtij {$* 



'We offer this Seaaon, 1870 and 1871, 

A very large and superior stock of trees, etc., of best se- 
lected varieties of everything usually produced in well 
kept nurseries. Our trees are grown on good alluvial 
soil, and are unsurpassed for thrifty growth ot root and 
stock, and are reliable as to name on lal)elH. Orders re- 
ceived by Mall or Express, will be strictly attended to, 
and PACKINCJ done so as to INSURE A SAFE TRANSIT 
to any distance. 

Dealers and Agents allowed favorable terms. 

Priced Catalogues furnished on application. 

aOHN ROCK, Naraerrman, 
17v24'3m 8an dole, Calliurnla. 



We are pre- \^ ./^'nvt^C P^rts of the Pa- 

pared to fur- /^I^S^fcl^ u*^^^^i ''**^*'' States. All 
nishaoENEBAL l^^ffl|K\\L ^"~- '' trees carefully 
ASSORTMENT o( ^?*^/^M j^**^;^ . labeled anil 
Fruit and Shade iS(\r'j iljnie^ K^- packed in the 
Trees at as low 'i O^^mSDQB^^^X best possible 
rates as they S^ VB^SplSL.^ manner for 
can be sold at ntisJfipR^^SS^ transportation, 
any reliable OhiI^^hPDS^^ ^ liberal dis 
Nursery in Cal- J^Wi ^fl t MfW ^ ^^ count will be 
ifomia. ^^^{^^^w9fr^ ipade on largi; 

OrersBolie- r^t VrPVr^i orders. For fiir- 

ited from all ' ''' ^^ tiier particu- 

lars send for catalogue and price list. 

J. LEWELLING & SON, 

lvl-3mr San Lorenzo, Alemeda Co., CaL 




"W. B. WEST, 

NURSERYMAN AND FLORIST, 

Evergreens, Fruit Trees, 

— AND — 

GREENHOUSE PLANTS. 

wine and Table 6rui>e* a Speciality. 

Nursery and Greenhouses : one mile North of the Asy- 
lum, fefjtoolcton. 
15v21-4m. 

AMERICAN SEED STORE ! 

W. R. STRONG, 

8A.CRAMKNTO, CAI.IFORXIA. 

A new and complete supply 



FRESH SEEDS OF ALL 
VARIETIES FOR THE 
FARM AND GARDEN, 
ADAPTED TO THE PA- 
CIFIC COAST. 

All ovir seeds are war- 
ranted good and true to 
name, and are sold at low- 
est rates both at wholf-Salk 
.vND RETAIL. A liberal re- 
duction to the trade and 
those buying in large quanties. We are determined to 

GIVF. SATISFACTION TO ALL OORCUSTOMEBS. 
Among our stock will be found all valiuible kinds of 
Garden, Field, Flower, Herb and Tree Seed. Also 30.0fK) 
lbs. Alfalfa, of Califoniiagrowth. Itcdand White Clove/. 
Timothy, Red Top, Blue Grass direct from producers in 
Kentucky, &c., kc. 

The celebrated Ramndell Xorwn y Out* 

)S5 per BuHkel. 

r.arly Rose and other choice varieties of Potatoes, kc. 

All orders filled with dispatch and all Seeds carefully 

packed and sent or shipped as directed. Catalogues or 

circulars sent on application free of charge. Address 

W.R. STRONG, 

lvl-3mr Sacramento Csl. 



PURPLE POPPY, 

[Amberslcr of Clermont.] 

Just received and for sale by 





C L. KELlLiOGG. 

FIVE DOLLARS PER POtND. 

New York Seed Warehouse, 

Xo. 4Sr Sanaome St., San Francl«co, 

Ivl' 



GEO. F. SILVESTER. 

Seedsman, 

Importer and Dealer in all kinds of Vegp- 

ta1)le. Flower, Field, Fruit & Tree Seeds, 

Garden Tools, Plants, Trees, &c. 

No »t7 Washington St., bet. Battery and Front, 8.\N 
FRANCISCO. 



Farmers, Ranchmen and Land 
Owners, 

TAKE NOTICE ! 

Having a large quantity of fine large two year old 

MULBERRY TREES 

on hand more than for my own use. I will sell on satis- 
factory terms as to price and time of payment. The 
trees are of a 

Good Thrifty Growth, 

and well adapted for shade or ornamental pnrposeB or 
for feeding worms. 

Address, 

"WU. M. HAYBTIE, 
Ivl'Smr Sacramento. 



WM. M. LTO». 



CBAS. C. DAKNE". 



LYON & BARNES, 

Snccessors to LtoN fc Sow, dealers in Produce Vegeta- 
bles, B utter, Eggs, Green and Dried Fruits, Cheese , 
Poultry, Honey, Beans, etc., etc. 
iTl-amr No. 21 J Street Sacramento, 



JanuarW^ 




g^ 



15 



^. -We have received 
hers of the San Fran- 
New i ZA^ prospectus of the 
from Dt^f' agricultural paper to 
Cisco ^^ commencing January 7th. 



'^adjio . 



Jture, horticulture, domes 
beZh.y all matters pertaining to 
It iWM %ts of California. We un- 
tie mn/Hoag, of Yolo County, and 
the ir/y of the State Agricultural 
derswne of the editors and will do 
fora/ it generally acceptable to the 
SocaThere is a great opening for a 

J 13 state of the character mentioned 
and ability in the editorial depart- 
rnenlo Dally Union, Dec. 16. 
:c RuKAL Press.— We have receiv- 
jple copy of this new publication from 
jheoi the San Francisco Scientific Press 

of ^ /Wey & Co. , . Ti. - fit 

We are much pleased with it. it is a nrst 
class agricultural paper and is bound to have a 
good circulation in the state. 

It is in quarto form, and printed on good 
paper and type. . , i.i. 

It is filled with good and appropriate matter, 
and not spoiled with personal puffs, published 
for personal considerations. 

The illustrations are appropriate and in good 

We look upon this journal as one which will 
fairly represent the industrial interests of Cah- 
fornia. — Sacramento Union, Dec. 26. 



A New AoRictrLTUEAL Paper.— We were call- 
ed upon this week by Mr. C. T. Jennings, who 
is canvassing this county on behalf of the new 
agiicultural paper to be published by Messrs. 
Dewey & Co., the publishers of the San Fran- 
cisco Scientific Press. 

The new paper is designed to meet a want 
which is much felt by all intelligent agricultur- 
ists of this Coast, where the conditions of cli- 
mate and soil are so unlike those of the Eastern 
States and the old world, that but limited appli- 
cation of experience gained there is of value 
here; and we very much need a medium such 
as a reliable and judiciously conducted agricul- 
tural journal may afford for exchanging and im- 
parting information of observations and experi- 
ences which pertain to our own circumstances. 

From personal knowledge of the character 
and resources of the jniblishers, and of the as- 
sistance to be employed, we believe the Pacific 
Rural Press, the first number of which is to be 
issued on the 7th of January, will prove an in- 
teresting and useful paper to those employed in 
the rural industries.— C'onfm Costa Gazette. 

Pacific Rural Press.— Dewey & Co., of the 
Scientific Press, have just issued a sixteen-page 
paper, quarto form, bearing the foregoing title. 
It is to be devoted to the interests of agricul- 
ture, and will be freely illustrated. The speci- 
men number is creditable. The publishers say, 
in a circular accompanying the paper : 

We herewith present to your notice a copy of 
the Pacific Rural Press, the pubhcation of 
which we undertake after well testing the wants 
of the Pacific Coast farmers and ruralists by 
the publication of a Farming Edition of the 
Scientific Press. We have not only learned that 
there is a demand for a first-class home agiicul- 
tural paper, but a disposition to support a good 
one. We are not only well situated for the un- 
dertaking, but have also the means and disposi- 
tion to make it a success, and shall employ the 
Isest writers in every department, and furnish 
s)iperior engravings for illustrations and em- 
bellishments. 

We wish it success.- .§. F. Call, Dec. 24. 

A Great Objection Removed.— A very serious objec- 
tion to persons insuring their lives has been the fact 
that in most all o( the Companies doing basiness in the 
United States, the Policies have it written plainly there- 
in (which is the real contract with the insured) that if 
the Premium is not paid on or before the day the same 
shall fall due, that the Policy and all premiums paid 
thereon shall be forfeited to the company. We take 
pleasure in stating that there is one company doing 
business on this coast that is governed by laws that 
protect the Policy holders in case of their failing to pay. 
This law provides that in case of non-payment of Pre- 
mium, the Policy shall be continued in force for 
the full amo\mt of the insurance so long as their re- 
mains any surrender value thereon. The great benefits 
of this law have been practically shown on this coast 
by the New Enoi.and Mutual Life Insurance Co., of 
Boston. This Company has paid six losses on this coast 
under this law amounting to nearly $30,000; had these 
Policies been in any other company the heirs of the 
insured would not have received one dollar. The New 
England Mutual Life Insurance Co., of Boston is 
the only Co. , on this coast governed by this law. Eveh- 
soN & MiDDLEMiss, of San Francisco are the General 
Agents. 



Success in Business. — Success in the business world 
usually depend upon being thoroughly prepared for its 
duties. Young men! if you would succeed in your busi- 
ness career, secure a good practical business education. 
This question being settled, the next is where to go. 
Why, go to the best, of course. Go to Hkald's Busi- 
ness CoLLEOE, located im the new College Building, 24, 
Post Street, San Francisco. This is the only school up- 
on the Pacific Coast where young men can depend upon 
being thoroughly fitted for Bankers, Merchants, Clerks, 
and Book-keepers. This school is connected with the 
"International Business College Association" or Bryant 
k Stratton chain. Its scholarships are good for tuition 
in any of the forty colleges, located in all the leading 
commercial cities of the United States and Canada. 
There are many interesting features about the school 
which can not be discussed here. Call at the College 
and examine its workings. If unable, send for circu- 
luar, and Heald's College Journal, which will be sent 
free upon application. Address, E. P. Heald, Presi- 
dent, business College, San Francisco, Cal. Ivl-Smsnr 



Chicken Ranch for Sale. 

A Chicken Ranch within the city, 
Four Roomed llouae and Ontblldlnffs 

and stock of Poultry, can be obtained forthe sum of $C0O. 
Ground rent low; extent about two acres; atfording an 
excellent opportunity for commencing a profitable busi- 
ness. For particulars apply on the premises on Potrero 
Avenue between 15th & 16th St., or by letter addressed 
••8" ikt the office of this paper. 




NOVELTY MILL AND GRAIN SEPARATOR. 

THE und ^rsigned hav- 
ing purchased of the Pa- 
tentees, WIKTS & SWIFT, 
of Hudson. Michigan, 
their right to this mill. 
Patented June 22d, 1869, 
for California, Oregon, 
Washington Territory, 
Montana, Utah, New 
Mexico and Arizona, wish 
es to call the attention of 
Farmfrs, Millers and 
Grain Dealers to one of 
THE GREATEST IM 
PR0VEMENT8 OF THE 
AGE for cleaningand Sep 
arating grain. While it 
combines all the essential 
qualities of a first-class 
Fanning Mill, it also fai 
excels anything that hah 
ever been invented ftr 
the separation of grain 
It has been thoroughly 
tested on all the diflfei 
ent kinds ol mixed grain 
separating all the differ 
ent seeds in almost a mag 
ical manUT, placing them 
in their different compart 
ments in the mill arranged 
for their reception, at the 
same time taking out all 
the Mustard, Grass Seed, 
Barley and Oals, and mak 
ing two distinct quali- 
ties of wheat if desired, thereby selecting supti lor, Urge plump and ptrfec t kernels for Seed Wheat, and all the 
small and cut kernals, such as merchantable wheat, is deposited in another compartment. By the use of this 
Mdl a great quantity of wheat usually sown that has been cleaned in the common mills wiU be saved to the 
farmer, as the cut or shrunken kernals will never germanate. 

The above mentioned Novelty Mill is the only mill known to possess an these superior qualifications, and was 
exhibited and tested at the last Michigan State Fair held at -Jackson, Michigan, September 21, 22, and 23, 18<J9, and 
bore away the palm over some thirty other different mills from all parts of the United States, including the fa. 
mousDicky Mill of Racine, Wisconsin. All who have witnessed here the operations of the NOVELTY MILL, de- 
clare it perfection, and the most beneficial invention to the Farmers, Millers, and Grain Dealers ever introduced 
on the Pacific Coast. The farmers in Santa Clara County, are loud in its praise, and also in other parts of the 
State where it is being introduced. No. 1 Mill, complete, is capable of cleaning 25 tons of grain per day; No. 2 
Mill 15 tons; No. 3. Mill, 8 tons. A large number of recommendations and certificates of the practical working 
ot the mill will be furnished, Circulars containing references sent free by mail. N. B. Town, County, or State 
Rights for sale on favorable terms. For further particulars apply to 

llv21-3m K. STONE. 488 Rattery street. Snn Francloco. 



Oouthett's Patent Double Motiwi. 

D^SH CHURN'. 

Making Butter in from 6 to 10 Minutes. 
The only really useful and practical 

Ever Offered to the Public. 



The old style of DASHER CHURN always ha« the 
preference over all others, and with this simple and 



Crandall Patent Spring Bed, 

Received Premium for best Spring Bed at the State 
Fair and was on exhibition at all of the District Fairs 
n this State. 

IT EXCELS 



I.lBhtne««, Cleunllncin, 

Eluaticlty and Durability, 

Any other Spring Bed Ever Invented. 

Being without upholstery in can be aired at pleasnre; 
while the springs being in couplets are self-supporting, 
thus dispensing with cords, twine, etc., and from the 
peculiar construction of the various parts it is impossi- 
ble for the bed to get out of order. 

Manufactory— 123 Front street, near corner of M, 
Sacramento. 

COOf.EY «fe OKEEV, Proprietor*. , 



CHOICE POULTRY. 

I.lBht Bruhmas and White I.eithorn'8, 

A few trios for sale. Also 3 very choice young 
HOUDON COCKS. 

Eo es 

for hatching from the 
following Breeds: 

Light Brahmas, 

Dark Brahmas, 

Houdan, Bearded, 

Buff Cochins, 

Bl'k African Bantams, 

White Leghorns, 

Aylesbury Ducks. 

KICHOlrS^ A WII.I.AK1>, 

Importers and Breeders of Choice Poultry. 
25v21-3m-lamin8 Brooklyn, Alameda Co. 




Me aim/ A^///^ U//^^r-^^ 

ALL POLICIES IN THE 







yvo// /■o/?/'£/r^/f£ I A y/. 



s/i/y r/f/f/vc/j'co. 




practical attachment, now stands without a biv 
At the East it is rapidly taking the place of the 

Thermometer and Cylinder Churn, 

and its sales are enormous. Having bought the 
Ptiglltfor tills Coast, 

we are now prepared to furnish either large or small 

CHURNS AND CASTINGS 

as may be desired. We manufacture six different sizes 
of churns and the small casting can be applied to the 
three smaller sizes, and the large one with the frame 
and balance wheel to the three larger ones. 



lvl-3mr 



BAKER & HAMILTON, 

IMPORTEBS AND DEALEKS IN 




IMPI.EMEXT8 AND MACHINES, PORTA- 
BLE STEAM ENOINES, HAKB WAKE. 

Would call the attention of Farmers and Dealers in Ag- 
ricultural Implements to their very extensive stock for 
the trade of 1870-1871, 

CONSISTING OF 

Plows, Harrows, Cultl-vatorg, Horse Hoes, 
QauK Plows, Seed Sowers, Buckeye drain 
Brills, Hill's Cal. Sowers, Hay Cot- 
ters, Seed Cleaners, Orlst Mills, 
Barley Mills, Cider Mills, Fan 
Mills, Qrape Crushers, Mow- 
ers, Reapers, Headers, Header Wagons, Threshers, 
Wheeled Rakes, Hay Presses, Rubber Belting, Leather 
Belting, Baling Wire, Baling Rope, Nails, Shovels, Bolts 
Rivets, etc., etc. Orders by mail or Express will re- 
ceive prompt attention. BAKER & HAMILTON, 
Nos' 9, 11, 13, and 15, J street, Sacramento, 
lvl-3mr Nob. 17 & 19 Front St., San Francisco. 



S. N. PUTNAM, 

622 DConteomery Street, San Francisco. 

Dealer in Improved and unimproved Farms, Grazing 
and Timber lands. Particular attention given to pro- 
curing small Farms and Homesteads for purchasers, 
claims for pre-emptors &c.,in every part of the State. 
lYl-3mr 



THE NEW TYPE 

ON WHICH 

THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 

is printed, is from the 

OALirOENIA TYPE FOUNDRY, 

405 and 407 Sansome St. 

GEO. L. FATJXKNER, Agent. 

lvl-3minr 



McLURES PATENT CHURN. 

Patented May 17, 1870. 

Has taken the premium at all the State Fairs East of 
the Rocky Mountains. 

The Greatest Labor Saving Machine of the Age. 

^^^ Warranted to make Butter in from Three 
to Five Minutes.'"&& 

It is self-cleaning, requires no scrubbing. 

100 JUST EEOEIVED. 

For sale by J. L. HUNT, 

lvl-2in6mr Cor. Battery and Washington sts. 



1000 Farms in Los Angeles Co. 

For Cotton, Wheat, Com, Grapes, Oranges etc. The 
"Abel Stearns Rancho," 200 square miles in sections, 
quarter sections, etc., on Governiucnt system of survey, 
forming blocks one mile square, with road on each side, 
fronting on the ocean; the Railroad to San Francisco to 
pass through them ; the unsold portif)ns s\ibdivided, for 
sale on long credit, or rent. The famous Anaheim is on 
this tract. For Maps, Circulars, etc., apply to B. F. 
NORTHAM, 432 Montgomery St., San Francisco, or 
TIMO. LYNCH, at Anahuim and Lob Angeles. lvl-3mr 




WE CHALLENGE COMPETITION 



in this churn and invite any one needing a oooi> churn 
to examine and try this one before purchasing elsewheri'. 
The gearing is all simple, leaving nothing to get out 
of order; the dasher is easily removed by simply 
opening or removing the guide holding It in its place, 
leav ing the churn 

ENTIRELY CLEAR OF ANY OBSTACLE. 

In fact. It is the only churn that ever has been oflered 

which IS ENTIRELV 



FREE PROM AUY OBJECTION, 



and wc olTer it as the 



Best Churn in Existence. 

No.| 1 Churn holds 2 gallons; 



2 


do 


do 3 


do 


it 


do 


do 6 


do 


i 


do 


do 8 


do 


5 


do 


do 13 


do 


6 


do 


do 22 


do 



E. K. how: 




Nob. 118, 120 and 122 



\ 



16 



-^^■.; ^AaigIa:g ^l plu^ 



City P\i^ket ^Epoi\T. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE AT WHOLESALE. 

San Fkancisco, Thiirs., r. M., Jan. 5th. 

FLOUR— Is still ia good demand for ex- 
port; while the demand for local trade con- 
tinues fair. We note an advance in prices 
from last ipiotations. Standard Oregon brands 
are qnotalile at s^ll. .''.()(<*(!. (12%; local brands— 
siipertine, !*r,.:!7C((r>.r,2j5: extra $l!.ri(l((»'0.(>'2;^. 

WHEAT— Has been in })etter demand, dnring 
the past week, and at a slight advance, especi- 
ally for choice shipping goods. Sales are re- 
ported to the amount of ;$(I,U()() sacks, at cniTent 
prices for shipping and miUing. Wc quote the 
range of all kinds at $1.05(ac2.55; good to choice 
shipping, $-2.1o(ai2.22; choice milling, $2.22(5 
2.25. Liverpool quotations came through to 
day at lis 5d. New York rates remain un- 
changed— $1.62@l.fi5 per bwshel. 

Friedlander's (xrain Keport gives the exports 
of Wheat aud Flour from San Francisco, for the 
six months ending December 31st, at the equiv- 
alent of lfJ2,00<) tons Wheat, against 209,000 for 
the same time in 18()i}. The amount available 
for export on the 1st instant was 70,000 tons, 
which would raise the result for the year to 
232,000 tons, against 300,000 tons for the pre- 
vious crop year. The amount of Wheat aud 
Flour to come from Oregon in given at 20,000 
tons. 

B.VIILEY— Is still in fair demand, and prices 
have advanced somewhat during the week. 
We quote $1.32(^1. -15, from fail' to choice. 

OATS — We note an improved demand for oats. 
Fair to good may be quoted at $1.37@1.60, at 
which prices soiue 2,000 sacks have changed 
hands. 

CORN— May be quoted at $1.55@1.70 for 
good yellow. 

BUCKWHEAT— Nominal at $2.50@3 from 
the wharf. 

RYE— In limited demand. The latest sale is 
reported at $2.12^^. 

FEED— Remains with but little change. We 
quote Hay a httle firmer at Sll@15 from fair to 
choice; Straw, $7@t); Bban, $28@30; Mid- 
dlings, $35@40 per ton; Oil Cake Meal 
$28.00. 

HONEY— In good demand at the following 
rates: Los Angeles, 5-gall cans, $12@16, and 
Potter's, 2 Ih do, at $4 ^ dozen. 

POTATOES— Demand light and stock large. 
We quote common $1.25(aJ,1.35. 

HOPS— The crop of 18G'J dull of sale at 5@8c. 
This year's crop is still quotable at 10@r2J^c. 

HIDES— We (juote Dry, slaughter's stock, 
17(«U9 c; Salted ; 8(«'Jc! Sales during the 
week 2302 Cal. dry. 

WOOL — Sales are reported of 13,000 pounds 
choice northern fall clip at lOc per lb. We 
quote good shipjiing, at 15(7»17;,^c; very choice, 
18%c; burrv, U>(a'l-2%; sUghtly do, 13@14c. 

TALLOW— Quotable at 7%@8>^c; the latter 
an extreme figure. 

SEEDS — California Mustard, none in the 
market; Flax 3(V/i3;^c., Canary, 7(» 8c. 

BEANS — Quiet at the following rates. Bayo 
at $2.25(«2.50; butter, $2.25: small white i)iuk 
and red $1.87^/2.00 per 100 pounds. 

FRESH MEAT— Tha market is firm and 
]n-ices show an advance, We quote prices from 
slaughterers to dealers : 

BEEF — American, 1st quality, 10(a»llc 'i^ 9). 
Do 2d do 9(ai0c '^ B.. 

Do 3d do 7((^ 8c li »j. 

VEAL— From 8(a( 12c. 

MUTTON— Steadv at 9@10c. 1^ ft>. 

LAMli— 10@,llc. "0 lb. 

PORK— Undressed at 5Ji@63^c; dressed, 
8<a'8Vic. '^ lb. 

POULTRY, ETC.— The market is well stocked, 
and prices little changed. Y'oung Chickens, $o(«,' 
6; Hens $7@7.50; Roosters, $()(a7.00: Ducks, 
tame, $8@9 ^ doz; do wild, $l(w3.00 "^ doz; 
geese, tame;.$2@$2.50 '^ pair; wild $1.75(rt3 J) 
doz; tiime Turkeys, 16 cents "^ lb; Hare, 1..50 
(5'3 ^, doz; Doves, .50c do; Quail, $1.25<« 1.50; 
Snipe, 75c do.; do English, $1.50 do. Venison, 
8(a).ltc "fitb. 

DAIRY PRODUCTS— Rule lower; California 
Butter, Fresh, in rolls, 40@50c; orchn- 
ary, 32@40c; firkin, 35@42c ^ lb. Cheese is in 
fair supply — California, new, 12(a/15c., East- 
ern, 17c. Eggs, California fresh 40(a;45c; 
Oregon, 37%@40c. CaUfomia Lard, 11-lb 
tins, 12(S'13%c; Oregon, 13J^@14J^c, accord- 
ing to package. 

FRUITS — Wo quote the jobbing rates for 
green fruits as follows: Apples, $l(gl.75; 
Pears, $1@3.50 "p!, .50-lb box; Malaga Lemons, 
$4 ^ 100; Limes, 15 '^, M; Oranges, $50 "^ M. 

CASE GOODS— -In 2 lb cans, per doz.. Apri- 
cots, $4; Apples, $2.50; Blackberries, $4; Ger- 
man Prunes, $4; Grapes, $4; Peach, table, $4; 
Peach, pie, $3; Pie, assorted, $3; Plum, table, 
$3,-50; Plum, pie, $3; Pears, $3.75; Quince, 
$3.50; Tomatoes, $'2; Tal)le, assorted, $3.75. 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS —Busi- 
ness is this department quit, owing to the con- 
tinued dry weather. 

BAGS AND BAGGING— Are in moderate 
request only, and will not be until the approach 
of the coming season. We quote wool bags at 
50Ca}52%c. Oat Sacks 23x40, 12%c; 28x35, 18c; 
Potato Gunnies, 24J'i(n),25c.; imitation Dondecs, 
19(a'20e. Standard Imilaps, ly^c. 

BUILDIN<J AND FENCING MATERIALS— 

'•1 good demand, aud prices are reported firm. 

•lote wholesale rates to dealers: Redwood 

' $18; do Siding, $22.50; do Surfaced, 

"ickets, $30; Oregon Rough, $17; 

■'7; do Fencing, $18; Laths, 



$3(«,3.25, and Redwood Shingles, $2.75 "^ M. 

DRIED FRUITS -In moderate request. We 
quote the market as follows: Cal. Dried Apples, 
ay^c; Oregon do, (i'^c; Languedoc Almonds; 
25c; Figs, Smyrna, 1.5(o'20c; Prunes, Hungarian, 
l(i@17c, for "old and new respectively, 1^ lb; 
Raisins, layer, $3.50@4-75; Currants, Zante, 
15@17c, for old and new; Citron, 50c. 

PROVISIONS— The stocks of all kinds of 
Cured Meats are in fair sujiply, and a good de- 
mand continues to exist. We quote jobbing 
rates as follows; Hams, Cahfornia, atl3(n]13%c; 
Oregon do, 16J;5Cail7c; Bacon, California, 15@ 
15J^c; Oregon do, 16%(n;17c; Lard, CaUfomia, 
12%@13)4e; Oregon do, in kegs, Vi%(a,A3]aC 

Leather Market Report. 

[CoiTected weekly by Dollivcr & Bro.. No. 109. Post st.] 
San Francisco, Thin-sday, Jan. 5. 

Sole Leather. — The demand is good and 
the stock on hand light, on account of heavy 
shipments to the east. Prices rule firm. We 
quote : 

City Tanned 26 ®29 

Santa CruE 26 @31 

Country 25 @28 

Calf and Kip Skins. — French stocks con- 
tinue scarce and high on account of the lack 
of exjiortation from French ports which has al- 
most entirely ceased. We quote: 

Best French Calf Skiue, 1ft doz 75 00®100 00 

Common Frcuih Calf Skins, ^ doz 35 00® 75 00 

French Kips. |» Ih 1 OfKa) 1 .W 

California Kip. Tfi doz 60 00(g> 80 00 

Caiifurniii Calf, li« Ih 1 00t4 125 

Eastern Wheel Stuffed Calf, ^ Ih 80w 100 

Kastern Bench Stuffed Calf, i^ Ih 1 10® 1 25 

Sheip RoanH for topping, all colors, ¥ doz 8 5()((J l:i 00 

Sheep Koans for liuingB, yt doz 5 50(q» 10 50 

California KuHset Sheep Linings 1 75(g> 5 50 

UAUNESS LEATHER, "# lb 30® . 37 

Fair Bridle, ¥ ft 3;i(a> 40 

Skirting, %* doz 4 50(g> 4 75 

Welt Leather, i» side 30 00(g> 50 00 

Buff Leather, ^ toot 2j@ 26 



List of Societies aud Officers. 



state Agricultural Society.— Okkicfrs; Presi- 
dent, Chas. F. Rled. liraiton. Yolo County. Uinetors: 
H. M. Larue, Sacramentu; H. K, Covev, San l"i'ancisc<i; 

B. S. Carey, Yolo; C. T. Wheeler, Sacramento; Edgar 
Mills, Sacramento: Robert Hamilton, Sacramento Wil- 
liam lilanding, San ITauciBco; E. J. Lewis, Tehama; 
William P. C<ilenian, Siuramento. Otticers of the Board. 
Secretary, Robert Beck, S:uriiniento; Tnasurj-r K. T. 
Brown, Sacramento. 

San Joaquin Valley Ag-'l. Society.— Officers; 
President, .1. K. Koak; Vice PnsidcutK.lieo. S. Ladrl, 
John Tnohy; Secretary; H. T. Compton; Directors, .lames 

C. Oage, George West. 

Upper Sacramento Agricultural Society.-Oi-- 

FICEKS-Prebident. Harmiin liii> ; S. . r.tary. K. Hallet. 

Bay District Horticultural Society, of Cal., 

S. F.- Officers: H. N. Boluud. r, Prest.; E. L. Reiiuer, 
V. P.; i\ A. WiUer, ^;<c.; R. T\irubull, C. Schumau aud 
F. A. Uering, Trui^tees. • 

Contra Costa Co. Agricultural Society.— Of- 
FiCKiis: Geo. P. Lou. ks. Prest., . acli. co; Henry shuey, 
V. P.. Lafayette; li. R Brock. Sec. Martinez; S. W John- 
son, Treasurer, Pacheco; G. W. Bryant, K. G. Davis, 
i Directors, Pacheco. 

Santa Clara Valley Ar. Society.— Officebs; 

President, William C. Williamson; Viie Pnsideuts, Cole, 
man Youugcr, Cary P< i Ijles; Treasurer, N. Schalknberg- 
er; Secretary, Tyler Beach; Directors, D.J.Porter, H. 
W. Scales. 



Notes of Te-wel theough Arizona. — 
This intere.sting narrative, originally pub- 
lished in weekly instalments in the Ari- 
zona Miner, bus been reprinted in pam- 
phlet form, and comes to US with the compli- 
ments of the author, Mr. J. H. Marion. 
It is an account of a trip through the ter- 
ritory made by Gen. Stonoman's party last 
Fall, and is a valuable addition to the lit- 
erature of, and about, Arizona. 

Coal. — The Clear Lake Courier, of De- 
cember 24:th, reports the discovery of a 
coal mine, seven miles northwest of Lake- 
port, in the neighborhood of Ripley springs. 

Coi/OEADO Shipments.— The aggregate 
shipments of gold and silver for the year 
ending December 31, 1870, are reported as 
amounting to over five million dollars. 



Commence Now 

And patronize your home agricultural 
paper before all others. AVe are determined 
to make a good paper, and one that will 
not only be jirofitable to farmers alone, but 
to their entire households — in fact, a favor- 
ite at every Pacific States' hearthstone. 
We neeil your encouragement more than 
ever at the start. Subscribe at once, and 
get uj) clubs as rapidly as possible if you 
believe in benefitting your neighbors. 




Patents Obtained Promptly 
Caveats Filed E.xpeditiously. 
Patent Keissues Taken Out. 
Patents Secured in Foreign Lands. 
Assignments Made aud Recorded in Legal Form. 
Copies of Patents and Assignments Procured. 
Examinations of Patents made here and at 

Washington. 
Examinations made of Assignments Recorded 

in Washington. 
Examinations Ordered and Reported by Tele- 

OBAPH. 

Rejected Cases taken up and Patents Obtained. 

Interferences Prosecuted. 

Opinions Rendered regarding the Validity of 
1 atents and AssignmentR. 

Every Legitimate Branch of Patent Agency Bus- 
iness promptly and thoroughly conducted. 
Illustkated Circulaks Fkeb. 

r>EWEY Jk, CO., 

Publishers and Patent Agents, No. 414 Clay street 
below Sansome.San Francisco. 



Send Tia Comnmnicaticns.— They will be re 
Bpected. If you have not time or the experience to 
wnte hnished articles, send us fa»'ts brief and plain. 
We will take care of them. Remember that writers im- 
prove themselves with others by use of thn pen . Ofli- 
cere of societies, clubs and meetings, please report. 



Our Printed Mail List uotities subscribers when 
their term expires, the last figures on the lab< 1 signify- 
ing the year. We wish to be notified at once if any er- 
rors occui' in names or dates. 



Thursday Noon our last forms go to press. Com- 
munications should be received a week in advance and 
advertisements as early in the week as possible. 



Our GeDernI A^ent ul 8uci-uniento. 

Mr. I. X. HoAO, at the office of the State Agricultural 
Society, in the Pavilion, comer of Fourth and M streets, 
in the capital city, is our duly authorized agent for re- 
ceiving subscriptions, advertisements, and receipting 
for the same. 
Mr. S. H. Ilerrlni;, 

Our valuable agricultural correspondent during the 
past year, will continue to travel, aud will report lor the 
Pacific Rukal Pkf.ss. 
Enntrrn TravelllnK Arcnt. 

Wm. H MumiAX, our active and valuable agent and cor- 
resijondeut. is now en his way Ijist, and will look after 
the interests of our papers in the Western and Eastern 
States. 
t. P. McCarty, 

Is our live California travelling agent and corres- 
pondent. 



The Prospectus of the Pa- 

CLFic Rural Pkess will be found on page 
13, to which we would call the attention of 
those who are not already subscribers, and 
those who are •willing to act as agents or 
get Ul) clubs. We ask only for a trial of 
our paper, but would urge the fact that 
active friendship to our enterprise is worth 
more at the start than at any other period. 
Speak a good word for it to others. 



New Advertisements. 



JN'o quack, indelicate or othfr disrepnlahle notices 
will he accepted. All adveiiisemcnts in th is piiper 
appear in our monthly edition and buuml vui- 
nmes of the Pncifir Jinral Press for Rnilnxitl 
Depots, Steamboats, lUttels, and other free re(td- 
im/ rooms. 



The Annual Hfeetlng ol the Str-te Agricultural Society 
for the election of olBcers (or the ensuing year and for 
the transaction of such 'other business as may be 
necessary will be held at the Society's rooms in the Pa- 
vilion, comer 6 .-ind M Streets, Sacramento, on the 2Tth 
of January 1871, at 10 o'clock A. M. A full attendance 
of members is desired. 

CHAS. F. BEED.PnSt. 
BoBi. Beck, Secretary. 
Ivl-tdr 



TEAM WANTED TO PUBOHASE. 

A four or six hnrsp U am is wanted by tho adyertisor 
with or without Wagon or gang plow. Itequired to be 
delivered at Gilroy, WatBonvilli', KalinaK, or the vieiuity 
of those places. A party winhliig to wU a team, etc., can 
hear of a piirehawr by seuding a letter addressed B Ilr- 
RAL Press, coutaiuing price and other particularH. 



HERING'S NURSERY, 

OAXLAIfS, 

Comer of Delger St. and Telegraph Av. 

A choice collection of the most beautiful 
trees, shrubs, plants etc., to ho found in 
California, suitable for general culture. 
Evergreen Trees, best standard sorts and 
fancy varieties; IneitUious and Evirgreeu 
Shnibery; Golden ••ukI Criuison leafed, aud 
double tloweriiig (i<raiiiums. 

- ^ Elegant Fuschias, 

splendid assortment of R«>ses, and many 
most desirable (irn'n Housi; and out-of- 
door leaf and flowering plants. 
i^Orrfers carefvlly fiUe.d ami fonvarded 

The entire stock tor Kale, including hous- 
es and business in a good. locality at a bar- 
Address, F. A. HEKINU, Nurseryman, 
minr Oakland. 




187 1- 



EUI Street 



KianuaryTJ^ 





Ivl-tf 



•„orsF. Pt.A^'^^' 
'^^.-^^ *'" Lm trees. 

'Qi ,;e a"<y};\'S[: 

'"'Itituldroov- 
'"!'' I .ted and 
ety. "Lg very 
^^ ' Hlnvari- 
press, . yi,,-!!- 
tended ti,;„'6 Cy- 
ders at- 



ujnaea u,;n'bCy- 
KING, Nurserym, " ' *" 



\ 



J. P. D-4.LT0N,^*- 

DKALEB IX 

Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Ev- 
green 

TREES, 



Shnibs and Flowering Plants, Seeds, Bulbs, etc. 
Depot cor. ISth and Broadway, Oakland. Ivl-m3 




KELSEY'S NURSERIES, 




O A KLA N D. 

Established in 1852. 
Is now more fully stocked than ever before. 

Fruit Trees. Ornamental Trees, Deciduous 

shade trees. Evergreens of all kinds; Fruit Plants; to 
wit: Raspberries. Strawberries. G<jos( berries. Currants, 
Grapis. Uhubarb, .Asparagus and all Flowering plants, 
for inside and outside culture. 

of Australia. Euroi>e. China and .Japan, in fact we aim 
to have aud to get all and everything desiralili'. 

Pailies planting can find in this establishment what- 
ever maybe wanti^d, for use and Ijeauty in furnishing a 
])iai-e without bi'ing obliged t<i go fnmi one niu-sery to 
another. Ivlr W. F. KELSEY, Proprietor. 



O A W. 

The Pacific Pneumatic Gas Company 
Bigs to call the att<'Iition of thi' public to its gas works 
which are suitable alike for domestic, manutai'tiiriiig, 
anil general uses. Their apparatus is the only one wor- 
thy of till' conlidence of thos<' who desire on economical 
anil brilliant light, with perfect B:ifety from accidents. 

These Works are in successful use in the following 
private residences: Gov. Haight. the Kn cinal. Alameda; 
H. F. Williams, Esq., South San Francisco: J. R. .\i'guel- 
111, Esq.. Santa Clara; A. P. lirayton, Esq.. Oakland: O. 
W. ChiUls. Esq., I.,os Angeles; Mrs. Bruyton. Oakland; 
Capt. Wilcox, San Diego; .1. P. .Jones, Esq., Gold Hill, 
Nevada; W. B. Isaai'S. Esq., Post St., San Francisco: .Jos. 
A. DonohiH-, Esq., Menlo Park; M. Sehallenberger. Esq., 
San Jose; Cajit Kidd, Stockton; .John Parrott. Esii., San 
Mateo; Col. .J. C. Hays. Oakland; A. A. Cohen. Esq., Ala- 
mula; A. D. Bell. Taylor strict, San lYanciscn; .1. S. Em- 
ery Oakland, and Isaac Riqua, Esj, Virginia Cit)-(Nevada. 

.\lsii in the following juiblic institutions: the City and 
Ci>uuty Almshouse. Srfn I'raucisco; the County Hospital, 
Sacramento: the Industrial School, S:in l'"raneisio; the 
State Institute for the Deef, Dumb and Blind. B<Tkely. 

Also, the following private institutions: The College 
of Santa Clara, Santa Clara: the Alameda Insane Asylum; 
.Alameda; and the New Hall and Theater. Petaluma. 

.\lso in the following Mining and Manufacturing 
works. The Pacific Iron Works, Han Francisco; the 
ChoUor-Potosi Hoisting Works, Virginia City; the Eu- 
reka Gold Mining Company's Hoisting Works and Mill, 
Grass Valley, California; the Crown Point Mining Co. 's 
Mill (the Rhode Island >, Gold Hill, Nevada. 

Also, in the following stores; E. Cohn & Co., Msrj-g- 
ville, Gibson and Cross' (saloon), Gold Hill, Nevada; P. 
Brown & Bro., Marysville; Wm. Klein, Marysville. J. 
M. Browne, Gilroy; and N. Wagner ,% Bro., Marjeville. 

Also, in the following hotels; Horton's New Hotel, 
South San Diego; the International Hotel, Virginia City, 
and the St. Charles Hotel. Carson City. 

Also, in large works adapted for town purposes: in 
the Workshops. Streets and Officers' Residences, at the 
t'nited States Navy Department, Mare Island. 

Pacific Pneumatic Oas Company; ofBce '-'(X! Sansomo 
street, San Francisco. Send for Illustrated Pamphlet 
and Price List. A. D. BELX,, Secretary. 

J. W. STOW, President. lvl-3m-r 

Willamette Farmer, 

Salem, Oregon. 

The only Aaiiciilliirnl Paper piibllkhed In 

Oregon. 

The Best Advertising Medium. 

Terms of Subscription;— One year, $2.50; six months, 
$1.5U. Address 
3v2l tf A. 1,. STINSOSr. PnblUher. 



PATENTS 

Boug'lit and Sold 

ON 

OOlMIMISiSSION. 

The Latest and Most Valuable Inventions Can alwsys 

be found at the olHce of 

■WIESTKTt A: CO., 

Patent Brokers, 

17 Kenr MontKomery Street, San Ft-nnclkco, 






Seeds, Boots amu Plants, can be sent earefully sealed 
by mail, prepaid in packages not exceeding 4 lbs. as 
fidlows: 1 OS. or less, 2 cts; 8 OE. 4 cts; 1 lb. 8 cts; 4 lb«. 
32 cts lam 




Number. 2] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JAN. 14, 1871. 



[Volume I. 



THE THOMPSON ROAD STEAMER. 

On last Tuesday, a rather strange-look- 
ing affair might have been seen traveling 
along the railroad bridge of the C. P. R. R. 
at Oakland Point, and backing, turning 
and progressing over the sandy streets of 
our sister city. The Tide Land Reclama- 
tion Company had taken their Thompson 
Road Steamer from the U. S. bonded 
warehouse, and sent it across the Bay, 
where it is soon to be tested as to its pow- 
ers and capabilities for jjlowing. The evo- 
lutions gone through on this occasion, 
were principally to satisfy the curiosity of 
a few persons, and to " give a ride" to a 



the indestructible nature of the tire; for in 
running, especially with a heavy load, the 
tire slips gradually around the wheel, and 
this slip saves it where a very sudden arid 
exceedingly gi-eat strain might tear it. 

The steering apparatus is simple, and the 
steamer can be turned very sharply, its in 
ner driving wheel describing a circle of a 
radius less than three feet. The gearing 
and working parts are strongly constructed 
and protected from dirt and the weather. 
An ingenious device in connection with the 
exhaust steam suppresses almost entirely 
the noise caused by its escape. There is a 
single gear for quick speed and a double 
gear for heavy loads. Either of the driving- 



much struck by this fact when observing a 
road steamer, with a heavy vehicle at- 
tached to it, being driven round and round 
in a field thoroughly saturated with melted 
snow. The road steamer left the merest 
track in the slushy ground, while the 
wheels of the vehicle behind cut it into 
deep ruts. But as the engine passed over 
these ruts, when retracing the circle, it 
efiaced them, and by and by being detached 
and allowed to run over the si^ot alone, it 
repaired the surface and made it perfectly 
smooth and even. 

For mining and agricultural purposes, 
for drawing loads, even for military pur- 
poses, the road steamer has been iised suc- 



This, however, is not the case, for the fric- 
tion of the wire rope, and the gear and 
tackle connected with it, consumes more 
j)Ower than is needed to propel the Road 
Steamer backward and forward over the 
field. This will be very clear to railway 
engineers, who know how far more expen- 
sive it is to pull a train up an incline, by 
means of a fixed engine and rope, than to 
draw it up even stiff gradients by a loco- 
motive. But the chief merit of the Road 
Steamers to farmers will be, that it will 
allow them to dispense very greatly witli 
horses, which the so-called portable en- 
gines do not permit them to do. It is as 
miich as the portable engines can do to 




few in-ivileged individuals, among whom 
was one of the proprietors of the Peess. 

This steamer, the first on the coast, has 
been brought hither through the enterj)rise 
of Mr. G. D. Roberts, President of the Tide 
Land Reclamation Comj)any, who is not 
slow in going for a gpod thing when he sees 
it. With the steamer was sent a gang of 
eiglit heavy plows, with the necessary ma- 
chinery for ojjerating them. 

We liave previously given a description 
of this engine, and the results of exi^eri- 
ments in drawing plows, etc., at Paterson, 
N. J., some weeks ago. We are now able 
to give an illustration, which will convey 
a clear idea to the reader of the looks of the 
steamer. The important feature of the 
rubber tire, with its enclosing endless- 
chain of steel plates, will easily be under- 
stood from the cut. This chain, the riib- 
ber tire, and the rim of the wheel they en- 
close, have no connection with one another. 
This is an item of very considerable impor- 
tance, and to it is due in great measure 



TEOMPSOK'S EUBBER TIEE 

wheels can be thrown in or out of gear, so 
that, in turning corners, the inner wheel is 
out of gear while the outer wheel drives 
the steamer around. Two sizes are made, 
of 8 and of 12 horse power, which draw 
loads of 20 and of 30 tons, resj^ectively, on 
an ordinary level road, and 12 and 17 tons 
lip inclines of 1 in 12. The speed is 2% to 
6 miles per hoiir for freight steamers, and 
10 miles for passenger service. The con- 
sumption of coal is about % ton daily. The 
prices are $5,000 and $6,500 at the works 
in New Jersey. All the steamers can be 
fitted so as to work as stationary engines 
for driving any kind of machinery. 

An imijortant featiire of this machine, 
especially important for our coast, is its 
ability to run over sandy androiigh ground. 
This was shown well at Oakland, and has 
been proved elsewhere in many cases. 
Indeed, not only does it travel over soft 
roads without injuring them, but it actually 
repairs and improves them. Some artil- 
lery officers, says the London Ti7nes, were 



TEAOTION EOAD STEAMEE. 
cessfuUy. It can travel over rough or 
smooth, hard or soft, steep or level roads. 
In Europe and elsewhere it is rajjidly com- 
ing into use. The manufacturers in Eng- 
land have been obliged to give a firm in 
Scotland the right to build the steamers, as 
they are unable to fill themselves the nu- 
merous orders sent in. We have now like- 
wise in the United States a manufactory, 
where the machines are biiilt, and. an 
agency has been established on the Pacific 
Coast, where, on the level stretches, the 
steamer promises to be of the greatest 
utility. 

The Road Steamer, says the paper above 
referred to, does not cost a third of the 
price of the cumbi-ous engines at present 
in use; and it, of course, does away, like- 
wise, with the constantly recurring ex- 
pense of refjairing wire ropes and taclde. 
At first sight it might aj)pear that more 
power would be consumed by a traveling 
engine than by an engine which stands in 
one spot, and works by means of a rope. 



move themselves, and even their fuel and 
water has to be carried for them. The 
Road Steamer, on the contrary, runs with 
the greatest ease over any kind of land, 
turns in less space than horses, and fetches 
its own fuel and water. Besides plowing, 
it can perform every other farming opera- 
tion: it can drive the threshing machine, 
draw the reaping and mowing machines, 
bring manure to the fields, and cart the 
grain to the market; so that, by its adapta- 
bility to these various purposes, it will en- 
able farmers to reduce their stafi' of horses 
to a miniiwim; which in these days of dear 
provender will be counted no light gain. 

We have only to add, that D. D. Wif 
liamson, 32 Broadway, N. Y., is exclusive 
manufacturer for the United States, and 
that Mr. Wm. A. Barnaby, Stockton, Cal., 
is agent for this coast. For the present, 
any communications to Mr. Barnaby should 
be addressed to the care of this office, where 
they will be properly cared for and for 
warded to their destination. 



18 



'<^^^Bi! 



(^, 



Mechanical ^rogress. 



Heat Radiation as Affected by Sur- 
face. — In one of his last papers, Prof. Mag- 
nus gives experiments made with platinum 
plates instead of plates easily oxidizable, 
in order to avoid possible error. He found 
that "when surface is otherwise the same, 
inequalities may exist without any increase 
in the radiation. When, on the contrary, 
a plain platinum plate which had been heat- 
ed by a glass-blower's lanij) and was quite 
soft," was roughened by means of tine em- 
ery paper the radiation wasdoubled. When 
a platinum plate was covered with a thin 
plate of spongy platinum, by spreading a 
thin layer of ammonio-chlorideof platinum 
upon it, and then strongly heating, without 
treatment with nitric acid, it indicated sev- 
en times as much radiation as before being 
treated with spongy i>latinum. The author 
concludes that the increase of radiation 
with a roughened surface depends essential- 
Ij- on the refraction which heat experiences 
on its emergence from the surfiwe of a ra- 
diating body. The greater the refractive 
index of heat between the ratliating sub- 
stance and the air, the smaller is the radia- 
tion from the plane surface, and the quanti- 
ty of heat reflected inward increases. Tlie 
metals have doubtless a very high refract- 
ing index. Hence they reflect the rays 
from without and allow but few to pene- 
trate, and hence they reflect internally those 
coming from the interior, and allow but 
few to emerge. Great inequalities of ra- 
diating surface do not occasion anyimi)ort- 
ant alteration in the radiation. Such a one 
only occurs when the radii of curvature are. 
very small and change greatly, and when 
the radiating surface has but little diather- 
mancy. In general, the roughness of tin; 
surface may efiect both an increase and a 
diminution in the radiation ; but if the in- 
e(iualities are very fine and very deep, there 
is almost an increase in substances like 
metals. When there is a very fine powder 
of the same substance on almost any radi- 
ating surface, the radiation is considerably 
increased." 



New AETTLiiERY. — The "situation" at 
the present war center has stimulated in- 
vention in this direction. The following 
notes are from the London Pall Mall 
Gazette: — Cail, the noted Parisian mechan- 
ical engineer, has produced an armor- 
plated locomotive, furnished with two 
powerful mitrailleurs, also protected by 
armor, originallj' intended for the railway 
bridge at Point du Jour, whence it was to 
throw bullets on to the heights of Moudin. 
This machine, weighs altogether some six 
tons. Among other New French inven- 
tions are the Marekderberg mitrailleur, 
throwing 250 balls a minute, and the Mon- 
tigny, throwing 480, as well as the Durant 
steam mitrailleur, which discharges no 
less than 4,500 bullets per minute, and the 
Faucheuse, or "mower," which is said to 
have a range of 500 to 600 yards, and to 
cost only 35 francs. In iuldition to the 
above, many novel shells have been pro- 
posed; among which are the Gaudin tire- 
bomb, the improved Menestrol shell, 
bombs emitting suflbcating vapors, and 
others. On the part of the Prussians, 
Herr Krupp has invented a gun for shoot- 
ing balloons. This has a carriage and 
wheels like any other field gun, and can be 
served by a single man with ease, as it 
■weighs only about 150 pounds. It can be 
aimed in any direction, horizontal or ver- 
tical. The charge consists of a grenade 
weighing about three jjounds, the object of 
which is to make the balloon explode on 
its bursting. It is affirmed that a balloon 
can be struck at a hight of 2,000 feet, and 
that the horizontal range of the gun is five 
miles. Herr Krupp intends to present 20 
of these field pieces to the army, one of 
which has been alreatly forwarded, and six 
are about to follow. 



Rubbek Tires will not Pay. — The fol- 
lowing is the closing i)aragraph of an edi- 
torial in the London Engineering of Dec. 
9th: 

"An ordinary eight-horse traction en- 
gine costs, say, from 300/. to 380/., while 
an engine rated at the same power, fitted 
with india-rubber tyres, costs about H00<, 
and the thing yet to be proved is whether 
india-rubber is the l)est investment for this 
extra 220/. or 240/., or whether it could not 
be more advantageously spent in securing 
durability in other ways. So many traction 
engines with india-rubl)er tyres have now 
been built and set to work in various jjarts 
of the world that it can scarcely be long 
before data are available which will en- 
able us to estimate such tyres at their 




[January 14, 1871. 



true commercial value; meanwliile we reit- 
erate our opinion that this value will be 
found less than now appears to be generally 
supposed. That there are certain special 
circumstances that may warrant the em- 
])loyment of india-rubber tyres we atlmit; 
but that for general purposes they are 
worth the money they cost, we cannot at 
present believe." 

Mobility of Coppeb in Silver Alloy. 
— The following is from an editorial in En- 
gineering for Dec. 9th on "The manufac- 
ture of money": "In his report, Mr. Rob- 
erts refcrsto certain valuable experiments 
carried out by M. Levol of the Paris mint 
to determine the laws which regulate the 
remarkable mobility of copper in a silver 
alloy, whereby the homogeneity of the 
mixture is destroyed, and the proportion 
of silver and coj)per vai-ied throughout 
the mass. Levol found that only one al- 
loy could be found in which copper and 
silver could be mixed without this move- 
ment of particles taking place. This al- 
loy contained 71.8'J3 of silver and 28.107 
of copper; but if this proportion was al- 
tered, the copper appeared in undue quan- 
tity either on the inside or the outside of 
the cast bar, according as the alloy was 
richer or poorer. Thus in a cast tube, 
measuring 42 millimetres on a side, and 
formed of 77.33 of silver and 22.67 of cop- 
per, the centre of the cube had a richness 
of 78.318 per cent., the outside only 71.015 
l)er cent, while results the reverse of this 
were observed in alloys poorer than the 
standard of 71.8;>3 per cent, of silver. 

The Little System of Telegraphy. — 
D. H. Craig writes the Scientific American, 
Jan. 1st, that this system is about to be 
placed before the public of Washington 
and New York for the transaction of busi- 
ness. He says it is destined to effect a 
complete revolution in the whole telegraph 
and postal business of the country ; and that 
there would seem to be no reason why tlie 
public should not have 20-word messages 
t(!legraphcd from one end of the country to 
the other for ten cents each, provided they 
will furnish enough of such messages to 
keep the wires employed. We quote: 
"With our system we can work just as 
rapidly and as correctly over the poorest 
iron Morse wire, as over the best steel and 
copper compound wire, in any length of 
circuit w-here it is possible to deliver a 
steady flow of even one-twentieth part of 
the necessary current to work a Morse ma- 
chine or a Hughes-Phelps printer; but of 
course a compound wire, such as we use on 
the Washington line, though it adds noth- 
ing to the average cost of lines, considering 
the less number of posts and insulators 
that are required, really adds nearly three 
times to the conducting power and tensible 
strength as compared with the iron wire in 
general use by the Morse lines. While, 
therefore, our wire would enable us to tel- 
egi-aph over a circuit two or three times 
greater than we could do with a common 
iron Morse wire, the latter would answer 
our purpose precisely as well as the former 
in any length of circuit where the iron wire 
could deliver a steady flow (however slight) 
of current. Mr. Prescott and other parties 
who have striven so vigorously to write 
down automatic telegrajjliy, have ignored 
the imj^ortant fact that Mr. Little uses 
electricity under entirely different con- 
ditions from what it was ever before used 
by any person who has experimented in 
fast telegraphy; and it is to this fact, and 
not at all to the fact that we have a supe- 
rior line, that we transmit and record cor- 
rectly 1,000 words per minute, or 60,000 
words jier hour, over a single wire, equal 
to the average speed of 100 wires by the 
Morse system." 

The McCracken Gas Process. — The ^. 
Y. Oan Light Journal has seen the working 
of this process at New Britain, Conn., and 
reports favorably. We quote : — "The ap- 
paratus is simple, and its application re- 
quires but little expense, inasmuch as it re- 
quircs-no change in the ordinary settings of 
the benches. The tar is evidently complet*;- 
\y utilized and converted into illuminating 
gas as fast as it is formed, largely increasing 
the volume and iluminating power of the 
gas. The most casual observer cannot fail to 
notice the high candle powerof thcgas, and 
esjjecually the peculiar whiteness of the 
flame, evidently owing to the excess of olefi- 
ant gas and ])Ossibly aceti/line, which it de- 
rives from the decomposition of the tar in 
comhinntion with the snperheated steam. We 
italicise the latter part of the sentence, be- 
cause it is the great secret of the suc^cess of 
Mr. E. D. McCracken's jirocess — the key to 
the enigma which all prior experimenters 
have sought for in vain." 



iCiENTiFic ^Progress. 



Deep Sea Mud. — Following are some 
paragraphs from an article in a late num- 
ber of Nature: — "Dr. C. W. Giimbel has 
recently published an important paper, 
containing an account of some highly in- 
teresting investigations on deep-sea mud. 
Sir R. Murchison and Professor Huxley 
provided him with a large quantity of mud, 
taken uj) from the Atlantic at lat 29° 36' 54" 
N., and long. 18 19' 48" W., at a depth of 
aV)out 2,350 fathoms. This he first cleared, 
by long-continued washing, from all sea- 
salts soluble in water; then he divided it, 
by tilt(>ring, into three parts. In the first, 
Foraminifera and larger organisms pre- 
dominated; the second consisted of a sedi- 
ment easily distinguished from the first, 
tine but heavy; the third was fine and 
flakj', remaining lightly suspended in 
water, and consisting almost exclusively of 
Bathj/binx, Coccoliths, Coccospheres, to- 
gether with other organisms of the small- 
est kind (Diatoms, Rsuliolaria, Sponge- 
spicules, and a very few of the smallest 
Foraminifera). * * "The third portion 
of the deep-sea mud is worthy in a high 
degree of the interest l>oth of the zoologist 
and the geologist, whilst it gives scope for 
many far-reaching theories. If we first 
analyse it microscopically, the substivnce, 
which resembles a white clay mud, resolves 
itself, apart from the intermingled minut- 
est Globigerino' and some few other Foram- 
inifera, into a heap of little gramiles, the 
so-called Coccoliths (Discoliths and Cy- 
atholiths) , and of granulous flaky little 
lumps, the so-called Bathj/hitts, compared 
with which all other ingredients, — the 
siliceous-shelled Diatoms, and liadiolaria, 
and also perhaps the so-called Coccospheres 
and other small organic bodies excepted, — 
are of very secondary importance. The 
jiart of the deep-sea mud which is miide 
up of Diatoms and liadiolaria, together 
with Sponge-spicules, is of especial im- 
portance, because it consists to no incon- 
siderable extent of silica, and appears to 
be the sf)urce from which the siliceous 
concretions in many chalk formations have 
drawn their materials. That these form no 
inconsiderable part of the composition of 
deep-sea mud may be clearly seen by re- 
moving the chalk by means of acids, and 
the organic matter by heat or by sulphuric 
acid. * * * Speaking of the Coccoliths 
and the Batht/binx, Dr. Giimbel says he is 
in a jjosition to confirm the conclusions of 
Profs. Huxley, Carjjenter, and Haeckel 
with respect to their organic nature. * * 
After detailing some observations, micro- 
scopic and chemical, on Bathybiiut and 
Coccoliths, Dr. Giimbel proceeds to speak 
of the further distribution of the latter. 
"First," he says, "on looking through the 
algsE, hydrozoa, polyps, corals, etc., which 
occur on shallow sea coasts, such as may 
easily be met with in every botanical and 
and zoological collection, I succeeded in 
numerous instances in finding Coccolitlis 
in the places where .they had grown, and 
not seldom, Bathybius at the same time. 
These investigations were extended to 
points on the coasts of almost all seas, and 
now, instead of the statement lately made 
that the organisms in question thrive only 
at a depth of 5,000 feet, I am in a position 
to assert on a proved fact, that Coccoliths 
( Bathybinx) occur in all seas and at all 
deplfis. By their astonishingly wide dis- 
tribution and their vast numbers, which 
stamp them as one of the most essential 
members of rock-forming substances, they 
gain infinitely in scientific interest." 

French Scientists Still AcTm:. — M. 
Janssen, the celebrated astronomer, was to 
join the Eclipse Expedition, leaving Paris 
in a balloon constructed for his private use 
at the expense of the French Government, 
which did not lose a single day, after com- 
ing into power, in commencing the prepar- 
ations. M. Janssen will carry a telescope 
constructed in eight weeks by Parisian 
workmen. The French Academy has held 
its sittings regularly since the commence- 
ment of the siege, and the Comp'.es Rendtis 
has been published every week. 

Return of the Amazon Expedition. — 
Prof. Fred. C. Hartt and party arrived in 
New York Dec. 21st from the Valley of the 
Amazon, which they have been exploring 
for the six months past. They bring a large 
collection of geological sj)ecimens and fos- 
sils, designed for Cornell University. They 
report further evidence in refutation of the 
glacial theory of Prof. Agassiz as regards 
that region. 



The Boston Museum.— The Boston Post 
says: — "Since the acquisition of the private 
collection of Prof. Agassiz, the Boston 
Museum may claim rank among the fore- 
most institutions of its kind; for althougli 
the British Museum in London and the 
Jardin des Plantes in Paris are on a verj' 
much larger scale, yet in certain depart- 
ments, such as corals and fishes, the Mu- 
seum of Comjjarative Zoology is suijerioi- 
to both, while the increase of its collections 
since its existence, and the prominence it 
has attained among other museums, are 
such as no like establishment has reached 
in the same time and with the same means. 
In the new building now going uj), which 
adjoins the jiresent Museum and is to be of 
equal dimensions, it is intended to exhibit 
all the animals peculiar to the different 
parts of the world, in such a manner as to 
imjiress the observer with their natural as- 
sociation in nature, so that the student 
shall be able to make himself familiar in 
one part of the building with the latest re- 
sult of scientific research in working out 
the system which binds together the whole 
animal kingdom as a unit; while in the 
other part of the building their geograph- 
ical distribution upon the whole surface of 
the earth, and theif various combinations 
and associations on different continents will 
be ma»le apparent. Such a twofold arrange- 
ment of collections has never yet been at- 
tempted in any museum, not even in the 
largest and most prominent institutions of 
the kind in Europe. The fossil remains of 
past ages will be exhibited in like manner in 
such an arrangement as to display at the same 
time their order of succession in geologi- 
cal periods, and their relations to the ani- 
mals now living. It is intended to com- 
plete this plan by exhibiting also the differ- 
ent stages of all known animals, from their 
earliest period of develo))enient in the egg 
to their adult condition. This is a truly 
magnificent plan." 



Hereditary Deformities. — Nature calls 
attention to Brown-S^qiiard's experiments 
on epileptic guinea pigs detailed at the re- 
cent meeting of the British A8.sociation. 
Dr. Brown-S^quard produced epileptic fits 
in the guinea pigs, either by the section of 
one-half of the spinal cord, or by the di- 
vision of the sciatic nerve on one or both 
sides. During the fits it sometimes hap- 
pens that the hind foot gets between the 
teeth and is bitten. The animal, on recov- 
ery from the fit, tastes the blood, and if it 
be one in which the sciatic nerve has been 
divided, proceeds to nibble off the two 
outer toes, which have entirely lost their 
sensibility from the operation on the nerve. 
In breeding from pairs of this kind, the 
offspring is without the two toes of wliidi 
the i)arents have deprived themselves; and 
in those cases all the offspring become, as 
they grow up, perfectly epileptic; while in 
ordinary cases epilepsy is only rarely trans- 
mitted hereditarily. Other peculiarities 
existing in these epileptic guinea pigs were 
also found to be transmitted to their off- 
spring; and in dissection of the hereditarily 
malformed animals, a node was found on 
the sciatic nerve corresponding to that 
formed after section of the nerve in the 
parent. 

Haeckel's Natural History op Crea- 
tion. -t- We quote the following paragraph 
from a notice, in Nature for Dec. 8th, of 
the second edition of this work, just is- 
sued: — " The remainder of the volume, 
nearly half, is taken up with a concrete 
history of creation, i e. with an account of 
how, and 1)y what steps, all kinds of plants 
and animals have grown out of the primor- 
dial moners, those first existing living 
things which were, according to Haeckel, 
neither plants nor animals, but belonged to 
a third kingdom of Protista. This part of 
the work therefore is a de8crii)tive genealo- 
gy of all living beings, the pedigree of 
each kind of creature being matle out, or 
rather conjectured oiit, as far as present 
knowledge will allow. In the second edi- 
tion, as might have been anticipated, the 
genealogies are very much extended, and 
given with much greater detail than at first; 
in particular, there is a new whole chajitor 
on the migration and dispersion of mankind, 
and on the species and races of men. The 
results of phylogenic speculiition or in- 
quiry are graphically shown in elaborate? 
genealogical trees; and a new, large plate 
shows at one glance how all races of men 
have probably spreail from a hypotlietical 
paradise |once sitTiate in the great conti- 
nent of Lemuria, now sunk below the 
waves of the Indian Ocean." 



January 14, 187 1.] 



Kf^ 



19 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Bound East. 

[WniTTEN rOK THE PEESS] 

Once more I resume my travels, this 
time with my face turned steadily eastward. 
Over the Western Pacific to Sacramento, 
over the Central Pacific to Ogden, I trav- 
erse again the regions which I have already 
described at length in previous letters, and 
on which I therefore dwell no further in 
this communication. I received, as ever, 
the best treatment from the Railroad Com- 
pany, which rendered tlie tri^j one of 
pleasure. 

Ogden to Omaha. 

From Ogden I pass over, to me, new 
ground, and am made the recipient of the 
hospitality of a new company. I find, 
however, no diminution in the comfort of 
the accommodations or the attentiveness 
of the emjiloyees. I have made the ac- 
qtiaintance of several of the officers of the 
road. I may be permitted to mention the 
names of the efficient Land Commissioner, 
Mr. O. F. Davis, and of the Chief Engineer 
and Superintendent, General T. E. Sickles. 
Gen. Sickles has 
succeeded Col. 
Hammond. He 
is a genial, i^lea- 
sant gentleman 
and an excellent 
engineer of great 
experience. Un- 
der his man- 
agement the 
i n ter ests of 
neither road nor 
traveler will suf- 
fer. 

Leaving Og- 
den we go 
through the 
Wahsatch moun- 
tains, between 
them, if yoii 
please. The 
Weber has cut 
us a passage, and 
a grand one, in 
the red sand- 
stone barrier, 
often exceeding- 
ly narrow, but 
at the same time 
exceedingly 
beautiful. The 
Devil's Gate 
here has an ex- 
tensive fame, al- 
though the old 
gentleman is not 
generally sujj- 
posed to have a 
residence near 
rtinning water. Echo Canon gi-eets us 
with its fine scenery, and we then roll on 
through Wyoming Territory. Allow me 
here to suggest that you get and piiblish a 
map of the railroad for the benefit of your 
readers. 

Immediately 'on entering Wyoming, we 
pass Evanston, known to you through its 
coal deposits, which are said to be of ex- 
cellent quality. We go by the romantic 
Church Buttes, pass Fort Steele, and final- 
ly get to Laramie, with its curious rocks 
of red sandstone. At Separation and Car- 
bon we see coal-pits. The deposit at Car- 
bon is nine feet thick, is said to contain 
good coal, which is, however, very soft, 
and crumbles easily on exposure. It re- 
tains fire long, as shown by the cinders at 
night. [ Our corresj^ondent jsassed Carbon 
previous to the occurrence of the fire there. 
Eds. Press. J 

We pass along the line of the Black 
Hills, where sportsmen delight to stay, I 
am told, and come to Cheyenne. Here is 
the branch road south to Denver. By the 
way, I forgot to notice Sherman, the high- 
est point on the road, 8,250 feet above the 
sea, passed before we reached Cheyenne. 
I really was not aware of the important 
fact as I rode along, until it was too late to 
ajipreciate it. 

iietween Pine Bluffs and Bushnell, we 
cross the boundary line of Wyoming and 
come into Nebraska. On a gradual descent 
we ride on, by Julesburg, of former fame, 
once rejoicing in the title of "Hell on 
Wheels," down to the valley of the Platte, 
crossing the North Branch, near its junction 
with the South, where it is 2,100 feet wide 
and two to six feet deep. Then we follow 
the river, until we finally reach Omaha. 
The Union Pacific. 

I have given the above few statements of 
the i^laces passed on the way. I will now 
give a few facts about the road, condensing 
as much as possible. The road is sub-di- 



vided into four divisions, each with its 
Division Siiperintendent: the Utah, from 
Ogden to Bryan; the Laramie, from Bryan 
to Laramie; the Lodge Pole, from Laitamie 
to North Platte City; and the Platte, from 
North Piatte to Omaha. I met Mr. L. 
Fillmore, who is Div. Supt. of the>Larar 
mie Division, which will include also the 
Utah Division after June, 1871; and Mr. 
S. H. H. Clark, Div. Supt. of the Platte 
Division, which will include the Lodge 
Pole Division. The gentleman named 
have shown themselves so capable that 
they will retain charge of their enlarged 
divisions. The road has now in use 150 
locomotives 41 passenger cars, Pullman 
palace cars on every train, 22 emigrant 
cars, 15 mail and express, 42 caboose, 13 
baggage, 2,069 box, 1,629 flat, 342 coal, 12 
irnit, 48 stock, and various other cars. It 
is firm and well built. The rails are fished, 
and the ties niimber 2,650 to the mile. 

The government gTant of lands for the 
lines from Omaha to Sacramento amounts 
to 22,720,000 acres, divided as follows: 
Union Pacific, 13,207,600; Central Pacific, 
9,512,400. These figures are calculated for 
the junction at Promontory. The change 
to Ogden will make a difference. The sub- 
sidies are as follows: Union Pacific, 526 
miles at |;16,000 per mile; 408 at .$32,000; 



The sales up to date (Dec. 16th, 1870) are 
287,204 acres, amoimting to $1,280,190.35. 
At the same time, the intervening sections 
of rich Government lands on the line of the 
railroad are rapidly settling. Thousands 
have availed themselves of the fine oppor- 
tunities thus jjresented to men of limited 
means. An additional amoimt of 280,000 
acres, located in Washington, Dodge, Col- 
fax, Saimders, Butler and Polk counties, 
Nebraska, has been placed in market by 
the company, better facilities offered to 
settlers, and the terms of payment made 
still more favorable. A branch road is 
built and running from Fremont across 
Dodge county, bridges across* the Platte 
have been built, and other improvements 
are continually made. The Government 
lands are surveyed and open to entry by 
actual settlers, across the entire State of 
Nebraska, and will be surveyed and opened 
this season through Wyoming, Colorado 
and Utah. The Land Department receives 
daily 100 to 200 letters of inquiry, and the 
prospects of a large immigration this next 
year are very flattering. w. h. m. 



Important to Tide Land Owners. 

EditorPeess: — Some, perhaps all, of the 
tide land islands, lying near the mouth of 



upon enlarging the levee, the dirt !c- 

en from the outside, letting in the water, and 
greatly injuring, if not entirely destroying 
the crop. He told me that the result of 
this experiment was such that the Trustees 
of the district would allow no more such 
work to be done. I make this statement, 
partly because the parties who consulted 
me contemplate disregarding my advice; 
but more particularly for the purpose of 
recommending those less headstrong and 
conceited to examine well the character of 
their lands before making their ditches on 
the outside. A. B. Bowers, C.E. 




150 at $48,000; total, $28,672,000; Central 
Pacific, 12 at $16,000; 522 at .$32,000 ; 156 
at $48,000; total, $24,384,000. Govern- 
ment also guaranteed the interest on the 
companies' fii-st mortgage bonds to an equal 
amount. 

The first contract for constriiction on the 
Union Pacific was made in August, 1864, 
but there were many obstacles at first. By 
Janiiary, 1866, 40 miles had been built. 
During 1866, 265 miles additional, and in 
1867, 285 miles were completed. Then the 
work was piished much faster, and on May 
30th, 1869, the road met the Central Pa- 
cific at Promontory, the last 534 miles hav- 
ing been built in a little over 15 months, or 
at the average rate of nearly one and one- 
fifth miles daily. 

I could give you many more statistics, 
did I not fear to take up too much space. 
But I must content myself with these few 
facts, which may prove of interest to your 
readers, although not new for the most 
part. 

Railroad Lands. 

In many places there is an abundance of 
good land, which is rendered available by 
the railroad, and the Union Pacific Com- 
pany has under consideration plans for the 
irrigation of districts which only need 
water, as has been proved, to be rendered 
most productive. The company seems to 
be actuated by the soundest principles of 
economy in this respect, and to be doing 
excellent work. Their lands are located in 
Nebraska, Wyoming, Colorado and Utah, 
and the crops raised are most varied and 
large. A few statements on this subject 
may be in place here. 

'The office of the Land Department was 
opened for business, and the sales of the 
land commenced, July, 28th, 1869. During 
the first year, the sales were restricted to a 
tract included within the ten-mile limits on 
the first 200 miles of the grant. The lands 
oflered have been eagerly taken by settlers. 



the Sacramento and San Joaquin Elvers, 
are naturally of a very porous nature, and, 
until consolidated by draining and settling, 
may not inaptly be likened to huge pieces 
of sponge, the edges of which are covered 
by a coating of clayey sediment, very near- 
ly imj^erviovis to water. Upon the upper 
ends of some of these islands, sediment has 
accumulated to such an extent as to form 
qiiite a fii-m soil for several rods inland; 
while upon the lower ends, in many in- 
stances, it is simply a thin layer, extending 
but a few yards from the shore. Where 
this sediment is of sufficient dei^th to reach 
some feet below the bottom of the ditch or 
excavation, made in constructing levees, 
and is of sufficient consistency at this 
depth to keep out water, the levees may, if 
desirable, be located inside of the ditch; 
but upon the lower ends of these islands, 
where this coating is not more than three 
or four feet in thickness, the ditch should 
be on the inside ; otherwise, cutting through 
this impervious layfr,it would admit water 
to the edges of the "si^onge," and the land 
inside would remain so saturated as greatly 
to imi^ede, if not wholly prevent, cultiva- 
tion, until sediment is deposited in the 
ditch in sufficient quantities to stop the 
water, which in many cases would not be 
for years. 

About one year ago my opinion was ask- 
ed in this matter, and given as above. 
Passing Sherman Island, on the steamer, a 
few days ago, I noticed a short piece of 
levee inside the ditch, and I immediately 
instituted incpiiries concerning the result. 
I learneS from Mr. Perkins, who resides in 
the vicinity, that under the protection of 
the old levee, a flourishing crop of beans 
gave promise of au abundant harvest; but 



Granular Fuel. 

Editors Press: — In any country in 
which firewood is worth from seven to ten 
dollars a cord, it is an object worthy the 
consideration of every land owner, to 
avail himself of every means to turn to the 
best account every particle of wood growth, 
the product of his lands, that can be con- 
verted into a marketable article of fuel, at 
a value greater than the cost of produc- 
tion. 

Is it generally known and understood 
that the now almost useless brush-wood 
and willows of 
large . tracts of 
lands border- 
ing the rivers 
and sloughs of 
our valleys, 
can be converted 
into a compact, 
valuable fuel for 
light fires, or for 
igniting the more 
solid materials 
emjjloyed in 
heavy ones either 
of wood or coal ? 
The prepara- 
tion of such a 
fuel as this, con- 
sists in subject- 
ing the willows 
or other brush- 
wood to the ac- 
tion of a machine 
similar in con- 
struction to an 
ordinary straw 
cutter, but of 
greater strength, 
by which it is 
cut into lengths 
equal to about 
twice the diame- 
ter of the brush- 
wood used. It 
is put upon the 
market, of differ- 
ent sizes, num- 
bered one, two 
and three, de- 
pending upon the general diameter of the 
brush; and to effect this, the brush is 
sorted into three sizes before passing to 
the cutters. 

It is sold by the bushel, and as the brush 
is always cut when free from leaves, the 
product is cleanly, and when dry, highly 
inflammable. The coarser grade, the most 
of which is an inch in diameter, is an ex- 
cellent fuel alone, for small apartments or 
where only a light quick fire is desired to 
simply take off the chill from larger apart- 
ments, in which a more solid or lasting 
fire would be objectionable. 

It is also useful in cooking, in a small 
way, or where it is desired to build a fire 
in a furnace or other close, compact place. 
The finer grades are used for quick kind- 
ling. 

Alders and willows are the best woods, 
and most in vogue where the granular fuel 
is used, because easily cut, and are woods 
that contain a large amount of pure carbon, 
being the woods generally used for powder 
making. But the brush of any wood or 
timber can be used with large profit to the 
producer, and economy and comfort to the 
consumer. Even the stacks of broomcorn 
are sometimes used for granular fuel. 

In many of the large cities of Europe, 
and particularly in the warmer latitudes, 
this kind of fuel is in such common use as 
to be deemed indispensable. 

Granular fuel, though cut green, dries 
quickly, from the facility with which the 
air enters the pores of the short section, 
and is ready for use in a few days after be- 
ing cut. This fuel once introduced into 
our large cities would never after be dis- 
pensed with. 

Who will be the first to put this really 
excellent and useful fuel on our markets? 
The cost of the uncut, raw material would 
be but trifling, and alders and willow will 
renew their growth to a proper size, the 
third year from the last cutting. w. Vf, 



20 



-^^ 



[January 14, 1871. 



H©f«E 



CULTURE OF OPIUM, 

[WRnTEN FOB THE PBESS.] 

From my own experience in the cultiva- 
tion of the poppy for the production of 
opium during my residence in the opium 
districts of Hindoostan, and from my 
knowledge of the climate of California, I 
am convinced that its culture in this coun- 
try would be attended with an almost in- 
credible success financially. 

Whilst the average produce per acre in 
India is only from IJO to 35 pounds, — the 
climatic influences affecting it, — the yield 
in Asia Minor is 70 pounds. This is owing 
to the greater certainty of sufficient moist- 
ure, without its being excessive, and to the 
plant ripening sufficiently before the ex- 
treme heat sets in. 

Six and a quarter acres in the United 
States has produced 500 pounds, or 80 
jiounds per acre. One Ivundred and four- 
teen poppies in California yielded 174 
grains, or equal to 77 pounds per acre. 

As the plant produces the opium in less 
than three months from the time it is 
planted, there is not a doubt that, with 
some irrigation, two crops in a year could 
be easily raised, and possibly, in certain 
favored spots, such as those where there 
are heavy dews in the summer, three crojis 
could be raised in a year. 

To give an idea of the consumption of 
the article the following statement is 
given :- 



and so save the export of specie, in a great 
measure, and retain it in the country. 

Assuming the price to be $5 (it is now a 
great deal more here) the following exhibit 
will show the enormous profits arising 
from opium: 



ONE CHOP A TEAR. 

Produce of one acre 

Expense of cultivation 



la.'io.mi 

liid.OO 



AJJNCAI. CONaUMPTION. 



lbs. 



England 114,000 

Other European Countries 700,000 

United States TO.IKX) 

China 4,.«X)O0O 

Indian Archipelago 1,500,01X1 



Total yearly consumption 6,884,000 

These averages were taken IG years ago, 
since which time it has greatly increa.sed. 
Four-fifths of this is raised in India, where 
it is a strict Government monopoly, from 
which it realises an enormous revenue. In 
1833 this revenue amounted to $5,000,000 
per year, and in 1852 to $13,000,000, or 
more than double. Since that it has been on 
a continual increase. In 1857 the revenue 
was $18,500,000. So steadily has the in- 
crease in i)rodu(!tion been attended with 
increased consumjjtion that the prices, in 
Calcutta, have not, in 33 years, varied 10 
per cent. 

All opium produced in India is bought 
by government at a fixed price — about 80 
cents per pound. It is then sold by auc- 
tion, in chests of 158 pounds and 140 
pounds each. In the former the average 
price may be put at $500 per chest, and the 
latter at about $440 per chest. The.se 
prices remain still about the same. 

The opium is now shipped to the Malay- 
an Peninsula, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, the 
Celebes and to C'hina. That for all these 
places, except China, is shipped to Singa- 
pore, the depot whence it is disseminated 
throughout tlie Indian Arf^hijjelago. In 
18C4 the produce of opium in India was no 
less than 6,380,000 pounds, which was sold 
by government there at an average price of 
$3.28 per pound. Of this there was ship- 
ped by the purchasers to China, 4,000,000 
pounds, and to the Indian Archipelago 
1,500,000 pounds. 

In the United States the average price, 
in the East, is generally from $4 to $5 per 
pound, to which must be added a duty, by 
recent tariff, of $1 per pound. In England 
the price is not so high and the duty is 
there only 25 cents per pound. 

California could supijly the United 
States at an average of $5 per pountl, as 
the import duty would be saved. The 
opium produced would also be of a very 
superior quality, equal to Smyrna, which 
is considered the best in the world, and 
which, by last quotations, was worth $830 
per picul in China, or $6.24 per pound; so 
that purchasers here could be found who 



Profit per acre , J20U.00 

TWO CROPS A YEAR. 

Profit $400.00 

I/CBS expense of irrigation 50.00 

Profit of two crops $:150.00 

Thus showing a profit of from $20,000 
to $35,000 per annum on 100 acres of land! 
In the foregoing estimate there has not 
been mentioned the consumption of pre- 
pared opium by the Chinese in California. 
There is a duty of $4 on this, and its pre- 
paration is easy. The loss of weight in 
preparing it is one-half; but the price is 
more than doubled, besides the duty. It is 
worth here about $15 or $16 a pound, at 
this present time, with a very considerable 
present consumption. 

The writer sold Malwa opium in China, 
in 1837, for $560 a chest; and the same 
article sold there in Mai-ch 1870, at $542; 
and yet, in the interim, the importations 
have been nearly trebled — -So steady has 
the price remained, so much has the con- 
sumption increased. 

In addition to the foregoing, if the caji- 
sules be left to ripen, nine-tenths of them 
can be sold for the production of poppy- 
oil ; but the value of this would not amount 
to more than $50 an acre, while the ex- 
penses would absorb two-fifths of this 
amount. 

The Germans raise large quantities of 
poppies for this oil, which is hardly infe- 
rior to olive oil, and is commonly sold for 
it in England. Artists also use it. The cli- 
mate of Germany, however, is not adequate 
to the production of o])ium, which exists 
only in the skin or casing of the capsule, 
so that in that country it is solely cultivat- 
ed for the oil. James Gordon. 



A SINGULAR LOOKING PLOW. 



would ship it to China, in paj-ment of teas, of it in 



THE RAMIE PLANT IN CALIFORNIA- 

There are for sale, here, over 200,000 
roots of this fine textile plant. It grows 
like any other nettle in our climate. There 
is said to be an abundant demand in Eng- 
land for the raw fibre at 10 cents per pound. 
The great sui)ply at iJresent is from Asia. 
Louisiana has been cultivating it several 
years; but it has not made much progress 
there for want of some cheaj) machine to 
prepare the fibre for market. We have re- 
cently been informed that a cheap and 
practical machine, invented by M. L<!franc. 
of New Orleans, does this work well and 
very cheaply. ButourU. S. Commissioner 
of Agriculture, in his Report for 1800, does 
not mention it, and our California ramie- 
growers have not brought one to exhibit 
here, as an evidence of its existence and 
practicability. 

These omissions, and. the general disin- 
clination among our ranchmen to go into 
anything but wheat, make it difficult to 
sell the ramie roots. Still, as an evidence 
that tho.se who have been instrumental in 
introducing the plant into this State, and 
other prominent capitalists, have confi- 
dence in it, we may state that Judge Gra- 
liam, of Haywood, who has 80,000 surjilus 
roots, has gone to Los Angeles, under a 
projjosition from a large land company, to 
put out a (juantity of roots on the p lains. 
While we would not yet recommend farm- 
ers to cultivate ramie extensively, we think 
favorably of its moderate introduction gen- 
erally, on suitable lands. 

SoiTND Advice.— The Colusa Sun talks to 
the fanners of its county in a sensible 
strain. Its remedy applies "in this direction 
as well. It says: — "There is no country 
perhaps in the world where deep-plowing 
makes so much difference as in this. Now 
that the plowing season has set in, in good 
earnest, our farmers will do well to heed 
this fact. A man will, taking one year 
with another, make more clear money by 
l)lowing 25 acres deep and i)utting it in 
well and early, than skimming over 100 
acres and taking no pains with the putting 



A very singular looking plow has been 
on exhibition the past week at the Office of 
the Pacific Rukal Press. It is called the 
Butler Plow;" being patented by him, and 
manufactured^solely in all the States and Ter- 
ritories, except ten counties in Ind., and 
in the state of Oregon, and California, by 
Hall & Speer, of Pittsburg. Pa. 

I take the liberty to extract from a lengthy 
article in the Modern Farmer, of Pittsburg, 
the following, a.s the views of several gen- 
tlemen of Agricultural implement notorie- 
ty; and especially of Alex. Speer of the 
above named firm, who iscalled the "Plow 
Prince" of the country. 

' ' When we say that there have been a thou- 
sand improvements on forms of mold- 
board, all more or less oval or convex — we 
are under rather than over the number, — 
we have yet the first attempt heretofore to re- 
cord of a "straight mold-board." 

The plow of which w^e write has a share 
cut, a straight landside, and a straight mold- 
board, standing vertically at an angle of 
about twenty degrees. The mold-board re- 
ceives the furrow from a "Share Cut," ingen- 
iously arranged in front, passes it over even- 
ly and uniform without breaking the fur- 
row; it runs perfectly steady, and is easily 
controled by a boy twelve years of age in or- 
dinary ground. It was tried in loose stable 
ground, and black loamy ground so wet with 
recent rains as to be tempered for making 
brick; yet it neither clogged or choked. The 
trial in the sward was still more satisfac- 
tory. It turned a furrow sixteen inches 
wide, and from seven to eight inches deep, 
with ease to both driver and team ; and the 
tests by the dynamometer, showed fully 
twenty per cent, less draft than the best 
plow that could be put in competition do- 
ing the same work. Old farmers and vete- 
ran plow builders pronounced it a decided 
success." 

It is evident a straight mold-board will 
not increase the friction by plowing deep, 
as there is no more resistance on the u})per 
part when let down its i\\\\ depth into the 
ground than upon the lower part of the 
same ; while a concave is like the pod of 
an augur inclined to carry its chips along, 
unless allowed to turn. The curved 
mold-board inclines to raise at the 
heel, and run the plow on the point, 
making it necessary to throw weight 
upon the handles to make it run level, 
and steady; as it becomes hard to hold, 
it becomes hard to draw; and be- 
comes harder to draw, in wondrous pro- 
portion. As you sink the covered niold- 
l)oar<l near the top, its resistance increases 
very rapidly. 

The question that strikes the beholder is, 
— will a straight mold-board turn its fur 
row well ! It takes demonstration in place of 
argument to convince, and answer the 
question. 

In calling public attention to so impor- 
tant an implement as the plow, I do so 
with due respect, and manly pride, for the 
many shining " shares" that to-day are do- 
ing credit to our inventors and skilled 
workin(»n, and with d(,'ferance ask a fair un- 
prejudi<red trial in the varied soils of the 
Pacnfic Coast, for this new invention. 

I shall be ])leased to put it on trial and 
test its merits at any time or place, wh(>re 
mechanics and farmers may arrange to give 
it justifiable attention; hoping thereby 
to add to the usefulness of the great sta- 
ple imi)lement in plowing the grounds 
of our rich valleys, and sunny mountain 
sides, deeper and easier. 

For further information please a<ldress 
the undersigned, owner of the right for 
California and Oregon. L. P. Hicks. 



WOMAN'S INFLUENCE. 

The aim of every true mother should be 
to inspire the little ones committed to her 
care with desires for truth and goodness; 
and to impress U2>on their plastic minds 
the great need of temperance in diet, dress 
and amusement. Example is always be- 
fore precept; therefore to become a wise 
counsellor, one should practice the virtues 
recommended, or half his t<^aching will be 
in vain. 

In a small communnity there lived, 
many years ago, a large-souled woman, 
who by her superior mind and attractive 
manners, won the admiration and esteem 
of all. Her views on most suljjects were 
so far in advance of the age, that she was 
looked ujjon with suspicion by the ignorant, 
and with intense wonder and interest by 
the more thoughtful. Forgetful of self in 
that noble desire engrafted in her nature 
to improve the condition of the race, she 
became successful as a teacher, writer, and 
lecturer; instructing mothers in physio- 
logical laws (having been educated at a 
medical college) , and her influence was felt 
far and wide. Good books were placed in 
the hands of the young, to take the place 
of the light reatling usually so attractive 
and lectures were given, both in private 
and public, which tended to elevate woman 
to a position rarely attained. 

Years have passed since that noble pres- 
ence left its earth life ; but in many hearts 
the memory of Eliza W. Farnham is cher- 
ished with affection, and her teachings 
have lost none of their weight. Is it to l)e 
wondered at that a community, wherein 
she one once labored so successfully, 
should possess advantages somewhat above 
the average. And that the young people 
should grow up thoughtful and earnest in 
the great issue of life. 

It has been my good fortune to be 
thrown amongst this people, and to obsen-e 
the effect one powerful mind has produced 
in preparing them for broader views of 
life and the great and momentous (pies- 
tions of the day. This influence has been 
felt equally by both sexes, and woman has 
been raised in a measure from a position of 
servitude to one of equality, comparative- 
ly speaking, rendering it less difficult for 
her to assert her opinions and assume re- 
sponsilile i)ositions in life, hitherto un- 
cared for. 

If then, such is the effect of one noble 
example, the lesson for us is, to each strive 
so to live, that our light may shine forth 
as from a hill toj), giving light unto the 
darkness of bigotry and sujierstition ; and 
by reaching forth a helping hand to a 
struggling sister, lead her on to jiaths of 
usefulness. It is thus that we may 
answer satisfiu^torily to ourselves and tlit> 
world, the great question— What am I do- 
ing to render the world better for my liav- 
ing lived in it. 



Skunks Destroyino a Levee. — The Yuba 
City Banner oi December 16th says: "It 
has been noticed for some weeks jiast tliat 
the levee on Feather river, a few miles be- 
low town, was considerably damaged by 
some unknown animals, but it was thought 
by badgers or coons. Esseltyne, who looks 
to the interest of the levees in this district, 
directed some of his men to jjut out strycli- 
nine and endeavor to poison the depreda- 
tors, which was accordingly done about a 
w'eek since, but without success. This ex- 
periment was tried with watermelon and 
bread. Another trial was made by the use 
of fresh meat, which proved successful. 
The next day the carcasses of five large 
skunks were found lying near and in the 
holes along the levee. 

More Mulberries. — Messrs. Isoard & 
Webber, of Nevada, are setting out 1,200 
mulberry trees in addition to what they 
now have. This addition will give them 
8,000 in all. These gentlemen are grow- 
ing mulberries to feed for silk. 



Seed Wheat.— Mr. S. C. Pat tee, of N 
H., after his wheat was harvested, thrashed 
out two bushels with the flail, only thr.ash- 
ing what could be " shelled out" without 
untying the bundles or .sheaves. The two 
bushels were carefully hand-picked and put 
by for last year's seeding. The remainder 
of his wheat was thrashed V\y a machine 
propelled by water-jiower. Last spring 
Mr. P. sowed the two Inishcls of flailed and 
seven bushels of machine-thrashed — all in 
the same field, all of the conditions of the 
two kinds, from seeding to harvest, jire- 
cisely alike. The flail thriushed has, by 
careful estimate, yielded 33% per cent, 
more wheat to the bushel of seed sown than 
tlie machine thrashed; and, in the judgment 
of Mr. P. and many others, three pecks of 
the flail-thrashed gives more plants than 
four pecks of the machine-thrashed seeds. 

The Syracuse Journal says that "Geo. 
Crofts" of that city "has an acre of land on 
which was sown a bushel of Norway oats, 
the product of which will be 1(K) bushels. 
They stand on an average over 6 ieet high 
with seed heads 10 inches long, one of 
which on being counted contained over 3tK) 
kernels." 



BBB 



January 14, 1871] 



^^m 



21 



T^Ei CiIltJ^e. 



SlfiEf H^ss^'^^^Y- 



CUPRESSUS LAWSONIANA. 

The Lawson Cypress is a native of this 
coast, and may be found gi-owing in its 
natural stateliness and beauty, from the 
foot of Mount Shasta, through Oregon, 
into Washington Territory. There is no 
finer evergreen in existence, to our notion, 
belonging to the hardy species of conifers. 
It deserves to be a much more common 
tree in our lawns and gardens. 

The tree adapts itself to any position 
and exposure, and is said to even stand the 
severe frosts and cold of the Northern 
States, East, and in Europe, better than 
many of their hardy evergreens. Its great 
merit has been distinctly recognised, it is 
said, since the destructive frosts of 1867, in 
the Eastern States and Europe, and it is 
now unanimously awarded a high posi- 
tion for its hardy character and elegance. 
One writer says: 

"Eor despite any amount of cold or heat, 
damp or di'outh, it maintains throughout, 
from circumference to the center, a hue of 
the freshest green. This constancy in a 
plant of this cliaracter is one of the high- 
est recommendations that it can bear. * * 
Its truly evergreen character is not its 
only merit. Its growth is quite unap- 
proached for symmetry and beauty by any 
other i^lant Ave know; while the slender 
ramifications of its close-set, compact 
branches and branchlets, give it a degree 
of refinement whicli is not seen by any 
other variety of this grand, hardy species, 
numerous and varied as are its forms, and 
elegant as are some of their number. In 
the symetrical outline of the tree itself, in 
the regularly radiating, vertical ramifica- 
tions, in the slender, graceful character of 
the everywhere erect spray, there is about 
this tree an air of refinement rarely met 
with, and which, combined with its bright 
and enduring verdure, stamp it as a gem of 
the first order among evergreens. It is 
one of the finest — aye, one of the very 
finest — hardy, coniferous evergreens which 
have been introduced to our gardens." 

This is high praise, biit not too high, for 
it is but truth, well si^oken. The tree is 
very erect, and slightly pyramidal in form. 
The branchlets are flattened and delicately 
sprayed, with regular radiation from the 
center of the tree to the circumference of 
branches. 

One thing we will say of this, as of all 
of our mountain evergreens of the conifer 
family from the high Sierra ranges — it will 
not flourish in flat, heavy, jjoorly-drained 
soils, in our coast valleys, where alkali is 
prevalent in the soil or subsoil. We have 
seen many trees, such as pines, firs, cedars, 
cypress, etc., removed from the interior 
regions to our saline soils, die, not fi-om 
want of care, but from the efiect of alkali 
and inactive subsoils; where deciduous 
trees and coast evergreens, such as the 
Monterey cypress, Monterey pine, Italian 
cypress, etc.. will flourish with vigor. 

THE OREGON TEA~TREE. 



fW¥ fi^V'SLJlES. 



The Ceouathus Oregonus, sometimes call- 
ed the Oregon tea-tree, is sj^oken of in the 
Willamette Farmer as a very desirable or- 
namental ijlant for the lawn or garden, and 
will grow to the size of a very large shrub 
or small tree. It is a native of Oregon, 
and flourishes in the timber neighborhood 
about Oregon City, in the thickets about 
Vancouver and in many other localities. 

It is an evergreen, its leaves, in winter 
emiting a balsamic fragrance. It exhibits 
blossoms in May or June, which are white, 
of strong magnolia fragrance and not un- 
like those of the lilac. It should be trim- 
med to a single standard. 

The editor of the jiaper above-named 
says of it: — "We have passed through 
lai-ge tracts of land on the upjjer Columbia, 
covered with this plant, when it was in 
blossom, and its fragrance was so over- 
powering that we were glad to escape and 
permit 'its sweetness to waste on the desert 
air.'" 

There are many native jilants, trees and 
shrubs, as yet scarcely known exce^jt 
to botanists, growing wild on this coast, 
which might be matle beautiful ornaments 
for the garden or lawn. 



HERDING SHEEP. 

We have been requested to publish the 
following section from the State law in 
reference to the herding of sheep upon the 
public lands: 

Section 5th.— Nothing in this Act shall 
be so constructed as to prohibit the herd- 
ing of sheej} upon any unoccupied public 
land in this State, or of the United States, 
within said counties; provided. That in the 
counties of Mendocino, Calaveras, Yuba, 
Merced, Shasta, Siskiyou, Fresno and Tu- 
lare, it shall not be lawful for any person 
or persons, owning or having charge of 
sheep, to herd the same on any of the un- 
occupied lands of this State or the United 
States, where such herding may cause in- 
jury or inconvenience to actual settlers re- 
siding contiguous to such lands, who have 
horses or cattle ranging on such unoccu- 
pied lands; and for a violation of this pro- 
vision, the penalties of section 27, of the 
Organic Act, to which this is amendatory, 
shall ajjply. 

The working of this law is creating no 
inconsiderable trouble in the counties 
specified in the Act, between sheep men 
and cattle men. The business of sheep 
raising is one of the most remunerative in 
the stock raising line, where the former is 
placed on the same footing with cattle 
raising, and is one in which men of small 
means can readily engage. Unfoi-tunately, 
however, for poor men, the section above 
quoted from the State law, prevents any 
sheep raiser from enjoying the benefits 
granted by a beneficent national govern- 
ment, to a free use of the public lands, 
when cattle or horses are herded contigu- 
ous. This law must operate to drive all 
but wealthy sheep growers out of the busi- 
ness, as none but men of means can afford 
to buy or fence land for such purposes. 
Two cases growing out of this law have 
alrea<^ly been brought up in the courts of 
Siskiyou county. We have seen it stated 
that the constitutionality of the law will be 
called in question. 

Sheep Eaising in Nevada.— Sheep 
raising, says the Reese Eiver Reville, is 
becoming an important branch of the in- 
dustry of Nevada, where grass-covered 
mountains are so well adapted to this pur- 
pose. Heretofore wool has been a second- 
ary matter in connection with the business, 
owing to the cost of transportation and the 
low price of the article in the San Francisco 
market, the only one accessible to Nevada. 
Heretofore the fact that this city was the 
only market open to Nevada wool-growers, 
has been rather a drawback to the business 
there; but the facilities now afi'orded by the 
railroad for a direct market at St. Louis, is 
having the efi'ect to greatly stimulate and 
improve the business. 

SHEEt Raising in Oeegon. — The Walla 
Walla Union says : " Persons who are exten- 
sively engaged in sheep raising, informs us 
that there is no kind of stock that will pay 
as well for raising as shee23. Our climate 
seems particularly adapted to them; our 
dry and pleasant winters, and our luxur- 
iant and boundless pastures, makes it al- 
most unnecessary to give sheep any at- 
tention at all except that of herding. 
The reason that this branch of business has 
not had more attention heretofore, is that 
the impression has been made that Walla 
Walla wool is worthless. This, however, 
is a mistake, and our wool finds a ready 
market, both in Oregon and California. 
The demand of mutton is also increasing 
rapidly, and the time is not far distant 
when sheei) raising will be made one of the 
principal, as well as the most remunerative 
business of our valley. 



Freak op a Feuit Tbee. — We don't pre- 
tend to vouch for the following, but give 
the statement, as we find it in the Placer 
Herald. Nature somtimes performs won- 
droiis and quite inexplicable freaks, and we 
shall make it a partof our duty to collect and 
record under the above head for the benefit 
of our readers such cases as come to our 
notice. We copy as follows: — P. M. An- 
drews, of the firm of Hubbard & Andrews, 
of this town, has in his lot some choice fruit 
trees, and among the rest an apple tree of 
the sweet bower variety, which bears a fine, 
large, round apple. Last Summer, when 
the fruit on this tree was about half grown, 
the tree sent forth a new lot of blossoms, 
not of the ordinary kind, but almost like a 
double rose and a little larger than the or- 
dinary apjjle bloom. A second crop of ap- 
ples followed these strange blossoms, and 
are now matured; but these apples are as 
unlike the first crop as were the sjjring and 
summer blossoms. The second crop of rose 
like Ijlossoms have iihotographed or tyjji- 
fied themselves on the apple, thus making 
the apples assume the form and shape of 
the blossoms. These apples are smallest at 
the stem end, swelling, bell like, as they 
approach the blossom end, at which point 
they spread out like a rose; thus as we said 
beford, typifing the bloom. These are the 
facts, for we saw the blossoms, and now have 
three of the a])ple8 before us. We know of 
no one that can explain or account for this 
queer fruit freak, and can assure the reader 
that we are not going to undertake it our- 
self . However, here is food for reflection. 



Make it Pat. — B. Guire, of Roaring 
River, says thtf Shasta Courier, recently 
sold his herd of sheep to parties in Tehama 
county for $12,500. These sheep were 
mostly raised and pastured in the Bald 
Hills, in the western part of that county, 
and a few years ago, before Guire embark- 
ed in the sheep raising business, he was on 
the ' ' hard uj) list" and had to rustle for 
his regular hash. 



Cranbebeies IN Washington Tl y. 

— We have already mentioned the i b of 
the purchase of a tract of 2,400 acres in the 
vicinity of Gray's Harbor, Washington 
Territory, for the purpose of converting the 
same into a cranberry bed. The Portland, 
Oregon Bulletin, of a later date says that 
Mr. Hasty, of New Jersey, has also pur- 
chased 2,000 acres lying adjacent to the 
other purchase. It is his intention to trans- 
plant a thousand acres of cranberry bushes 
next Sjjring, and place them under careful 
culture. 

The cultivation of these berries promises 
to become a profitable traflc with the rajjid- 
ly increasing demand. Usually, as the 
bushes grow wild, about five or six bushels 
only can be obtained from an acre; and it is 
estimated by those who have had extensive 
experience in the domestication and cultiire 
of wild berries, that, by careful and system- 
atic cultivation between two hiindred and 
four hundi-ed bushels of cranberries can be 
produced per acre. The enterprise is now 
an experiment, but those individuals who 
have undertaken the cultivation of wild 
cranberries ought to succeed, and no doubt 
wiU. 



Grafting the Tomato on the Potato. — 
A correspondent states that he succeeded 
perfectly in grafting a scion of the tomato 
upon the tomato vine. He cut about one- 
third of the potato shoot off', just above a 
leaf, taking care not to injure the bud at its 
base. The scion, being shielded from the 
sun, was every day sprinkled with a little 
water, and it took readily. In the fall the 
tomato was loaded with ripe and unripe 
fruit, and had grown to a large size. 

One of our exchanges, speaks of a lot of 
potatoes which were planted, last spring, 
near the top of the gi-onnd, and "hilled in 
the usual manner. The drouth was very 
severe in the neighborhood, and the pota- 
toes i)lanted as above were hardly worth 
digging, while other lots, in adjoining fields, 
and equally exposed to the drouth, but 
planted in the bottom of deep furrows and 
never hilled at all, yielded remarkably 
well. 



Planting Potatoe Sprouts.— Mr. Guil- 
bert Strong, of Oswego, N. Y., relates the 
following: — 

I had about a quart of early Rose pota- 
toes given to me last spring. I had heard 
of such prodigious yields from a small 
amount of seed, I concluded there must 
be some deviation from the ordinary mode 
of planting, and concluded to try an exper- 
iment. I let the sprouts grow on my po- 
tatoes until about the 1st of Jiinfe; they 
were six or eight inches long. I then broke 
them oft' and set them out as I would cab- 
bage plants; I put them in rows two feet 
apart one way and eight inches the other. 
I also cut the potatoes and planted them in 
the same way in rows adjoining my sprout 
rows. And now, in digging my potatoes, 
I find my sprout seed to yield in every par- 
ticular equal to that from the seed potato. 
Let them sprout to the length of six or eight 
inches; break off' the sprouts and set them 
out as you would cabbage or tomato plants. 
Feed or eat up the jjotatoes, and nothing 
will be lost. 



Pbolieic Corn. — Mrs. George P. Mor- 
gan, of Upper Alton, Illinois, claims to 
raise the most i^rolific corn in the world. 
It is called Egyptian Joint Corn, and pro- 
duces ten or twelve eai's to the stalk, or two 
hundred bushels to the acre. 



Potato Fbbaks. — A lady in Yiisilanti 
Mich., found, this summer, among her 
old potatoes, one which had siilitopen, and 
inside were found three new potatoes as large 
as hickory nuts A. gentleman in Wayne Co., 
N. Y., found in his garden a cluster of po- 
tato balls, of which two of the balls were 
perfect potatoes. 



Raisin Grapes.— Mr. Wm. Wells, of 
Morega valley has sent to the Contra Costa 
Gazelle a sample of finely cured raisins — 
equal to the best imported Malaga — of ad- 
mirable flavor, fleshy, large and bright. 
Mr. Wells has a few vines of the variety 
from which such raisins can be made, and 
knows no other name for it than the "rai- 
sin grape," cuttings of which may be pro- 
cured of him. 



Large Oranges. — The San Bernardino 
Guardian has seen a box of oranges grown 
on Mr. Anson Van Luven's place in old 
San Bernardino, that weighed 11% pounds 
to the dozen. Some of them weighing one 
pound each. They have been shiijped to 
this city to show what San Bernardino 
County can do in the way of raising 
oranges. 

Removing Teees. — A correspondent of 
the American Institute Farmer's Club stat- 
ed that he had a pear orchard in which the 
trees were too close — ten feet each way and 
every fourth one a standard — and asked if 
he could take, them uj) safely at their pre- 
sent age (four years) and reset. Mr. P. T. 
Quin said, " Yes, it is not difficult to move 
pear trees, even those tenyears old, provid- 
ed the work be properly done. Cut back 
the tops and spare all the roots possible. 
Let the spade in, always keei)ing the edge 
toward the edge of the tree — at least four 
feet might be better if the roots run far." 

Dissappeaeed. — The S. J. Independent 
says: The disease called "black tongue," 
which has been raging so fearfully among 
the horses in Evergreen District, has en- 
tirely disappeared. No new cases have 
been discovered, and those animals lately 
attacked by the malady have nearly all re - 
covered. The disease appeared to assume 
a milder type during the latter part of 
the time during which it prevailed. At 
first every horse which took it died. We 
are glad to learn that our farmers are suf- 
fering no more from this misfortune. 



A Loss to the Coast. — It is now stated 
authoritively that Bret Harte is to take up 
his abode permanently at the East. We 
can believe that the change may be advan- 
tageous to him, in most respects, but to us 
it will be a grievous loss. He has ac- 
cpiired and maintained here [a reputation 
which is enjoyed but by few literary men, 
and has thereby raised the Coast in the es- 
timation of the world. We owe very 
much to him, and it seems a pity that we 
cannot make it to his advantage to remain 
with us. Wherever he may be, however, 
he will have the hearty good wishes of our 
California public. 

Fish Raising-.- Parties desiring further 
information of the California and Lake 
Tahoe Fish culture Co.'s operations, illus- 
trated in our sample No. Dec. 17, 1870, 
should address Comer Bros., Truckeo, Ne- 
vada County, Cal. 

The expression, "spreading himself like 
a green bay-tree," is usually considered 
slang. It is of good parentage, however, 
as one can ascertain by examining the 
thirty-fifth verso of the thirty-seventh 
Psalm of David. 



22 



[January 14, 1871 



® 



GRICULTURALINDUSTRY 



Profits of Grape Growing. 

In order to realize the largest profits 
from any branch of fruit growing. Care 
and judgment must be exercised in the se- 
lection of the vai-ietics to be cultivated. In 
the matter of grapes, for example, two and 
three times the amount of profits may be 
derived from some kinds of grapes, over 
that obtainable from others, when raised 
for the table. 

Enormous profits are realized from some 
of the vineyai-ds in the immediate neigh- 
borhood of this city, especially where 
proper judgement has been employed in 
the selection of varieties and corresponding 
care of their culture. The following fig- 
ures have been given as reliable and trust- 
worthy: — Mr. Shaw has realized as high as 
$420 per acre, gross, from his Muscat of 
Alexandria vines — he has reported an an- 
nual average of $270 net. Meister Broth- 
ers, report still larger profits — §273 per 
acre gross, and $775 net from the Alexan- 
dria Muscat; and over §4.50 from black 
Hamburg, black Malvoise, golden Chas- 
sclas and White Tokay. He has reported 
as high as §2,300 net per acre, from small 
lots of very rare varieties, such as have 
commanded an exceptional price in the 
market. 

The mission gi-ape, the most abundant, 
and least valuable, has ])aid as high as $100 
net, wlieu carefully cultivated for t)ie table, 
and convenient to the market. When we 
consider the small average profit Irom an 
acre of wheat, or other grain or root crops, 
it would appear evident that those Califor- 
nians who have large numbers of choice 
vines, well bearing and in good locations, 
must be getting large interest for their in- 
vestment. 

Of course grape growing, for wine, is a 
very different affair, and less i)rofitable ; but 
wherever a sufficient amount of grapes can 
be found in any given locality to sustain 
an extensive wine manufactory, the profits 
for the vineyards, even the most ordinary, 
is many times that which can be realized 
from wheat culture, even when the fullest 
allowance is made for the cost of planting 
and bringing the vineyard to maturity. 

The culture of the grape for wine or rais- 
ins is a branch of agriculture that can be 
most profitably and conveniently followed 
in the lower ijortions of our mountain 
counties, and should be everywhere encour- 
aged. With the other branches of busi- 
ness, which its presence will introduce, it 
may be made one of the most readj^ and ef- 
fective means of advancing oiir mining 
counties from their present state of financial 
depression to the very hight of prosperity. 

As an evidence of this let us look at a 
few facts with regard to the vineyards of 
France, as they were before the commence- 
ment of the present devastating war in that 
country. There are 5,.500,000 acres of vine- 
yard in that country, distributed among 
a population of about 3,000,000 people 
nearly all of whom are either directly or 
indirectly dependent upon that business. 
The vineyards are generally divided 
up into small areas, averaging about 2% 
acres each. The average yield of wine 
is about 250 gallons per acre. Many 
vineyards yield a profit of $300 per 
acre, per annum. The choice vine- 
yard land, with the vines thereon, is 
worth from 82,500 to §5,000 per acre. The 
vineyards of France feed, either directly or 
indirectly about one-tenth of the entire 
population of that country, and create 
enormous annual values, said to represent 
something like §260,000,000 a year. It 
will be seen that the yield of the wine in 
France, is set down much below the aver- 
age of our California vineyards. This 
State has nothing to fear, in the future, 
from France in this business; and the val- 
ues there created and the population then 
supported may easily be realized in our 
own State — and no where more readily than 
in our foothills — the natural home of the 
vine. 



Pruning Grape Vines— A New Idea. 

Eurroi! Press : — I notice that the Cali- 
fornia Hortict(/lurist, of December, advises 
"owners of vineyards to prune their vines 
as soon as time and <;ireumstances will ad- 
mit." 

There has been a great deal written, pro 
and con, on early and late pruning of the 
grape vine, and there are some facts that 
are woi-th considering. I hardly think it 
proper to advise indiscriminately. 

Vines grown in scanty soil and in dry 
parts of the State — the interior valleys and 
foothills of the Sierra Nevada — should be 
pruned before the sap starts in the spring, 
as they require all the nutriment which has 
been collected and stored in the roots; but 
vines grown in moist, rich soils, near the 
coast, are better i^ruued in the spring. The 
profuse "bleeding" is rather a benefit, as 
tlie vines then run less to wood, and fruit 
better; if so exliausted, moreover, the fruit 
is less liable to mildew, and is sweeter than 
on vines early pruned. 

It is a well known fact that in the hot, 
dry valleys and foothills the vine is prolific 
of fruit and is not over vigorous; while 
about Sun Francesco Bay, and within the 
full influence of the moist sea breeze, the 
grapes are more acid, watery and soft, the 



Corn Haskings. 

To many of the elder portion of our 
readers, the above title will recall memo- 
ries of former merry-makings at the East. 
Scenes of busy hands and cheerful faces, 
the old barn, the piles of grain, the finding 
a red ear of corn and its consequences, may 
be conjured up. The name has to many 
of both sexes a forcible significance. 

One little draw-back on such occasions 
was the unpleasantness of getting the hands 
sore. The constant friction, the wear and 
tear, was severe on those whose skin had 
not attained a very considerable degree of 
toughness. Our illustration shows a de- 
vice for preventing this, and of enabling 
one to do the work more rapidly. The 
invention consists merely of leather gloves, 
of the form sliown in the cut, which are 
provided with metallic claws attached, 
which assist in tearing the husk from the 
ears. These gloves protect those parts ex- 
posed to the wear from the husks, and en- 
able one to husk perhaps double the 
amount otherwise possible. 

The glove with the small claws is made 
to enclose the thumb and forefinger of the 
left hand, and the glove with the large 
claw to enclose the thumb and first two 
fingers of the right hand. They are laced 




HALL'S PATENT HUSKING GLOVE. 



vines less productive, and great runners. 
Not only is it well to "bleed" the vine in 
such localities, but it is also well to 

Crop the Vineyards 
with early vegetables— i)oas and such kinds 
of plants, as w ill exhaust the soil of moist- 
ure and strength. 

This idea will probably be new to most 
of the readers of the Feess. Indeed, I 
believe it is a new idea in fact; but it is 
worthy of trial. I have seen two small 
vineyards in San Jose, side by side — one 
pruned early, and well cultivated; the 
other pruned late and not tilled at all — 
everything else being equal. The one not 
pruried or cropi)ed was a failure in fruit; 
while the one late pruned, and crojjped to 
grass and weeds, produced an abundance 
of fine quality of fruit. 

S. Harris Herrikg. 

Montana Ikrigatinu Canal. — The Hel- 
ena Gazelle, which keeps us well posted on 
many imi)ortant matters in its territory, 
gives the following concerning the Jeffer- 
son Canal: It is taken out of the Jeffer- 
son, near Silver Star, and is calculated to 
carry 20,000 inches of water. It covers a 
great deal of fine farming land on Fish 
Creek, White Tail DeerCreek and Boulder; 
passes behind Radersburg, close to the 
mountains, and covers the entire Missouri 
Valley from Helena to that point. The ex- 
treme length from the point where it is 
taken out to Helena is one hundred and 
sixty miles, and presents little or no diffi- 
cult work on the route. The arable land 
which it covers consists of twentj'-five 
townships, each containing 23,040 acres, or 
a total of 576,000 acres, being the largest 
amount of arable land in any valley of 
the Territory, and far more than can be 
covered by any similar work. Besides 
these agricultural lands thus proposed to 
be rescued from the wilderness, the canal 
covers many valuable jjlacer mines, includ- 
ing those near ihe Jeflerson, those on 
Indian Creek, those on Beaver Creek, 
Mitchcirs G);lch, McClelhin Gulch, Prick- 
ley Pear, the lo\\er pai-t of Holmes' Gulch, 
and gulches and bars between that and 
Helena, and lastly , the immense Helena bars. 



and strapi)ed to fit. The ear of corn isheld 
in the left hand and one-half of the husk is 
stripped with the right. Then the remain- 
ing part of the husk is started by a side 
movement of the left thumb past the 
edge of the ear, and stripped back w ith the 
the thumb and fore-finger. At the same 
time the ear is grasped with the right 
hand and broken off across the left. 

It will be seen that it is not necessary to 
commence at the end of the ear, as with 
other huskers, but the ear may be grasped 
two or three inches back from the end 
where most convenient. The thuaib of the 
right hand should fit lietween the large 
claws of the fingers of the same hand, when 
they are pressed together, which gives a 
very firm hold of the husk while stripi)ing 
it off'. It is important to pull lengthwise 
of the jjlate and across the fingers, instead 
of across the plate and lengthwise of the 
fingers, a mistake made by many. 

Testimonials from farmers are given, 
showing that the gloves are highly esteemed 
wherever used. We have a pair at oUr of- 
fice, which we retain, not so much from 
an expectation cf using them in corn, but 
as a means of offense and defence in possi- 
ble emei'gencies. The gloves have been 
l)atented and are manufactured by the 
Hall Husking Glove Companj', 90 and 92 
South Water street, Chicago, 111. They 
are made of three sizes, and for both right- 
handed and left-handed persons. 

The Peeler Cotton. — The Georgia iVeiro 
says: " This variety is giving satisfaction. 
It is rapid in its growth, matures early, is 
very i)rolittc, and the staple is almost if not 
quite, equal to the black seed — long, silky 
and strong. It ought to, and probably will, 
sell for ten or fifteen cents more than the 
ordinary cotton. It w illbe largely cultiva- 
ted in this section next season." — The Peel- 
er, it will be observed, is one of the varie- 
ties recommended for cultivation in this 
State. 



California Agricultural Notes. 

The orass started around Stockton by 
the early rains, has been much of it, destroy- 
ed by the recent frosts. 

The cold we.\ther has killed a great 
many sheep in the upjier San Jaoquin val- 
ley. 

The farmers around Woodland are hold- 
ing on to their wheat, believing that the 
want of rain for the new croj) will jirodnce 
an julvance in price. 

Cows and young calves are said to be 
dying on the plains about Marysville for 
want of feed. 

Large EoG.^The Solano Republican has 
received an egg measuring 0% by ly^ 
inches in size. 

MrLK FOR San Francisco. — There are 
200 wagons engaged in supplying this (ity 
with milk. They dfiliver 12,()(Kt gallons 
every day — including the water added. 

TuLE Lands. — The Vallejo Chronicle of 
December 29th says: Smith <fc Co., who 
have been reclaiming some lands a few 
miles above Vallejo, have nearly com- 
pleted the reclaiming of about 11,000 acres, 
all required now being but the erection of 
a few flood-gates. This they have sold at a 
fair price, and in the coming spring intend 
commencing the reclamation of another 
large tract. 

PAJtASiTES IN Wild Game. — The Sim 
.lose ludependeid of the 4th inst., has the 
following: Mr. E. W. Hamilton yesterday 
showed us a duck which he shot on (!ayot« 
creek on Sunday. The flesh of the breast 
was filled full of pai-asites, the size and 
appearance of the common maggot. Oth- 
erwise the bird appeared to be in a healthy 
condition. The i)arasites were embeddinl 
in the tissues, while the flesh surrouudiiig 
them appeared to be jjcrfectly free from 
any disease. The flesh was entirely un- 
broken, and there was no trace of a wound 
auywliere. 

We learn' that the farmers around Davis- 
ville arc* much discouraged from the want of 
rain, and that they have now ([uit plowing. 
They have suflered recentlj- from a strong 
north wind, which dries up the ground, 
and has a very prejudicial effect upon farm- 
ing operations. 

The Chico Enterprise of the 31st ult. 
says : Notwithstanding our cold, freezing 
nights, our farmers are i^lowing, the 
ground still being in good condition. We 
are favored; as we have been iuforni(>d that 
the lower counties are suffering for want of 
rain, and plowingis entirely stojipad. 

Around Haywood the farmers are jilow- 
ing deeper than usual this year. They 
state they will be compell<;d to stop work 
unless it rains w ithin a few days. Cattle 
are suffering for want of feed. The gra.ss 
is very short and has been cut down by the 
heavy frost. 

Live Fences. — About two years ago a 
number of farmers at the upper end of this 
county, says the, Vallejo Recorder, com- 
menced setting out live fences, mostly of 
Osage orange. They have been growing 
very rapidly, and now strings of live 
fences, five or six miles in extent, may be 
seen there. The farmers encouraged by 
the wonderful growth of this kind of fenc- 
ing, and its many advantages, have been 
setting out live fences very extensively this 
winter. 

Oranges and Cork Oak. — The Vi.salia 
Delta of December 7th has the following : 
We have had extraordinary heavy frosts 
lately, but we notice that it seems to have 
no ett'ect nj)on our orange trees, those that 
are in bearing look perfectly healthy and 
will undoul)tedly mature the crop. There 
is a region along the margin of the foot- 
liills much more free from frost than 
the valley around Visalia, and there can be 
no doubt but that this region is as well 
adapted to the production of the orange as 
any jiortion of the State. We notice also 
that the few specimens of cork oak, that 
have been planted here are healtliy, and 
have made a growth quite equal to that of 
our native live oak. 

Growing Cocoanuts.— A resident of 
Yuba county, says the Marysville Standard 
of the 30th ult.,liaving been sucx-essful last 
year in growing a cocoanut, it having 
reached a higlit of two feet, a number of 
our citizens an; also experimenting with 
this tropical fruit. We matle a tliorough 
examination of a lot of cocoanuts at Knight's 
fruit store a few days ago, and found 
five that had live sj)routs about an incli in 
length. The ]ilant germinates through 
what we call " the mouth of the monkey," 
said germ being carefnll}' ])roteeted from 
cold and injury by the husky bark which 
covers the end. The experiment of grow- 
ing cocoanuts in this climate is one worth 
ti-ying, 



J 



January 14, 1871.] 



-<r^ 



23 




BY OUR LADY EDITORS. 



A GOOD WIFE. 

A good wife rose from her bed one morn, 

And thought with a nervous dread 
Of piles of clothes to,be washed, and more 

Than a dozen mouths to be fed. 
There's the meals to get for the men in the 
field, 

And the children to fix away 
To school, and the milk to be skimmed and 
churned; 

And all to be done that day. 

It had rained in the night, and the wood 

Was wet as it could be; 
There were puddings and pies to bake, besides 

A loaf of cake for tea. 
And the day was hot, and her aching head 

Throbbeil wearily as she said, 
"If maidens but knew what good wives know 

They would be in no haste to wed." 

"Jennie, what do you think I told Ben 
Browu, ' ' 

Called the farmer from the well; 
And a flush crept up to his bronzed brow. 

And his eyes half bashfully fell. 
"It was this," he said, and coming near. 

He smiled, and stopping down, 
Kissed her cheek — "'twas this, that you were 
the best 

And dearest wife in town!" 

The farmer went back to the field, and the wife. 

In a smiling and absent way. 
Sang snatches of tender little songs 

She'd not sung for many a day. 
And the pain in her head was gone, and the 
clothes 

Were white as the foam of the sea; 
Her bread was light, and her butter sweet 

And golden as it could be. 

"Just think!" the childi-en all called in a 
breath, 
"Tom Wood has run ofT to sea! 
He wouldn't we know if he only had 

As happy a home as we." 
The night came down, and the good wife 
smiled 
To herself as she softly said, 
" 'Tis so sweet to labor for these we love 
It is not strange that maids will wed." 

Woman's racific Coast Journal. 



HOUSEKEEPING. 

[WnrrTEN fob the Press.] 

" Oh, dear, Annie, how I wish I could 
once in a while sit down to a well-cooked 
meal. Cannot you jjossibly teach that girl 
how to cook a steak without drying it up to 
a crisp? And see those biscuits! they are 
as black as your hat. We always have them 
either half burnt uf) or else under done and 
soggy." " Well, now, Albert!" the young 
wife replied; " I am trying to learn how 
you like things done ; but remember, dear, 
I never had a chance to learn to cook. We 
girls were always at school, and never al- 
lowed to ftiss about the kitchen, and be- 
cause Ma hated housework, we grew up to 
think it a horrid bore to have any thing to 
do with it." 

" The more shame for you," said the hus- 
band crossly, " and I advise you, the first 
thing yoti do, to go to some thorough 
housekeeper and spend a few weeks, and get 
posted in the mysteries of the art of cook- 
ing. When I was a bachelor and lived at 
sister Sue's, such a thing as burnt crust was 
never seen in the house, and the meat Avas 
always done just to a turn. Susie was one 
of those clever housekeepers who kept 
every thing in apple-pie order, and was al- 
ways planning some new delicacy for her 
husband." 

"Those were happy days without doubt, 
dear Albert; and I mean to try to please 
you better in the ftiture, if jon will only 
bear with me a little, and let me go and 
spend a week or so with your sister, to 
learn her way of doing things. Then I shall 
come back and make your home as comfor- 
table, and your life as happy as when a 
bachelor; sha'nt I dear'?" 

Albert Norris had married, at thirty, a 
young boarding-school Miss in her teens, 
who had attracted him by her resemblance 



to an idolized sister, with whom he had 
lived ever since her marriage. After the 
first month of wedded bliss, he began to 
discover faults in his yoiing wife which his 
sister did not possess; and disappointment 
rankled in his bosom, and often rendered 
him querulous and fault-finding. Annie 
was of a bright cheerful disposition, and not 
ashamed to acknowledge that slie was not 
perfection; therefore the more willing to 
improve every opportunity for becoming a 
better housekeeper. She had listened pa- 
tiently to her husband's accounts of life at 
" sister Sue's," and how John wotdd come 
home in an ill humor, and with closed eyes 
and furrowed brow, throw himself in an 
arm-chair; how, with a light step, "Sue 
would enter and gently lay her hands upon 
his hair, and kiss the eyelids till they opened 
with a sign of relief, and the old sunny 
look would come back; then throwing both 
arms around her, he would exclaim — 
"Susie, you are an angel!" 

Then, in the long winter evenings, the 
happy wife would sit by his side, with cro- 
chet-needle and bright colored wool, making 
little dainty mats and tidies for adorning the 
house ; while her husl)and read aloud some 
story of domestic life, such as they were 
enjoying, while the bachelor brother lin- 
gered near taking notes for future use, and 
wondering if it should ever fall to his lot 
to be so thoroughly loved and appreciated. 

Years had passed away and two children 
liad come to fill the vacancy in sister Sue's 
home, caused by All)ert's marriage, and the 
brother and sister had never met; when, 
one morning, Annie was startled by the an- 
nouncement that lier husband was going to 
the city, on tlie following day, aad wanted 
her to accomjjany him to spend a week or 
ten days with sister Sue. Of course noth- 
ing could give her more pleasure, and her 
ready acciuiesence delighted Albert. They 
set out at the appointed time, and reached 
their place of destination toward the close 
of the next day, and as five o'clock had al- 
ways been their hour for dining, Albert felt 
sure of finding all at home, and he rather 
lotted on the surprise which their sudden 
appearance would cause his sister. They 
rang the door bell, and after waiting a con- 
siderable length of time they heard first — 
little footsteps ajiproacliing, tlien little fin- 
gei-s twisting the knob and trying to lift the 
latch, which finally yielded, and the door 
slowly opened revealing the most Judicrous 
picture one coxxld imagine. 

A little girl aged four, dressed out in 
mamma's best flounced silk skirt and velvet 
sack, with a jaunty hat and feathers, carry- 
ing an ojjcn parasol in her tiny hand and 
glancing back over her shoiilder with the 
utmost complacency at the broad expanse of 
dress trailing behind on the floor. Her 
companion, a boy some two years older, 
was decked out in John's Sunday coat and 
tall beaver, with a gold-headed cane in his 
hand; both evidently ready for a walk. 
Greatly surprised at seeing strangers, they 
suddenly turned and ran through the long 
entry calling loudly — " Come, Biddy, quick 
— 'cause, a lady and gemman at a door." 
Just at this moment John came iip the steps 
iind received the new comers most cordially; 
invited them in and throwing open the par- 
lor door, uttered an exclamation of amaze- 
ment. There stood the chairs in a line 
across the room, partitioning off tlie corner 
where the sofa stood, upon which a large 
Avax doll was comfortably reclining. Mam- 
ma's work-box stood open on the floor, its 
contents strown about, and it was evident 
the children had been engaged in playing 
at housekeeping. At this moment the two 
little grotesque figures entered to confront 
the intruders. " Well-a-day, now this is 
pretty good; where's mamma, Johnny ?" 
said the astonished father, at the same time 
bidding his guests to be seated, "Why, 
she's gdhe a woman's right's meetin, and 
telled us be good chillen and she bring us 
sumsin' nice." " And so you thotight you'd 
improve the opportunity by dressing up in 
her nice clothes, did you, Kitty ? and John- 
ny, you rascal, what are yon doing withmy 
coat and hat — come to papa, my little girl, 
and show this lady and Uncle Albert what 
rosy cheeks you've got. Keeping house in 
mamma's parlor, eh ? Go, Johnny, and tell 
Biddy to come and put this room in order. 

But the dinner bell was heard at this 
moment, and the visitors were shown into 
the dining room, after having removed 
their trappings. Here was another scene 
of disorder. Biddy had been biisy wash- 
ing, attending to the children between 
tiines; but their playthings lay scattered 
all about the room. Noah's ark and its in- 
habitants were struggling amidst broken 
dolls and other toys, Avhile the lounge was 
covered with broken gingerbread and the 
wrecks of a china tea set. The dinner ta- 
ble presented a meagre appearance. A 
joint of beef had been warmed over, and 
was badly scorched. Uni)ealed potatoes, 
i bread with burnt crust and a heavy streak 



running through it, and fried parsnips 
completed the repast. 

Biddy quickly brought the additional 
plate required, and then proceeded to take 
the children away for the purpose of di- 
vesting them of their superfluous finery, 
when they were met at the door by the as- 
tonished mother. "Well now, Bridget, 
did I ever! How came you to let those 
naughty children go to my room and — 
why who have we here ? Is that you Albert 
and Annie too, I do declare! Well, well, I 
am amazed! The house in such confusion 
and a wash-day' s dinner. I hope John has 
made you feel at home. I was unavoidably 
detained at the Suffrage meeting, and could 
not come a minute sooner. Those children 
have been turning everything topsey tur- 
vey. But then its all in a life time, and 
they will not always be babies. How does 
my bachelor brother enjoy his new life, 
and a home of his own "? I suppose you 
are both as happy as a pair of tiirtle doves, 
and have everything just as you want it. 
We used to when we first went to house- 
keeping; bixt somehow or other, things 
have changed since then, and I am so much 
interested in outside affairs that I have no 
time to worry about home matters, so I let 
them go as they will. John makes a row. 
now and then, but men always do that, I 
find, so where's the use of trying to please 
them forever? Besides, one might spend 
all the time keeping things in running 
order, and have no chance to open abook." 

So this was the home of sister Sue, the 
pattern house keeper and model wife ! Two 
days spent in sucli a Babel was sufficient to 
make even Albert acknowledge that there 
was nothing of advantage to be gained 
there, so from that time he has ceased to 
annoy his young wife with unpleasant re- 
marks about her short-comings and the su- 
perior house-keeping of " Sister Sue." 



THE FASHIONS. 

[Written for the Press.] 

Now that the war in Europe continues, 
and the Parisians have other matters to at- 
tend to, than setting the fashions for the 
world; would it not be Avell for us, as 
American Women, to consider the subject 
of dress as a fine art, and endeavor to typ- 
ify our individual natures, rather than 
merely copying other nations? That it 
may become a fine art, is possible, and 
probable too, if we only give the subject 
mature thought. 

For instance, a certain style of hat comes 
uj); and behold the reign of fashion! Old 
and young, beautiful and ugly, whether 
becoming or un'becoming, all must bow to 
its influence until something new takes its 
place; and all left on the hands of dealers, 
that is "old style" are shipped to supply 
markets more or less remote from the cen- 
tre of civilization! 

Indeed such a power has fashion become 
in this free country of ours that it holds 
despotic sway over rich and poor alike! 
Many honest men have been known to 
commit crimes, in their endeavors to save 
themselves from the ruin, their style of 
living, and the extravagance of their fami- 
lies have brought upon them, while those 
in humble life, aspiring to imitate their 
wealthier neighbors or friends, are lead 
into extravagance far beyond their means, 
and thus become bankritj^ts and discour- 
aged, or worse — dishonest. 

Among our women, the inordinate de- 
sire for dress, is making them reckless, 
hideous, and unhealthy; unfitting them 
for the duties of wife and mother — the 
natural and highest sphere of woman. 

Acknowledging these evils as belonging 
to the wrong action of the love of dress, 
let us see what can be done to mitigate the 
evil and bring about abetter state of things. 

Ideality, or the love of the beautiful in 
our natures, is right, and should he culti- 
vated, but let us not carry it to extremes; 
we should consider, first, the adaptability 
of certain styles of dress to the wearer; 
second, means of the i)urchaser ; and third, 
the occupation. 

A brunette should never wear sky blue; 
nor should a poor sewing girl indulge in 
velvets; and, how inapi)roj)riate to see the 
woman of business, at market in trailing 
silks ! 

Let us individualize ourselves .in our 
style of dress; and also adapt our costume 
for the duties of our life. Let the dainty 
laces, indicate the fine sentiment of the 
wearer, or the simple linen collar, the mat- 
ter of fact woman of family. 



But for conscience sake, women of 
ica! don't allow the finger of scorn i 
pointed at us, as willing to ruin fathers, 
and husbands, for the mere gratification of 
buying the costliest fabrics, and a^ttracting 
the attention of coarse crowds in streets 
and theatres, by a display, not of the in- 
trinsic worth and value of the woman ; but 
the dry goods and fashions from abroad! 

li. P. J. 



Bookless Houses. 

We form judgments of men from the lit- 
tle things about their houses, of which the 
owners i)erhai)s never think. 

Flowers about a rich man's house may 
signify only that he has a good gardener, or 
that he has refined neighbors, and does what 
he sees them do. But men are not accus- 
tomed to buy books unless they want them. 
If, on visiting the dwelling of a man of 
slender means, we find that he contents 
himself with cheap carpets and very plain 
furniture in order that he may jjurchase 
books, he rises at once in our esteem. 
Books are not made for furniture; but 
there is nothing else that so beautifully 
furnishes a house. The plainest row of 
books is more significant of refinement 
than the most elaborately carved sideboard. 

Give us a house furnished with books 
rather than furniture. Both if you can ; 
books at any rate. To spend several day 
in a friend's house, hungering for something 
to read while you are treading upon costly 
carpets and sitting upon luxuriant chairs, 
and sleeping upon down, is as if one were 
bribing your body for the sake of robbing 
your mind. 

Books are the windows through which 
the soul looks out. A house without them 
is like a room without windows. No man 
has a right to bring up his children with- 
out surrounding them with books if he has 
the means to buy them with. It is a wrong 
to his family. Children learn to read by 
being in the iiresence of books. The love 
of knowledge comes with reading and grows 
upon it. And a love of knowledge in a 
young person is almost warrant against the 
inferior excitements of passion and vice. 

Let us i^ity those poor rich men, who 
live barrenly in great bookless houses. 
Let us congratulate the poor that, in our 
day, books are so cheap that a man may 
every year add a hundred volumes to his 
library for the jjrice of what his tobacco and 
his beer would cost him. Among the ear- 
liest ambitions to be excited in clerks, work- 
men, journeymen and, indeed, among all 
that are struggling in the race of life, is that 
of owning and constantly adding to it, a li- 
brary of good books. A little library grow- 
ing larger every year, is an honorable part 
of a young man's history. 

It is a man's duty to have books. A li- 
brary is not a luxury, but one of the nec- 
essaries of life. 



" My dear, I am sorry to see you choos- 
ing your friends among the strong-minded 
women." "Indeed would you rather have 
your wife classed with the weak-minded 
ones — such as Harry K's wife, who actually 
used to go to her husband to ask what dress 
she had better wear?" 



Pa, why don't we ever hear anything 
about men's rights and men's suflTrage so- 
cieties. Is it because the men never have to 
suifer as much as the women do ? I once saw 
Uncle Ben sick with the gout, and he made 
a dreadful fuss, and I think they ought to 
let him in to some of their sufifering socie- 
ties sure. 



The best men arc those who bear a lai-ge 
portion of their mother's nature; and the 
best women those who combine the traits 
of both father and mother. 



The difi'erence between the love of a man 
and the love of a woman is tliis — the man 
is all to woman, wliilo to man, woman is 
but a part of the many things that occupy 
his mind. 



A Smile has very prettily been called the 
whisi^er of a laugh. 



24 



mmm > 



[January 14, 1871 




ITItMSHEU BY 
A. T. DKWEV. W B. EWtlt. G. H. STBONG. J. L. BOONE. 

Principal Editob W. B. EWER, A. M. 

Ofkick, No. 414 Clay street, whero frienclB and patronp 
»ro invited to our Scientific Pkess Patent Agency, En- 
graYiugand Printing cHtablistiment. 

Sdbbcriptions payable in advance — For one year $4 ; 
B monthB. $'i.'.'5: three months, $1.25. Clubs of ten 
Dames or more is each per annum. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January 14, 1871. 



Subscriptions are Coming- along lively for the 
Pacific Uubal Press. There was never a time when 
intelligent and well directed efforts were more needed, 
in farming on this coast, than the present. Every reader 
of our first number is now more thoroughly convinced 
of the value of 8U<h a journal to the special interests 
and general welfare of the community. 

One hundred and nineteen names have come in, on one 
list, from Sacramento— where we already had a respec- 
table representation. Forty names were receivtd 
from Stockton in two days. Our list there will number 
over one hundred of its best citizens. San Jose, where 
our list is large, is increasing its orders. Napa, Santa 
Cruz, San Diego and other counties have sent us clubs 
and material eniouragement, while remittances are daily 
coming in from other parts of the Pacific and Eastern 
states. 

We feel encouragi'd with the result of our cntcrpriBe. 
BO far, and only ask that its friends everywhere still ctli" 
tinuo to extend their efforts, practically, In its behalf. 



OUR WEEKLY CROP. 

A stroll through our ranch this week shows a 
flourishing state of affairs, as could not well hf 
otherwise, since the rains have come to our aid. 
Right at the entrance we find a full-blown illus- 
tration of the Thompson Road Steamer, lately 
imported and promising a rich yield. Next 
come the bods of Progress in Science and Me- 
chanics; opposite to which is a flowery descrip- 
tion written by one Bound East; also crops of 
interest to Tide Jjaud Owners, and a new spe- 
cies of Granular Fuel,— giving variety to the 
scene . 

The next crop is Opium, by the side of which 
a New Plow has been left. A short distance 
away stands a grove of Trees, principally the 
Oregon Tea-Tret and the Lawstm Cypreas. Our 
Sheep Fold is hero, and here also is an interest- 
ing collection of Farm Novelties. Turning a cor- 
ner, wo come to the Vineyard, and then to a 
scene of Corn Husking, where the working of a 
new device is illustrated . We stop here and 
make a few Agricultural Notes. Then coming 
to the cheerful Home Circle, we have a chat 
concerning Good Wives, Housekeeping, the 
Fashions, Bookless Houses, etc . 

Tree Pruning, Beet Sugar, Ramie, — all these 
are shown in the next field, wliere are grouped 
some good Hints to Emigrants . Then comes an 
example of Winter Inigration, and then another 
Flower Garden, where the Wulfetiia is bloom- 
ing. Then follows another rest over our 
Household Reading. . 

The last corner turned, we see some excellent 
Farmers' Gardens, and the farmer tells us how 
precious the rain has been to him, and goes o& 
into a description of the Rainy Season for Twen- 
ty-One Years. The Cal. State Agricultural So- 
ciety has here a nook, and here too is shown a 
notable example of Woman's Influence . Then, 
with a parting gift of sweet Beet Sugar and a 
copy of the latest Market Reports, our readers 
issue from the rear entrance of our farm, where 
the advertisements grow luxuriantly. 



Beet Sugar Agency. — Wo would state 
that the samples of California beet sugar, 
mentioned by us last week, came from 
Messrs. Perkins & Flint, corner of Green- 
wicli and Battery sts. , general agents for 
the Alvarado manufacturing company. 
We believe the Company has been fortu- 
nate in the selection of their agency for 
this important and meritorious product. 

Among the articles highly commended in 
our first issue was that of Dr. E. H. Carr, 
on the Needs of Agricultural Communities. 
We have the satisfaction of saying that 
the Dr. will continue his valuable contribu- 
tions for the Pkess. 



TREE PRUNING. 

Tree pruning is not only an art, but a 
science as well. To do it right requires 
much study, observation and experience; 
or at least the instruction of such experi- 
ence. 

Here is a row of street trees, that must 
be trained high before they, are allowed to 
branch much; and then to 'present full, 
well balanced tops, they must be headed in, 
or the leading branches must be shortened 
occasionally. 

But thai line of trees which has been 
planted for a screen, and a shelter against 
winds, must be allowed to branch low — as 
close to the ground as convenient and be 
so jiruned as to show a close, compact and 
even face. Trees planted for shade and for 
ornament shotild be so trained as to fully 
meet a design, in conformity to the condi- 
tions and surroundings. 

Shade trees should bo trained high 
enough to allow a free circulation of air, 
and clear unobstructed view beneath their 
branches ; then be made to sjjread wide, 
and equally on all sides. Or a group of 
them may be so trained together as to re- 
semble one immense tree, at a distance, 
when large enough, by the center ones be- 
ing the tallest, and the outer ones spread- 
ing out on all sides. 

Too many shade trees, close about 
houses, are objectionable ; sunlight is bet- 
ter than shade for health ; and a free circu- 
lation of air about our dwelling is neces- 
sary and very salutary. 

A lawn with a few plants and shrubs 
about a dwelling is better than a dense 
growth of trees. 

Trees standing in an open exposure need 
less pruning and training than such as are 
shaded or crowded by others, for they can 
spread evenly and naturally; but if ob- 
structed on either side, they soon grow out 
of symetrical proportion. 

Evergreen trees are very seldom planted 
with a due regard to good taste. Tliey are 
too often set directly in front of Iniildings, 
so as to hide what they should rather em- 
belisli, and to obstruct the view, when they 
should enliven it. But when planted in 
front, they may be pruned in the form of 
[lillars, until they rise suthciently high to 
allow them to spread to a^antage. 

When so trained they give a very pleas- 
ing efifect, while if allowed to spread from 
the ground they soon obstruct all the vision, 
and break the healthy flow of air. 

It is better to plant right at first, and 
then prune accordingly. The natural 
form of an evergreen is ordinarily the pret- 
tiest shape. When planted for a shelter 
and to hide back yards and buildings, 
while they lend beauty to the front by form- 
ing a substantial back ground of massive 
green, they may be preserved in all their 
native elegance with the best effect. 

"Orchard Pruning." 
is of more substantial importance than or- 
namental, to many of our readers; so we 
will generalize a little on this subject, 
also. 

"Low training" is a theory that has be- 
come exi^loded with all our old orchardists. 
And for this reason: — It is quite as essen- 
tial to cultivate the soil as it is to prune 
orcliards, in this country of dry summers. 
And to cultivate a large orchard econom- 
ically animals must be employed. 

To do this to advantage the lower 
branches of the trees mttst be so high as not 
to interfere with the laborer. 

A tree will bear sooner, and more, while 
young, if trained low down; but the best 
and healthiest orchards in this State are 
those that were trained high from the 
start. 

A young orchard should be pruned and 
trained more to obtain a suitable size and 
shape 'of tree than especially for fruit. 
They will bear enongh while young, if 
trained right. After the trees of an or- 
chard have obtained a good size, a system 



of " sjmr pruning" will give the l)est re- 
sults, and the trees will be able to stand 
better under a full load of fruit. 

Pruning may be done from fall until 
spring. During our long growing sea- 
sons, the limbs of trees become so long 
and slender as to soon break down under 
the loads of fruit, if not attended to. 

A tree with numerous strong limbs and 
fruit sijurs is in the best shape and condi- 
tion to produce abundantly. After i)roper 
pruning, a'little .seasonable, judicious thin- 
ning of fruit is enough. 

TO EASTERN FARMERS. 

To those who contemplate coming to 
California to settle, we would say that this 
is our early sjsring. Come at once, if you 
contemplate operating the approaching 
season. Our grain sowing, i^lanting and 
transijlating lasts from November to May, 
and sometimes even to June, in some sec- 
tions of the state ; although early, sowing 
is becoming altogether the most popular. 

The present winter now promises a much 
more favorable .season than the last one for 
immigrants. Desirable land is to be had 
at more favorable i)rices than heretofore, — 
the schemes of land spectilators having 
failed. Our railroads are stretching them- 
selves out into various sections of the state, 
bringing the days of cheaper transporta- 
tion near at hand ; a good fall of rain has 
already descended, almost guaranteeing 
abundant crops; the condition of Europe 
promises high prices for exports; green- 
backs, wliich our Atlantic friends have 
formerly had to sell at a great sacrifice, are 
nearer at par with gold; lumber 'and nearly 
all classes of building materials are held at 
more moderate prices than formerly; and 
the antagonism between labor and capital 
is dying out. 

The capacities of our soils and the best 
modes of treating them are being better 
understood; and, all things considered, we 
doubt if there has ever been a period in 
which new comers (of the desirable 
class, who consider it respectable to be 
economical) , have been successful in so 
large a ratio, as well as those who this 
season will enter this and the contigu- 
ous states, with capital sufficient to engage 
in farming or manufacturing on their own 
account. We advise none to come without 
some money. Our cities are overrun with 
emjiloyees, many of whom would do better 
than working now and then a day, if they 
had the capital and will to develop the 
natiiral and rich resources of our great in- 
terior, both farms and mines. 



TO CLUBS. 

Send in yonr subscriptions as fast as ob- 
tained. After the first ten names have 
been paid for, others can be added within 
any reasonable time, thereafter on the same 
terms. Clubs may be composed partly of 
names for Kukal, and partly for Scien- 
tific Press Blanks and extra copies fur- 
nished when desired. 



The Hain. — After some four weeks of 
dry weather, much of the time cloudless 
days and frosty nights, during wfcich the 
roads hatl become dry and dusty, and plow- 
ing had almost ceased, we have again been 
blessed with rain — not as much as we would 
desire; but stiU enough to encourage, not 
only the farmers, but all othert, to hope 
for at least a moderately favorable season 
and fair crops. The rain commenced in 
Oregon, several days before it reached this 
latitude, and has traveled as far south as 
San Diego, embracing the entire State of 
California in its pluvial favors. In the 
northern and central portions of the State 
it has been quite copious, and a large 
quantity of snow has fallen in the Sierras 
and beyond, in the State of Nevada. 

The Corn Husking Gloves, illustrated 
to-day, can be seen at Weister & Co.'s, No. 
17, New Montgomery st., San Francisco, 
under Grand Hotel. W. & Co. have also a 
large number of other useful novelties on 
hand now. 



A. CArtT>. 

Having seen the prospectus of the Pacific 
RuRAi, Press, and believing there is fireat need 
in our conijiaratively new agricultural districts 
of such a journal as therein projiosed, the un- 
dersigned do not hesitate to stjite that from the 
standing reputation and success of its pul)- 
lishers, (Messrs. Dewey & Co., proprietors of 
the ScENTiKio PiiKss, ) we believe the new joiu- 
nul wiU be worthy of universal trial by our ag- 
ricultural and rural ])opulation, and that its 
publication wiU be fruitful of much usefulness 
to its subscribers and in forwarduig the devel- 
opment of our natural wealth and prolific re- 
sources. 

CHAS. F. reed. President State Agricultural Society. 
DR. J. S. CURTIS, Yolo Co. 

WM. H. PAHKS, late Prest. North'n Dist. Ab. Society. 
ROB'T BECK. Sec'y Cal. State Agricultural Society. 
C. T. wheeler, Member State Board of Agriculture. 
KOBT HAMILTON, nienibe^ St. Board of Agriculture. 
E. MILLS. Member State Board of Agriculture. 
I. N. HOAti, late Sec'y State Agricultural Suciety. 
O. C. WHEELEU, formerly Sec. State Agricultural Soc. 
G. N. SWEZV, Prest. North'n Dist. Ag. S.iciity of Cal. 
■1. K. 1)0 \K. Prest. San .Joaquin Agricultural Society. 
ROB'T WATT, State Controller. 
JOHN BIDWELL, Prest. Chico Ag. Society. 
EZRA S. C.AHK. Pr.it. of Agriculture and Ag. Chem., 

Cal. State University. 
E. J. HOLDEX, formerly Prest. San Joaquin Ag. Society. 
HARMEN BAY, Prest. Upper Sacramento Ag. Society. 
E. HALLET, Secy. Upper Sac. Ag. Society. 
R. B. SWAI.N. Pri-st Chamber of Commerce, S. F. 
H. N. BOLANDER, Prest. Bay Dist. Horfl Society. 
A. S HALLIDIE, Mechanics' Institute of tliecitvof S. F. 
HENRY KIMBALL, Prest. Odd FeUows Library, As'n S.F. 



BEET SUGAR IN CALIFORNIA. 

Beet Sugar making having proved as 
successful here as in other countries, it 
may be interesting to count the advantages 
we liave here, overEuropean sugar makers. 
There appears to be a remarkable uniform- 
ity in the percentage of sugar in the white 
Silesian beet, wherever it is used for ex- 
traction. Eight 2)er cent, is the Europe- 
an yield of sugar to the ton of beets. It 
is the same in Wisconsin and in California. 
But, -while 15 tons of beets are a large yield 
to the acre in Europe, ihirit/ tons are not an 
over estimate for a favorable yield in the 
California bottom lands. Herein we have 
one great advantage. 

In Euroi)e, the season for beets is very 
short — about two months. After that, 
frost comes, and the crop h.is to be jmt un- 
der cover, involving much handling and 
carting. Besides, beets lose some of their 
sugar, by chemical conversion, in subtcra- 
nean packing. Here, beets may stand in 
afield all winter and be used as required. 
It is only in spring time, when they V)egin to 
take a second start to form the seed, that 
the season for milling closes. The sugar 
during the second growth, is all utilized 
by the plant in forming its seed; and as 
this process begins immeiliately with tlie 
commencement of the second growth, the 
beet must be taken from the ground before 
seed growth commen(!es. Experience seems 
also to show that such of the beets as mani- 
fest a disposition to excessive growtli 
should be taken from the ground and 
their increase arrested after it arrives at 
its maximum size for saccharine yield. 

Our dry summer climate also gives us 
another important advantage over the moist 
climate of Europe and the Eastern United 
States, in the fact that-ft'e may here cut and 
dry the beet, and thus keep it for an in- 
definite time. Though it loses 80 per cent, 
of its weight in moisture by drying, it 
loses no sugar by the process. In this w:ay 
the works can be kept a going till new beets 
are ripe for extraction, and the beet may 
also be gi'own and dried on cheap land, at 
a distance from the sugarie — the cost of 
transportation of the dried beet— 75 percent, 
less in weight — will be very small. 

French Silk Manufacturers Changing 
Base of Operations. — The following item 
will be read with interest by California 
silk gro-n-ers: — "An attempt is to be maile 
to manufacture silks in New York or its 
vicinity on a scale never yet undertfikon. 
The war lias paralyzed the silk business in 
France, and even were there to be a de- 
claration of peace to-morrow, nothing 
would be done there for some time. A 
French firm which has an agency here, pro- 
poses to bring some of its workmen to New 
York, and start a factory, whore it will 
turn out goods equal to those it imports. 
The cocoons and the eggs will be brought 
from Japan, and ex])eriment ■will he made 
immediately to see if the worms can be fed 
on the ailanthus trees." 



January 14, 187 1] 



'-^m 



B^ 



25 



WINTER IRRIGATION. 

Nearly all the hill autl valley land in this 
state, if once thoroughly saturated with 
water, during the winter months, will i^ro- 
duce a crop without any, or at least but 
little more rain for the season; in many 
localities a sufficient qiiantity of rain does 
not fall during the entire winter to thor- 
oughly saturate the soil, down to the point 
where water always stands, or to a reasona- 
ble dejjth below the surface; in some lo- 
calities the ground is too impervious to 
admit the rains, in others it presents such 
facilities for surface drainage that opportu- 
nity is not given for saturating the soil, 
notwithstanding the abundance of rain. 

We all know that in this country, when 
the rainy season is over, the growingplants 
dei^end upon the moisture that has been 
stored up in the soil, except in a few very 
limited districts where summer irrigation 
has been introduced. If that supply is in- 
sufficient, croi>s must fail; and hence the 
necessity of artificial means to supply the 
deficiency when it occurs from either of the 
above mentioned causes. 

This may be accomplished in various 
ways, the chief of which is to erect dams 
upon the smaller streams to hinder the too 
rapid flow of water in winter, and compel 
it to find its way into the ground by leading 
it out ujjon the adjoining lands. A mam- 
moth scheme of this kind was jjrojected 
some two or three years ago for Yolo and 
Calaveras counties, whereby the overflow 
of the Sacramento was to be conducted by 
ditches to much of the land that is situated 
above the highest overflow of that river, 
and to be distributed by a series of dams 
forming large ponds and lakes, wherein the 
water was to be retained until the ground 
was completely saturated, and then let out 
to pass on and irrigate, in a similar man- 
ner, lower grounds. The beneficial 
results from such "winter irrigation," 
would be incalculable — better in many re- 
spects than summer irrigation, and far less 
costly. There are large tracts of land in va- 
rious portions of the state which might be 
subjected to this kind of treatment. We 
have not, of late, heard anything of this 
Yolo scheme for winter irrigation. 

Much might be done in this direction by 
breaking uj) and ridging the land with the 
l)low at right angles with the slope of the 
water shed. The rainfall might thus be 
much more largely utilized over what would 
be gained from it with the land in its natu- 
ral condition. 

We are always sure, in California, of 
some rain in due season, and whenever, as 
of late, the signs indicate but a small sui^jily, 
every reasonable eflbrt should be made to 
make the most of what we have. There are 
thousands of farms in the state that bor- 
der upon streams which flow only when it 
rains, or for a short time after. When 
drouth is threatened tlie water should be 
turned out of such streams at frequent in- 
tervals, and made to flow broadly and slow- 
ly over the land or stand in pools and 
ponds until it is all absorbed. It may thus 
1)0 almost as eflectiially employed as though 
it were conducted into great reservoirs, and 
stored up, during the winter, for use in 
summer. 

Works to accomplish this purjiose may 
bo made jiermanent, and generally at a tri- 
fling expense, and so as to require very lit- 
tle attention at any time after their first 
construction. A large portion of the im- 
mense body of water that finds its way 
through the Golden Gate, might thus be 
kept back to fertilize the soil, and stand in 
place of summer rains, which we never get 
in California. 

We would urge the importance of these 
suggestions ujion the attention of our land 
owners generally. Let every farmer look 
around his acres and see if he cannot find 
some of these surface drains that he can 
stop up, and compel the water to go down 
into the soil, instead of rimning ofi" into 
rivers and ocean. Sink it deeij, and you 
have it where it will do you as much good 
as though it were standing in cisterns upon 
your hill-tops; for the summer sxin will be- 
gin to pump it lip about the roots of your 
plants, just at the time and just in the 
place you will want it, 



Tl|E pL@WEE\ Q^^DEH- 



THE KIDNEY-LEAVED WULFENIA. 

We embellish our " Flower Garden" de- 
liartment for this week, with the accom- 
panying illustration of one of California's 
most beautiful flow rets. The Kidicey-leaved 
Wulfenia, which belongs to the Figwort 
family. This is a plant rarely met with in 
this region, although it is abundant on the 
Columbia Kiver and in Oregon. The spec- 
imen from which the sketch has been made 
was procured by Prof. Bolander, from a 
messy ledge in Marin County. This plant 
is liable to be mistaken for the Romanzoffia 
SitkensLS, another Pacific Coast plant, named 
in honor of Prince Romanoff, of the Imper- 
ial family of Russia, and found very abun- 
dantly in this vicinity. The plant which 
we illustrate is very pretty for a border or 
rock-plant, while, in its blossoms of blue, it 
is arranged much like the European forget- 
me-not. Our florists would no doiibt find 



3d. The soil around the bush having 
been manured in the scaring and proceeding 
fall with stable manure, soap suds should 
be applied each wash day, and twice a 
week about a pint of chamber ley to each 
plant. 

By these means and an occasional short- 
ening in of a too straggling branch, roses 
may be kept in bloom from early spring 
till within nearly a month of Christmas. 

A slight mulch at the base of the stem, 
of short grass, hay, or weeds, (in case any 
of these latter can be found,) will also be 
a great advantage. If there are no weeds 
on the projjerty, perhaps a few can be pro- 
cured at a neighbor's. — Practical Farmer. 

BULBS AND THEIR"^CULTURE. 

The groixnd should be deeply dug — 18 
inches is not too deep — well pulverized, 
should bo moderately rich, but no manure 
should bo used. Hyacinths should be 
planted from throe to four inches deep. 
Tulips may be planted in a separate bed. 
Some plant hyacinths in circles of four or 
six of different colors, and between these, 
smaller circles of crocus. In the centers 
of the circle of hyacinths, an iris, lily, or 
crown imperial may be planted. The same 




KIDNEY-IiEAVED WTJIiFENI A— ( 'Vu?/enia rfni/orni«) — Doug. — Db. A. Kelloqo, del. «. jc. 



it much to their advantage if they would 
pay more attention to obtaining and propo- 
gating the more rare varieties of our native 
flowers and plants. Californians should take 
a pride in cultivating and showing to their 
visitors — especially those from the East — a 
choice variety of native flowers, shrubs and 
plants. We shall do what wo can to stimu- 
late a feeling of this kind l)y giving, from 
time to time, illustrations and descriptions 
of some of the more useful and ornamental 
plants which are peculiar to this coast. 

HOW TO HAVE^OOD ROSES. 

To secure good flowers, and a constant 
bloom with the Teas, Bourbons and other 
pei-ijetual varieties, a few things are nec- 
essary. First, all fading and finished 
blooms should be clipped off. Nature 
seems to tend always to the production of 
seed, as the object of bloom and fructifica- 
tion. As the amateur florist does not 
want rose seed, but flowers, allowing the 
former to remain on is not only unsightly, 
but is far more exliausting to the plant 
than profuse blooming. 

2d. The rose slug, living on the green 
part of the leaf till only the skeleton is left 
must be removed without delay. This we 
accomplish very readily by injecting, with 
a common tin syringe, soap suds made from 
carbolic soap in a common watering pot. 
The slug works mostly on the under side 
of the leaf, biit the carbolic soap, with 
which the whole bush should be deluged, 
if it does not kill outright, soon displaces 
it by its offensiveness peculiarly obnoxious 
to all insect life. [The aphis and other an- 
noying insects may be got rid of in the 
same way, Ed. Rukal.] 



system may be adopted with tulips. The 
Narcissus is a beautiful and early flowering 
bulb. There are now several improved va- 
rieties of them — double, polyanthus, and 
single narcissus. They are jjlantod as tu- 
lips, and are of the easiest culture. The 
colors are mostly yellow, of different shades; 
but there are some -vvhite, fragrant and 
beautiful. The Crocus may be planted in 
the borders of beds, or in clusters. Ane- 
mones can only be safely planted in the 
months above named, in fine, friable, well- 
drained soils. Snowdrops show their 
beautiful flowers on the fir.st indications of 
spring — sometimas they will peep above 
the snow. They should be planted in the 
manner of the crocus. They give a white 
flower. The Scilla, a Siberian bulb, is 
another of the beautiful early flowers of 
spring. They can be jjlanted, like the cro- 
cus and snowdrop, on the borders of beds. 
The flowers are of different colors, white, 
red, and intense blue. The varieties of 
the Iris furnish handsome flowers. Their 
flowers are of dift'erent shades and mark- 
ings, and no garden should be without 
them. They are of the easiest culture. 
The Crown "imperial, in flower, is extreme- 
ly beautiful — though its fragrance cannot 
be praised. The Frittellaria is a smaller 
variety of the crown imperial, with singu- 
larly marked flowers, and is sometimes 
known as the guinea-hen j^lant. It will 
thrive in any common soil. The Jonquil 
is an early flowering bulb — the flower fra- 
grant. The Lilies are now attracting much 
attention. The varieties of Japan liliesare 
extremely beautiful. The Golden-banded 
Lily is the queen of lilies. No description 
can do them justice. — Willamette Farmer. 

No i^erson, who makes any pretensions 
to a flower garden, shr-uld be without some 



of the bulbs above named. They c 
planted as above suggested, or in any ij- 
way to suit the taste of the ladies or other 
cultivators, or the peculiarities of the lo- 
cality where j)lanted. 

INTERESTING TO FLORISTS. 

The following letter, addressed, on the 
7th of December last, to the editor of the 
Oakland News, by Mr. John Ross, the well- 
known florist of Third street, Oakland, will 
be interesting to florists and others, as a 
hint for the future. The experience of 
1870, very nearly coincides with that of 
1869, as given by Mr. R., and should lead 
the lovers of flowers to look after their pets 
closely, during the two last weeks in De- 
cember, as the most dangerous of any por- 
tion of the winter. If they survive the 
frosts of those days, they may be considered 
as safe for the wintei'. 

Ed. News: — As the winter has now fairly 
set in — for we have had both rain and frost 
— and as rain during the season is more 
than probable, calculations for a corres- 
ponding amount of frost may therefore be 
anticipated. It would, therefore, be well 
for those taking an interest in garden dec- 
oration and who desire a good display of 
flowers during the ensuing season, to guard 
against the coming frosts by protecting 
those plants that are liable to be injured by 
a low temperature. From observations 
made during the last few years, I find that 
from the eighteenth to the twenty-fourth of 
December, our shortest days, great frosts 
prevail. On December I'Jth, 21st and 22nd, 
1869, the temperature on those dates was 
29 degrees, 27 degrees and 26 degrees, res- 
pectively; and on December 18th and 19th, 
1865, was as low as 22 degrees, Fah. or ten 
degrees below the freezing i^oint, the low- 
est ever attained during my observations in 
this locality. I mention these dates more 
l^articularly as those cold i)eriods often suc- 
ceed a longrun of mild weather when few are 
prepared for so great a change. The same 
care, however, sliould be exercised during 
the rest of the winter, as a temjierature not 
lower than 27 degrees will destroy many 
of our favorite plants, particularly those of 
a semi-troi)ical nature. 

Oakland, Dec. 7. J. R. 

OUR CALIFORNIA TYPE. 

In x^arting, at the close of our last vol- 
ume, with our old typographical "dress," 
and issuing our papers in new type it is 
with pleasure that we can say a good word 
for the old font which served our use for 
four years, and received the praise of many 
readers for its i)lain, durable and easily 
read face. Cast by Messrs. Faulkner & 
Son, in 1866, it was the first font issued of 
California made type, and has worn better 
than any other body typo we have ever 
used in a long jjeriod of printing and pub- 
lishing experience. 

Since the establishment of the above- 
named type-foTindry on this coast, the 
business has increased very rapidly, until 
there are now three firms and about UK) 
persons employed in the business of mak- 
ing and furnishing type and printing ma- 
terials in this city. The first and largest 
of these is the California Type Foundry 
Company, of which Mr. Geo. L. Faulkner 
is agent. This company has recently remov- 
ed their salesroom and manufactory to more 
spacious and convenient ajjartments on the 
first and third floors of Nos. 405 and •407, 
Sansome street. Dealing with Mr. Faulk- 
ner since 1859, we will say, for the bonctit 
of others of our fraternity, that we have 
ever found him both reliable and liberal. 
Lately, no less than four important inven- 
tions connected with typo making and 
composing have been invented in this city, 
some of which will doubtless bo introduced 
throughout the civilized warld. Our tyjie- 
founders and cl(>ctrotyi)crs number some 
of the most expert and exjjerienccd crafts- 
men in the United Stat(!s, and there are 
but three or four cities in the Union where 
the business is so large and enterpris- 
ingly conducted. 



26 



--^m 



[January 14, 1871 



ousehold^Readi NG. 



High Heeled Shoes and Flat Feet. 

Much, but not half enough is being said 
with regard to the high and small heeled 
shoes so generally worn by the ladies at 
the present time. A persistent use of such 
heels will destroy the beauty of the best 
formed foot, besides producing other i)his- 
iological deformities and injuries. 

A high heeled shoe, with the slender 
point usually given to it, cannot properly 
support the arch of the foot; but allows it 
to sink, whereby the bones and ligaments 
become stretched, weakened and displaced, 
and the foot becomes flattened and more 
elongated— in other words the person be- 
comes flat-footed, and looses the elasticity 
and strength of step, and grace of moticm 
which nature designed in the construction 
of the arch. People with high arched feet 
walk easier, more graceful and with much 
less fatigue than those with flat feet. A 
depression of the natural arch of the foot 
will often increase its length from a half 
to three quarters of an inch. 

High heeled shoes weaken the ankles and 
jilace them in a condititm to be easily 
"turned"— sprained, with the slightest mis- 
step. The injuries sustained from their 
use, will be i)ermanent, and productive of 
very disagreeable conseiiuences in after 
life, not the least of which will be a prema- 
ture tottering of age. There is neither beau- 
ty, nor comliness nor comfort in the fash- 
ion, the effects of which are alrea<ly plainly 
seen in the altered gait of many liidies which 
we meet upon the streets of this city. 
The natural elasticity of step is fast giving 
way to the tottering gait, so conspicuous 
in Chinese females. The heel, as usually 
worn, is at least twice as high as it sliould 
be, and the surface of the same not more 
than half what is required to give a steady 
and firm sujjport to the per.son. 

The Japanese and some of the Chinese, 
who follow a similar fashion in the manu- 
facture of their shoe heels, have at least 
sense enough to make the heels broad, so 
as to give a comparatively firm tread, and 
prevent the straining and weakening effect 
l)roduced upon the ankles by the "pointed" 
heels which seem to be so attractive to our 
American ladies. 

■ Ln-EK AS Food.— We cannot too strongly 
denounce the use of liver and kidneys as 
food for man. These organs are con.stantly 
charged with the worn out, excrementi- 
tivas matters of the system, the presence 
of which, when rightly iinderstood, are 
disgustingly oticnsive to the taste. Their 
presence is evinced by the fact that the.se 
l)ortions of an animal are always the parts 
first subject to decomposition. They make 
very good food for hens and dogs; but for 
man — never! 



How TO Behove Haik fbom the Person 
— A correspondent asks the Herald of 
Hi-.iiUh how hair can be removed perma- 
nently, and remarks, "I have been told to 
pull it out; but it grows in about as fast 
as 1 pull it out." The Herald answers as 
follows: "The least injurious way is to 
continue pulling it out, until the glands 
about the root become so weakened as to 
be unable to replenish it. Two or three 
times pulling it out will be sutKcient with 
some, while others may have to repeat it 
half a dozen times or more." 



Husbands ought to " keep out of the 
kitchen." A husband who did not, writes 
tlins of the conse(iueuces: " I found faillt, 
some time ago, with Maria Ann's custard 
])ie, and tried to tell her how my mother 
made pie. Maria made i\\v. pie after my re- 
cipe. It lasted longer than any other pie 
we ever hiul Maria set it <jn the tal)l(; 
every day for dinner, and you see I could 
not eat it because I forgot to tell her to put 
in any eggs or shortening. I was econom- 
ical, but in a tit of generosity I stole it from 
the panti-y and gave it to a little boy in the 
neighborhood. The boy's funeral was large- 
ly attended by his former i)lay mates. I did 
not go myself." — Wcsterti Home. 



Buckwheat Cakes —Are they Whole- 
some ? 

It is very common to class buckwheat 
cakes, in reference to digestibility, with 
"flannel cakes," which are made of wheat 
flour; biit they differ materially. There is 
an instinct that gives relish to buckwheat 
in cold weather, which is explained by the 
fact that that descrijjtion of flour gives out 
more heal to the body, while wheat gives 
more nutriment and less heat. The stom- 
ach will bear a greater quantity of buck- 
wheat, for it is lighter and .spongy, and the 
gastric juice readily i^ermeates the pulpy 
mass and gives it easy digestion. It can- 
not assume the doughy toughness that 
makes wheateu cakes so hard to digest. To 
mix wheat-flour with buckwheat, is to take 
away the best properties of buckwheat 
cakes. No other cake can be eaten hot 
from the griddle without injurious efiects 
akin to those of hot bread. While buck- 
wheat cakes are undoubtedly wholesome, 
their deficiency of gluten requires that we 
do not make our meals exclusively of them. 

In California we produce buckwheat of 
superior quality, and on Sherman Island, 
for instance, three (!rops a year can be 
grown. Now this meal is peculiarly suit- 
alile to the people of the Bay district, at 
all seasons. Heat-making food is never 
objectionable in that locality, and we eat 
meat enough to supjjly all the strength we 
need. Buckwheat cakes, not alloyed with 
wheat-flour, are therefore healthful here, 
and in all cool climates, at all seasons, 
when taken in moderation. 



Poisoned Tarlatan.— A lady in Berlin 
bought six yards of green tarlatan for a 
ball dress for her daughter. The mother, 
who assisted in making the dress, and the 
daughter who wore it, at the same time fell 
dangerously sick and had a narrow escape 
from death. The medical adviser of the 
family at once discovered poisoning by ar- 
senic. The green dress was chemii-ally 
analyzed, and it was found that the color- 
ing contained thirteen per cent, of arsenic. 
The meri-hant was summoned before the 
criminal court; but he was acquitted, for 
the reason that he could prove he had ad- 
vised the jnirchasers of the j>oisonous 
quality of the color used to tint the tarla- 
tan. 



Curing Meat.— At this season of the 
year the thoughts of almost every farmer 
naturally turn more or less to the processes 
of curing moat for the winter's u.so. Most 
farmers have a pig or two to salt down, and 
some have mutton or beef, and the (piality 
of the meat which is to furnish food for 
the family, will depend a good deal on the 
way in wliicli it is cured. There are vari- 
ous modes of curing meat, but one of the 
be.st, perhaps, is that suggested by the 
Germantown Telegraph, which is as fol- 
lows: 

To one gallon of water, tjike one and a 
half i)ounds of salt, half a jxjund of sugar, 
half an ounce of saltpetre, half an ounce of 
potash. In this ratio the pickle to be in- 
creased to any quantity desired. Let these 
be boiled together until all the dirt from 
the sugar rises to the top and is slummed 
off. Then tlirow it into a tub to cool, and 
when cold, pour it over your beef or pork, 
to remain the usual time, say four or Ave 
weeks. The meat must be well covered 
with pickle, and should not be put down 
for at least two days after killing, during 
which time it should be slightly s])rinkled 
with ])Owdered saUpetre, which removes 
all th(! surface blood, etc., leaving the 
meat fresh and clean. Some omit boiling 
the pickle, and find it to answer well; 
though the ojieration of boiling purities 
the ])ickle by throwing ott' the dirt always 
to be found in salt and sugar. 

If this receipt is projjcrly tried it will 
never be abandoned. There is none that 
surijass it, if so good. 

How T(j Cure a Cold. — The Herald of 
Health says:— Ui^on tlio tirst indication that 
you have taken a cold. Stop eating until 
the cold is eased; drink freely of cold 
water; induce a free perspiration over the 
whole body, either by exercise, vajjor or 
hot water bath, or by going to bed and 
covering np warm; breathe all the jjure air 
you can. In most cases a cold will yield 
to this treatment in 12 hours, or at most 
in 24. 



Household Receipts. 

How TO Cook Dried Beef. — Place the 
boef, nicely shaved ofl', in a frying-pan, with 
butter enough to fry it; let it fry until a lit- 
tle browned, then sprinkle in dry flour, as 
much as you would take were yoii going to 
mix it with water; let it brown l)ut take 
great care not to burn it. When browned 
sulKciontly, add cream or milk enough to 
make a gravy; let it boil al'ew moments, add 
a little butter and pepper and it is done. 

Some very frequently boil eggs and cut 
them up lengthwise, and lay them around 
on the meat after it is ])oured on the platter. 
This makes a very i)rett3' and palatable dish, 
and with some nice mashed potato, and 
sweet potatoes and tomatoes with sugar, 
and just a trifle of vinegar poured over them, 
supplies a very good breakfast. 

Another way to cook dried beef is to cut 
uji a sausage in slici^s and fry until there is 
enough fat tried out to fry the meat; then 
jjut in the beef, and proceed just as for fry- 
ing in butter, using water instead of milk 
or cream for the gravy. This gives an ex- 
cellent flavor unless sausage is disliked. 

To Make Sausaoes. — Thirty pounds of 
choi)ped meat; eight ounces salt; two and 
one-fourth ounces i)ej)i)er; two teacups of 
sweet marjoram. Pass the two last through a 
fine sieve. If you prefi;r it, thyme and sum- 
mer savory may be substituted for the lat- 
ter. 

Soda Biscuits. — One poundof flour, two 
tea-si)ooufuls of cream of tartar into the 
flour dry; disolve the soda in a little milk; 
wet the whole with milk, making it sutK- 
ciently stiff" to mould into biscuits. 

Indian Cake. — One cup Indian meal 
with one pint of milk, two eggs; one table- 
spoonful sugar, a piece of butter the size 
of a walnut, half a teaspoonful of soda. 
Bake half an hour. 

('ream Pie. — One cup sugar, one egg, 
piece of butter size of an egg, one teaspoon 
soda dissolved in a cup of sweet milk ; add 
to this, when mixed together, two teasi)oon8 
cream tartar rubb(>d in three cups of flour, 
and bak(! in three jelly cake tins. 

The C'ream for the inside of the Pie. — One 
one-half cups milk; when boiling add seven 
teiwpoons cornstarch, wet with cold milk; 
let it scald a moment, then add two well 
beaten eggs ; swe(>teu to taste, and flavor with 
lemon or vanilla. 

Split the cakes when cold, spread them 
with the cream, and put together again like 
jelly cake. 

A Pink-Colored Pancake. — Boil a large 
beet root tender, and beat.it fine in a mar- 
ble mortar, then add the yolk of four eggs, 
two spoonfuls of flour, and three spoonfuls 
of good croim, sweeten it for your taste ; grate 
in half a nutmeg and jiut in a glass of Vn-an- 
dy; beat them all together half an hour; fry 
them in butter, and garnish them with green 
sweetmeats, preserved apricots, or green 
sprigs of myrtle. It is a pretty corner dish 
for either dinner or supper. 

Mechanical Hints. 

To Fix Drawings and Designs. — It may 
be useful to designers and others to know 
that pencil and chalk drawings can lie set 
by washing them over with water in which 
isinglass or any colorless size has been dis- 
solved; it may be necessary, after the first 
coat is dry to go over it with a second coat. 
When this wash is ])erfectly dry, the work 
may be varnished with one or two coats of 
a white spirit varnish, or what is perhaps 
preferable, a varnish of equal parts of Can- 
ada balsam and spirits of turpentine; this 
last varnish will produce a beautiful 
gloss and possesses the advantage of being 
able to stand washing with soap and water. 
It will be found necessary to apply the isin- 
glass solution very gently, and not go over 
any part a second time until the first coat 
shall be ])erfectly dry, otherwise the lines 
of the work may be disturbed. It is also 
net^essiiry to keep the work from the dust, 
or particles may adhere to the lines and 
mar the beauty oftlie work; care must be 
taken to have the brushes perfectly clean. 

How TO Treat a Burning Chimney.- — 
Salt for ExTiNCiuisuiNC* Fire. — If it is 
desired to extinguish the fire in a chimney 
which has been lighted by a fire in the tire- 
place, shut all the doors of the a])artment 
so as to prevent any current of air up the 
chimney, then throw a few handsfuls of 
common tine salt upon the fire, which will 
immediately extinguish the same. The phi- 
losophy of this is, that in the process of 
burning the salt, muratic acid gas is evolv- 
ed, which is a prompt extingui.sher of fire. 

A sea-weei>, Ijolongingto the same genos 
as the Irish Moss found abundantly on the 
coast of France, is now used in that coun- 
ti-y for clarifying beer, as being much more 
economical, and better suited to the purpose 
than gelatin. 



Life Thoughts. 

Not to hear conscience is the way to si- 
lence it. 

One hour to-day is worth two to-mor- 
row. 

You never lose by doing a good turn. 

The beauty of holiness, like the sun, is 
.seen by its own light. 

Slander injures threefold — him that ut- 
ters, him that is attacked, and him that 
hearkens. 

Virtue shines, though contem})tibly clad, 
and is recognized and resjjccted by noble 
minds. 

A man that hoards riches and enjoys 
them not is like an ass that carries gold 
and eats thistles. 

There is no such thing as a menial office 
when you put a true man into it. A me- 
nial office is an office with a mean man in 
it; and it makes no difference whether it ia 
a king's office or a scavenger's office. 

Hope is the last thing that dies in a man, 
and although it may often deceive us in 
the ji)urney of life, yet it conducts us along 
an easier and more pleasant path to our 
journey's end. 

Cherish thy mother; brief, perchance, 
the time may be that she may claim the 
care she gave. 

Depend upon yourself; riding uj)on the 
shoulders of another is dangerous and fool- 
ish. If you are not cast oS" into a disa- 
greeable i»lace, you may be let down in a 
very ugly manner, when you least exjject 
it. 

To be free from desire is money; to be 
free frt)m the rage of perpetually buying 
something new is a certain revenue; to be 
content with what we })ossess constitutes 
the greatest and most certain of riches. 

Whenever you buy or sell, let or hire, 
make a clean bargain, and never trust to 
"We shan't disagree about trifles." 

Conversation is the daughter of rea- 
soning, the mother of knowledge, the 
breath of the soul, the commerce of hearts, 
the bond of friendship, the nourishment 
of content and the occui>ation of men of 
wit. 

Value no man for his ojjinicm, but es- 
teem him a<'c-ording as his life corresponds 
with the rules of piety and justice. A 
man's actions, not his conceptions, render 
him valuable. 

No cause has ever been noble enough 
wholly to enoble fight, for selti.shness has 
always been one of the chief imiicUing 
forces. 



The Industry of Interest. 

No blister, says Beecher, draws sharper 
than interest does. Of all Industries 
none is compai-able to that of interest. -, It 
works all day and night, in fair weather 
and foul. It has no sound in its footstejjs, 
but travels fast. It gnaws at a man's sub- 
stance with invisible teeth. It binds in- 
dustry with its tilm, as a fly is bound in a 
si)ider's web. Debts roll a man over and 
over, binding hand and foot, and letting 
him hang upon the fatal mesh until long- 
legged interest devours him. There is but 
one thing on a farm like it, and that is the 
Canada thistle, which swarms new plants 
every time you break its roots, whose blos- 
soms are prolific, and every flower the 
father of a million seeds. ^ Every leaf is an 
awl, every branch a spear, and every plant 
like a platoon of bayonets, and a field of 
them like an armed host. The whole plant 
is a torment and vegetable curse. And yet 
a farmer hail better make his bed of Canada 
thistles than to attempt to be at ease upon 
interest. 



Be Social at Home. 

Be Social at Home. — Let parents talk 
much and talk well at home. A father 
who is habitually silent in his own house, 
maybe in many respects a wise man; but 
he is not wi.se in his silence. We some- 
times see panmts, who are the life of every 
comjjany which they enter, dull, silent, un- 
interesting at home among the children. 
If they have not mental activity and men- 
tal stores sufficient for both, let them first 
provide for their own household. Ireland 
exjjorts beef and wheat, and lives on pota- 
toes; and they fare as poorly who reserve 
their social chai'ms for companions abroad, 
and keep their dullness for home consump- 
tion. It is better to instruct children and 
make them hajjpy at home, than it is to 
charm strangers or amuse friends. A si- 
lent home is a dull place for j'oung peo- 
ple — a place from which they will escape 
if they can. They will talk or think of be- 
ing " shut up" tLere; and the youth who 
does not love home is in danger. 






January 14, 1871.] 



^^m 



27 



ANGLEWORMS-BY JOSH BILLINGS. 

Angleworms are of artli, arthy, and 
crawl for a living. They live in i-icb 
ground — ground that won't raise angle- 
worms, won't raise anything else; and 
where angleworms rejoiee, corn is sure to 
be "bully." If you want your angle- 
worms of enny size, you minure your 
sile. There aiii't nothing on arth more 
miserable tew ponder over and weep about 
than a half-starved angleworm. Angle- 
worms are a sure crop on good sile, and 
handy tew hoe, for they plant and harvest 
themselves. 

They don't take up much room in the 
ground, and are az kind to children az a 
piece of red tajje. 

It is sed by the natiiralists that angleworm 
ile rubbed on the back of the neck will cure 
a man of the lies. I don't beleave this, un- 
less it kills the man. Death is the only 
reliable heal for lying that has been dis- 
covered yet. When lieing gets into a 
man's bk od the only way to get it out is 
to drain him dry. 

Angleworms are used as an article of 
diet to catch fish with; they are handy tew 
put onto a hook, and handy tew take oi)h 
again, as anybody knows who has straddled 
a saw-log and fi;-ihed for daice all day long, 
Sunday, in a milljjond. 

Old fishermen alwus carry their worms 
in their mouth. 

Angleworms live in a round hole, which 
they fit like a gimblet, and are different 
from all other creepers that I know ov, for 
they alwuz back into their holes. 

Here the natural angleworm ends. 



The ocean cables which have been in- 
jured, causing the scarcity of news at pres- 
ent from Europe, are those laid in 1865 and 
1866. The French cable is now the only 
means of communication across the ocean. 
When the injured wires will be repaired is 
doubtful. The N. Y. World has inter- 
viewed Mr. Cyrus Field on the matter. 
Mr. Field negatived the idea of laying a 
new cable, the exjienses being too large. 
The cable of 1865 was £600,000 at the bot- 
tom of the Atlantic, that of 1866 was 
.'1;600,000. The three cable systems cost 
£19,000,000 in gold. The dividends are 
small. Low rates have not brought a cor- 
resjionding increase of business, and very 
likely the companies will not return to 
their former lowest tariff. There is more 
telegraphic communication between New 
York and Boston than between Europe and 
America. 



Ten Fbiends. — "I wish that I'd good 
friends to hold me on in life!" cried lazy 
Dennis, with a yawn. "Good friends! 
why, you've ten!" re^jlied his master. 
"I'm sure I've not half so many, and those 
that I have are too poor to heli> me." 
"Count your fingers, my boy," cried his 
master. Dennis looked down on his big, 
strong hands. "Count thumbs and all," 
added the master. "I have — there are 
ten," said the lad. "Then never say that 
you have not ten good friends, able to heli) 
you on in life. Try what those true friends 
can do before you go grumbling and fret- 
ting because you do not get help from 
others." 



Wild Oats have been described as a crop 
that is generally sown between eighteen 
and twenty-five. The harvest sets in about 
ten years after, and is commonly found to 
consist of a broken constitution, two weak 
legs, a bad cough, and a large trunk filled 
with small phials and patent medicines. 
We can hardly say that the yield pays for 
the time and labor expended in the culti- 
vation. 



WIESTER & CO., 

No. 17 New Montgomery Street, San Francisco. 

PATENTS BOXJOHT A.]Xr> SOLD OIV COlMCiyLISSlSIOlV. 




? •-.^'<^>TO's Coiiibinatioix Tool. 

This device is just what its name indicates. As a Kitchen 
Tool it is iudispensible. It will fit and lift with perfect safe- 
s', any Stove Lid, Frying Pan, Pie Pan, Pot, Kettle, oranyoth- 
r vessel or dish used about a stove. It is a complete tool for 
tretching carpets, driving tacks, pulling tacks, &c., &c. It 
. uswers the duuble purpose of hammer and pincers, and is al- 
so a good Nut Cracker. It is made of the best malleable iron, 
and the Hammer, Pincers and tack puller, are all hardened so 
as to stand the roughest usage. An Agent is wanted in every 
town on the Pacific Coast to sell this valuable little implement. Retail price fifty cents. 

r». Davis' "V\^ire and Picket Fence. 

Although about t wo hundred different styles of fences have been invented and patented in the TTnited States 
ithin the past ten years, yet this Fence, for GENEEAL FAKM USE, stands at the head of the list. I his isaVir- 
inia invention, an d the actual cost of the Fence complete in that State is less than fifty cents per rod. Three 
men can put up six hundred yards per day. You men who are idle, why hang about the city talking hard times 
when you can make from five to eight dollars per day building this Fence? We will make a present of ONE 
FARM RIGHT in each county on the Pacific coast to farmers who will erect one hundred rods of the fence m good 
style within thivtv days after the privilege is granted. We wish to employ several working men to travel in this 
State and Oreg .11.' Price of territory, and circular with full description of fence sent on application. 

IVe>v Gras Lig-lit. 

This Light takes the place of the Candle, the Kerosene Lamp and Coal Gas. Each 
Lamp is a perfect Gas Factory, making its own gas iis fast as it is required. It is a 
safe, cheap and beautiful ligh t. Circulars and full particulars sent on application. 

A few good traveling agents wanted to sell this and other valuable Patents. 



Hay Press. 

The best and cheapest hay press in the United States. Presses furnished at manufac- 
toi-y cost to parties buying Comity or State Rights. The promts on a few Presses will 
faa. piiy for a coimty Eight. 

"WIESTIi'R &; CO., 

17 New Montjtomery Street, (Grimd Holell, Suu Frsmclsco. 



Something New in Photography. — A 
photographer of Stockholm, C. J. Malm- 
berg, has received a patent for a new dis- 
covery, which he calls iihototy^^hy. He 
tran.sfers photographs on metallic plates, 
and, by means of printing colors, can print 
them on paper, even to the smallest details. 

Epitaph. 
Here lies a lawyer and an honest man ; 
Heaven works a wonder for us now 
then. 



and 



Ekputation is what men and women 
think of us. Character is what God and 
angels know of us. 



It is well enough to call a man a "lucky 
dog," but to call him a pui^py or a whelp 
generally creates a muss. 

MoRMONiSM has not inapi)ropriately been 
termed "mixed husbandry." 




871. 



I87I 



sunsc/^/n/t for titb 




The only Literary Magazine 

PUBLISHED ON THE PACIFIC COAST, 



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lar California Magazine will com- 
mence with the January Number 
for 1871. We promise our read- 
ers rich things during the coming 
year, 




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published by 



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SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Bound Volumes.— Six Numbers— from January to June, and July to December— consti- 
tute a volume. Bound volumes will be sent, post-paid, for #3.00, paid in advance. 



NOVELTY MILL AND GRAIN SEPARATOR. 



THE und 'rsigTied hav- 
ing purchased of the Pa- 
tentees, WIRTS & SWIFT, 
of Hudson. Michigan, 
their right to this mill, 
Patented June 22d, 1869, 
for California, Oregon, 
Washington Territory, 
Montana, Utsh, New 
Mexico and Arizona, wish- 
es to call the attention of 
Faemi'ks, MiI/LEKS and 
GnAiN Dealers to one of 
THE GREATEST IM- 
PRGVEMENTS OF THE 
AGE for cleaning and sep- 
arating grain. While it 
combines all the essential 
qualities of a first-chi.ss 
Fanning Mill, it also far 
excels anything that has 
ever been invented for 
the separation of grain. 
It has been thoroughly 
tested on all the differ- 
ent kinds of mixed grain, 
separating all the differ- 
ent seeds in almost a mag- 
ical manner, placing them 
in their different compart- 
ments ill the mill arranged 
for their reception, at the 
same time taking out all 
the Mivslard, Grass Seed, 
HarUy and Oats, and mak- 
ing two distinct quali- 




U^ 



Travelers' Guide. 



Central Pacific Railroad. 

Time Schedule, December 5, 1870. 




EASTWARD. 



San Francisco 

Oakland 

San Jose 

Stockton 

Sacramento 

Sacramento 

Marysville 

Chico 



Arrive 
Leave 
Arrive 



i;ed Whlat, and all the 
I, By the use of this 
will be saved to the 



ties of wheat if desired, thereby selecting superior, large plump and perfect kenn In f"r i 
small and cut kernals, suih as merchantable wheat is deposited m another C(ini|iartiiir 
Mdl a great quantity of wheat usually sown that has been cleaned m the common mill, 
fanner, as the cut or shrunken kernais will never gernianate. 

The above mentioned Novelty Mill is the only mill known to possess all these superior qualifications, and was 
exhibited and tested at the last Michigun State Fair held at Jackson, Michigan, September 21, 22, and 23, 18(ill. and 
bore away the palm over some thirty other different mills from all parts of the Fnited States, including the fa. 
mousDicky Mill of Racine, Wisconsin. All who have witnessed here the operations of the NOVELTY MILL, de- 
clare it perfection, and the most beneficial invention to the Farmers, Millers, and Grain Dealers ever introduceii 
on the Paeitic Coast. The farmers in Santa Clara County, are loud in its praise, and also in other parts of the 
State where it is being introduced. No. 1 Mill, complete, is capable of cleaning 25 tons of grain per day; No. 2 
Mill, 1.5 tons; No. 3. Mill, 8 tons. A large number of recommendations and certificates of the practical working 
of the mill will be furnished. Circulars containing references sent free by mail N. B. Town, County, or State 
Rights for saloon favorable terms. For ftirther particulars apply to 

Uvai-3m 'Ja. STOKE. 4»» BiiUei-y .Street, San Frunclnco. 



Colfax 

Reno 

Winnemucca 

Battle Mountain 

f_'arlin 

Elko 

Kelton 

Ogden 



Leave 



Express 
Train 
Daily. 



8.00 AM 
8.40 am 
7.4.5 am 
12.06 P M 
1..50 P M 
2.10 pm 
4.00 p M 
6.1.5 pm 



.5.2.5 P M 
1.15 AM 
9.10 AM 
12.00 M 
a.lOpM 
•t.40 PM 
1.35 AM 
6.10 am 



Pass'ger 
Sunday 
except d 



4.00 PM 
4.42 PM 
4.35 PM 
7. .55 PM 
9.30 P M 



MS 



5.30 p M 



4.13 am 
7.40 A M 
9.0fl A M 
1.15 PM 
.5.25 r M 



S.30 p M 
5.45 A M 
10.15 PM 
3.10 AM 
10.00 AM 
12.30 P M 
7.30 A M 
4.00 A M 



WESTWARD. 



Ogden 

Kelton 

Elko 

Carl in 

Battle Mountain 

Winnemucca 

R -no 

Colfax 



Chico 
Mar.vsville 
Sacramento 
Sacramento 
Stockton 
San Jose 
Oakland 
San Francisci 



]yeave 



Arrive 
Leave 



Express 
Train 
Daily. 



5.4.5 P M 
10.38 P M 
8.45 A M 
10.15 A M 
1.25 pm 
4.0.5 P m 
1.00 AM 
8.45 A M 



(i..5.5 A M 
9.10 am 
11.25 AM 
11.45am 
1.39 P M 
.5.35 p M 
.5.15 PM 
6.00 p M 



Pass'ger 
Sunday 
excepted 



7.00 A M 
R.32 A M 
12.00 p M 
11..58 PM 
12.3.5 P M 



.5.00 p M 
1 35 A M 
7.15 PM 
10.00 P M 
3.10 AM 
9.00 A M 
11.10 PM 
11.30 PM 



10.00 A M 
2.30 P M 
.5.1.5 PM 
7.30 p M 

11.20 pm 



Through Tickets to all Principal Cit 
at the Company's Offices. 


es in Europe for sale 


P. M. 1 A. M. 1 


Local Trains. 


1 A. M. 1 P. M. 


3.00 
3.28 


9.00 
9.32 
11.05 
12.00 


leave . 
arrive 


.San Fr\n«tsco. 


arrive 


9.40 
9.08 
8.1.5 
7.45 


7.30 
6..55 


4.40 






.5.3.5 


5.35 


San Jose... 


leave.. 


4.35 




P. M. 1 A. M. 1 


Visalia Div. 


1 p. M. 1 A. M. 


4.00 


8.00 
11.48 

3.25 
P. M. 


leave. 


.San FRANCiscck 


.arrive 


12.35 

8.,50 

7.15 

A. M. 


8.30 
7 10 


9.05 
P. M. 


arrive. 


Modesto... 


..leave 


.5.4.5 
P. M. 



From 

SAN FnANCISCO. 

B K..50 A. M. 

S.OO " 

9.00 " 

DIO.OO " 

11.00 " 

D12.00 M. 

2.00 P. M. 

D :i.00 " 

4.00 " 

.5.15 " 

H.45 " 

B11.30 P.M. 

From 

SAN FltANflsrO. 

B 7.20 A. M. 
E 9.00 ■• 
BC 9.;i0 '• 

Erni.30 " 

1.30 P. M. 

4.00 ■■ 

.5.30 " 
B Sunda.vs excepted. 
D To Oakland onl.v. 



From 

OAKLAND 
B 5.35 A. M. 
B 6..50 " 
8.00 " 
9.00 " 
10.00 " 
11.00 " 
12.00 M. 
2.00 P. M. 
3.00 " 
4.00 " 
.5.20 " 
6..50 P. M. 
From 

ALAMEDA. 
B 4.42 A. M. 
B 7.36 " 
E 9.06 " 
B 9.36 " 
El 1.36 " 
1.3.5 P. M. 
4.05 '• 

E Sundays only, 

C To Fruit Vale only. 



From 

BROOKLYN. 

B 5.25 A. M. 

B 6.40 " 
7.50 " 
8..50 " 
9.50 " 

11..50 " 

2..50 P. M. 

.5.10 " 
6.40 P. M. 
From 

HAVWABDS. 
B 3.4.5 A. M. 
B 7.00 •• 
E 8.30 " 
B 9.00 ■• 
E 11.00 " 

3.25 P. M. 



A. N. TOWNE, General Superintendent. 
T. H. GOODMAN, Gen'l Passenger and Ticket Ag't, Sac. 




The following time will take effect 
Sitturday October 1, 1870 

OOTNO X'ORTH— Tijiii.T (SuNnArs Excepted). 



iSew vvorlu 

Leaves 
-5. Francisco. 



Trains 
Arrive at 
Calistoga. 



Trains 

Arrive at 

Sacramento, 



Trains 
Arrive at 
Marysville. 



8:01) A. M. 
4:00 p. M, 


1 12:45 A.M. 1 12:30 A.M. 
1 8:15 P. M. 1 8:20 p. m. 


2:15 p. M. 
9:30 p. M. 


ON SONUAYS. 


8:30 A. M. 


1 12:au p, M. 1 1:U0 p. «t. 


5:00 p. M 



GOING SOUTH— Daily (Su^D»ys Exckpted). 



Train 

Leave 

Maryville. 



Trains 

Leave 

Calistoga. 



Trains 
Leave 

Sacramento. 



New World 

Arrives at 
S, Francisco 



6:(I0 A. M. 
1:00 P. M. 


1 7:.Wa. M. 1 7:15 A.M. 
2:30 p.m. I 3:15 p.m. 


1 10:30 A. M. 
1 7:30 p.m. 


ON SUNDAYS. 


10:15 A M. 


1 .1:iiO p. M 1 2:30 P M. 


1 7:00 P M. 





KtrS lor saie at .ild Mnrngomerv .street, or up board 
■iteaincrNew World R. S. MATTI.-^ON, .Superintendent. 

N. B.— Branch office of Western Union Telegraph Com- 
pany, Front and Vallcjo street wharf. 
L.'C. FOWLER. General freight and Passenger Agent. 
, Valleio October i, 1870. 13v20-ly 



agjentjss wanted 

FOR 

ZelFs ^ew Encyclopedia. 

This work, the Best, the Latest, and the Choairest ever 
published. It is not only a 

COMVLETE ENCYCI.OF.^5niA, 

Freshly written, and up with the times, but is also 

a thorough and complete 

Lexicon, a, iiav.vtfv of (he World, a 

tiloteriiphtciil, Itihiieul, I eeul 

and Medical ]>tc(i<»nary. 

And the only book ever published containing all thesa 
Kub.jocts, with 2,000 Engravings. This really wonderful 
work is to render readily accessible reliable information 
on every conceivable subject. No human being could 
he found to whom it would not prove invaluable. It 
iniuutely desirilii'S every disease Hesh is heir to; ex- 
pliiiiis every legal term or phrase; gives the geography 
of the entire world: acquaints you with all noted men 
and women living or dead; describes every country, city 
and town: defines every word in use in the English lan- 
guage ;pictures the birth-place and gives portraits of many 
distinguished personages; teaches the correct pronunci^ 
ation of proper names; is a biographical dictionary of 
all nations; a biblical dictionary; describes every ani- 
mal known to exist; acquaints you with authors, sculp- 
tors, travellers, warriors, painters, divines, historians, 
naturalists, etc., of ancient and modern times; speaks of 
all the battles and heroes of the late war; and explores 
the whole vast vegetable kingdom. ^^„,^^,^ , ,,^ ^,„ 
AGENTS WANTED.— Apply to F. DEWING h CO., .'542 
California Street, San Francisco, General Agents for the 
Pacific States, and Territories, 19v21 



28 



-^r>Si 



■ [January 14, 1871 



SEi\^S0f\8LE AaT'CLES. 



I. N. HOAQ, Editor, Sacbamknto. 



THE RAINY SEASONS FOR TWENTY- 
ONE YEARS. 

The qnestion as to -wliether we will have 
sufficient rain to ensure crops the present 
season ia becoming one of intense interest 
to the entire people of California. The 
very small amount of rainfall up to the 
present time, and the unusually i)rotractecl 
spell of cold and frosty weather which we 
hatl during the hitter part of December, it 
must be confessed, afl'ord very good reason 
for the fear now pervading all classes of 
the comuuinity upon this subject. "While 
almost all entertain fears in the premises, 
still very few of us can give a good reason 
for such fear, l)ased upon individual recol- 
lections of the past. Indeed, very many 
seem to believe that the past seasons in 
California can in no respect be relied upon 
as a criterion by which to judge of those of 
the future. We believe differently. We 
think the seasons in California, both in 
summer and winter, are as uniform as in 
most other countries, and we think the 
careful observer can as correctly judge of 
what the weather is likely to be in the fu- 
ture, here, as in any other country; and if 
he -will, can govern his business accord- 
ingly. Of course we are all liable to err; 
but all human knowledge is made up of 
observations and exi)crienoes of the past, 
and these observations and exi)eriences are 
the only basis we have upon which to form 
a judgment of the future — as well as to the 
weather as to other matters. At this par- 
ticular time we would therefore call atten- 
tion to the following: 





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there is a general correspondence between 
the amount of rain falling be/ore the first of 
January of each year, and the whole 
amount for the season of the correspond- 
ing years. For instance, in the year 1852- 
3, the rainfall before the first of January- 
was 19.413 inches, and the whole amount 
for the season was 35.549 inches. On the 
other hand, in the year 1856-7, the fall be- 
fore the first of January was 3.236 inches, 
and the whole fall for the season was only 
10.443 inches; and in 18G3-4 the fall before 
the fir.st of January was 3.308 inches, and 
that of the season 7.868. 

It will also be observed that there has 
been but one year inj the whole time, cov- 
ered by the above table, in which the rain- 
fall before the first of January was less 
than that of the present season to that 
time. That year, 1850-1, was the most re- 
markable we have ever had. Before the 
first of January there were but two 
sjirinkles, and for the whole season but 
4.710 inches. 

This season we had before January first 
but 1.575 inches. Taking the past for our 
giiide, we must confess that the fear, so 
universal, seems to be well founded. This 
season mm/ i)rove an exception, and we 
most sincerely hope it will ; but prudence, 
at least, would suggest that we prejiare for 
a dry season. 

"We selected Sacramento as the location 
for our observation, for tlie reason that as 
a general thing the rainfall at that jjoint is 
a better guide for that of the larger portion 
of the interior of the State than any point 
either further north or south. We would 
remark, however, that the rain tlie present 
season seems to have been more abundant 
in many other portions of the State than at 
Sacramento. 



ble piece of property situated in the heart 
of the capital city. The southern half of 
the enclosed grounds the society holds un- 
der a lease of ninety nine years — but will 
probably soon become the owner in fee of 
that also. 

The receipts of the society for the past 
year, including $2,883 of an unexpended 
appropriation, were $36,682 08. The ex- 
penditures exclusive of purchase money of 
park were $34,675.68. The balance in the 
treasury is $2,006.40. This is truly a good 
showing and we confidently expect the full 
co-operation of the society in systematizing 
the industries and develoi)ing the resources 
of our State. 



FARMERS' GARDENS 



CALIFORNIA STATE AGRICULTURAL 
SOCIETY.-ITS PROSPERTY. 

One of the good omens for agriculture in 
California is the prosperous condition of 
the State Agricultural Society. Financial- 
ly this society is on an excellent footing. 
In this resjiect it is now in condition to jier- 
form, for the agi'icultural industries of the 
State, all the offices that can be reasonably 
expected of such societies under the most 
favorable circumstances. We are assured 
l)y the officers of the society that it is the 
intention to thoroughly revise the present 
premium list and adapt it to the existing 
wants and circumstances of all the indus- 
tries of the State. The list so revised, in- 
creased and improved will be published 
early, and distributed throughout the state, 
and in other States and territories of the 
coast, so that all can prepare their i)roducts 
for exhibition at the Fair of 1871 — which 
it is intended to make superior to any Fair 
ever held on the coast — and a real and sub- 
stantial exhibit of all the industrial pro- 
ducts of the Pacific slope. The improve- 
ments made by the Society during the past 
year give them ample means for accomo- 
dating, in an advantageous manner, a full 
competition exhibition of samx^les of the 
])roducts of every industry on the coast. 
Nothing short of such iiu exhibition, as we 
are told, will fill the ijrogramme already 
adopted by the managers. 

By the improvements at the pavilion, 
made the past season, the society now have 
two grand halls, each 135 by 150 feet, be- 
sides numerous other rooms and a commo- 
dious picture gallery. At the cattle 
gi'ounds the stalls have all been raised and 
furnished with permanent roofs and doors. 
There have been new and approi)riate 
stands needed for judges, reporters and 
visitors. The imi)rovements at the pavil- 
ion and park made during thp past year 
have cost the society in round numbers 
86,000. 

They have also lately bought a larger 
portion of the stock of the Union Park As- 
sociation, embracing the northern half of 
the enclosed grounds. Thus the society 
It will be seen by the above table, that I has become the owner in fee of that valua- 



There seems to be a prevailing dislike or 
distaste among farmers generally, and more 
especially among American farmers, to the 
care and cultivation of kitchen gardens. 
There is probable no state in the American 
Union in which the dislike is more deej) 
seated and tiniversal than in Catifornia. 
Our California farmers are possessed with 
almost an universal mania for the cultivation 
of broad fields — of extensive farms of from 
one to ten thousand acres, where more 
phj'sical and less mental labor is required. 
This system is more speculative, has 
more excitement in it; and if liable to great 
losses, it still, under favorable circum- 
stances, mat/ bring great gains. This ele- 
ment is what gives it favor with our Cali- 
fornia farmers. 

On the other hand, the cultivation of the 
garden is no speculation. Though a small- 
business, it is safe and sure. But the gar 
den, to be made successful and i)rofi table, 
requires the exercise of judgment, system 
and patience. These, accomjmnied with a 
little care and attention, at the proper time, 
would secure to every farmer in our State, 
whether his farm be large or small, a good 
garden from which, at almost all seasons of 
the year, his table could be su]>plied with 
an abundance of the choicest vegetables — 
crispy and fresh from the soil. 

What California farmer, or farmer's wife, 
would not like, in the early spring, to be 
able to step from the house into a well en- 
closed and well cultivated vegetable garden, 
in which, each in its approjiriate place, 
were growing luxuriously all the lucious, 
early vegetables, — such as lettuce, rad- 
dishes, peas beets, turnips, onions, jjota- 
toes, tomatoes, sweet corn, beans, carrots, 
parsnips, etc., etc.? No matter if a sweet 
pea vine, a honeysuckle a i)ink, a gerani; 
um or other innocent flowers were allowed 
a little share in such a garden, in the stead 
of weeds, they would do no harm, but would 
add, by their cheerful presence, to the 
islcasurable emotions of the owner or other 
members of the family when they step out 
to jJiuck some of the choice, fresh vegeta- 
bles foi the breakfast or dinner table. 

After ornamenting the garden, it would 
detract nothing from the cheerfulness and 
hai)i)iness of the family at the meal if a few 
of these flowers were permitted to ornament 
the table ; they might in this way i)re-occcu- 
py the places in some young mental gar- 
dens that would otherwise be usuri^ed by 
tares and weeds. 

We presume we shall find no one to dis- 
agree with lis in theproj)osit.ion that every 
farmer in the land should have a vegetable 
garden attached to his house; and we come 
now to consider the (juestion, suggested in 
our last, " Whether the grain farmers, in 
the recognized grain districts^of the state V 
where the soil is of a clay or adobe nature, 
can raise good vegetables with success; 
and if so, what are tlie conditions necessary 
to that success?" To the former jxjrtion of 
this interrogatory we have no hesitation in 
saying yes; and will at once proceed to the 
consideration of the necessary conditions. 
The Will. 
No man can succeed in any business un- 
less he has the will to do so. Having deter- 
mined that an object is worth striving for, 
— in this instance that a good garden is 
worth the trouble required to make and 
maintain it, he must thoroughly make up 
his mind that he will have one, — that he 
will, in the first place, sot apart a piece of 



land to be especially devottid to the garden 
— that he will enclose it so as to keej) out 
stock of all kinds as well as fowls. A high, 
tight board fence would ensure the double 
purjMJse of such enclosure, and as a wind 
break, which in mttny i)laces would be a 
great l)enefit. Having determined tliat he 
will devote the necessary land for the i>ur- 
pose, and that he will give to the garden 
the required time, the next consideration is 
the 

Location. 
This, for many reasons, should be near 
the house. ]\Iany hnsure moments of the; 
farmer himself and of his boys, and hired 
labor that would otherwise be lost, could 
thus be turned to good account, t)y work- 
ing in the garden. Many steps of the 
housekeeper would also be saved in going 
to and from th>' garden, to pick the vegeta- 
bles, and the table would be more likely to be 
at all times supplied with fresh vegetables, 
if in the garden. 

Again a good vegetable garden attached 
to the house tends to add to it the aj)pear- 
anee as well as the realities of home. It 
concentrates the home attachments, 
strengthens the domestic feelings and 
brings into acti\-ity many of the finer vir- 
tues. If near the hou.se it will be under 
the eye and supervision of the household, 
and will be a jjleasant resort for females 
and children of tli(> family; thus adminis- 
tering to their health and pleasure, by in- 
ducing exercise in the open air, as well as 
by affording agreeable and healthy food. 
There will also more likely be better taste 
displayed in the arrangement of the garden 
and more care and attention bestowed in 
keeping it in a good state of cultivation if 
near thehou.se; for the reason that the in- 
terest as well as the taste and pride of the 
wife and daughters will be brought into ex- 
ercise, and have their influence over those 
who do the labor. It will also be visitol 
by neighbors and friends, with a view to 
compare :iotes and make friendly observa- 
tions and suggestions; and thus will bo 
kept up a friendly and healthy rivalry in 
neighborhoods, both as to the gcuieral ar- 
rangement and surroun lings of the house; 
and the (juality and early maturity of the 
l)i-oducts of the garden. For what is more 
unpleasant to a fai-mer's family of spiritand 
l)ride, than to know that their next neigli- 
bors are enjoying the luxury of early lus- 
paragus, peas, beans, lettuce", etc., when 
theirs wlil not do to pluck for days, ami 
perhaps weeks? The best soil for a vege- 
table garden is undoubtedly a deeji, rich, 
sandy loam, so composed that it will ab- 
sorb agreat quantityof moisture, andallow 
it to pass so far below the surface that it 
can V)e cultivated very soon after heavy 
rains, and at the same time retain that 
moisture so it will keep the surface; moist 
during the dry .sea.son. It should contain 
sufficient miick and clay to give it strength 
and durability, and sufficient sand to pre- 
vent sun or surface burning. It should bo 
porous, to allow the air to jjenetrato as 
deep as the roots of vegetables will grow. 

We have ;i great deal of excellent soil for 
gardens in California. The land along the 
(■reeks and rivers of the entire St4ite, rjut- 
side of the mountains, generally called 
" made land," is well adajited to this juir- 
pose. Many of the small valleys in the 
foot hills, and many of the hills themsejlves, 
contain .soilalreiuly i)repared by nature for 
the most successful cultivation of vegetal)le 
gardens. A very large proportion of the 
soil in the State, however, located on the 
liroad open i)lain, one elevation al)ove the 
immediate ri\er banks, is too heavy, and 
contains too much clay and sticky substan- 
ces for the successful cultivation of vegeta- 
bles. It is too wet in the rainy season and 
too dry and hard in the dry season. Such 
generally is tlie character of the soil in 
what we have termed the grain distric-ts of 
the State; While such soils, ])roi)erly culti- 
vated, are well aclapted to the production of 
the small grains, they require some artifi- 
cial manij)ulations and changes to make 
them good for gai-dens. To show what 
these changes are, and how they can bo 
made will claim our attention in the next 
number of the BruAL. 



Clean up. — Hou.sckeei)ers, gardeners, 
and fruit growers will find plenty of work 
t^ occui)y their time just now. Trim j-our 
fruit trees of all dead branches, gather up 
the leaves and other debris that autumn 
strews on the ground, and make everything 
around and about you tidy and comfort- 
able. A clean yard or garden sjjeaks vol- 
umnes for the general thrift and tidiness of 
its owner, while one strewed with leaves 
and other unsightly objects is equally 
suggestive of the habits of its owner or 
occupant. 



January 14, 1^71]- 



m^ 



^9 




DOMESTIC PRODUCE AT WHOLESALE. 

San Francisco, Thurs., p. m., Jan. 12th. 

FLOUR— Is still ill good demanfl for ex- 
port; while the demand for local trade con- 
tinues fair. We note a slight advance in prices 
from last (juotations. Standard Oregon brands 
are <iuotable at $6.50@6.75; local brands— 
snperttne, $.5.37@.5.62^; extra $G.rM(w,6.15. 
Transactions inclnde 3,000 bbls. Cal. extra, and 
12,000 qr. sacks Cal. superfine, partly for ex- 
port. 

WHEAT — Has been in less demand, during 
the past week, and at a slight decline, especi- 
ally for choice shipping goods. Sales are re- 
ported to the amount of 16,000 sacks, at current 
prices for shipping and milling. We quote the 
range of all kinds at $2.15@2.30; good to choice 
shipping, $2.17@2.25; choice milling, f2.25@ 
2.27. Liverpool quotations are without change 
at lis .5d. New York rates remain unchanged 
— $1.62@1.65 per bushel. 

BARLEY — Is still in fair demand, and prices 
have advanced somewhat during the week. 
We quote $1.35@1.50, from fair to choice; 
$1.45 at close. Sales embrace 12,000 sacks. 

OATS — We note an improved demand for oats. 
Fair to good may be quoted at flAO((i>,l.GO, at 
which prices some 5,000 sacks have changed 
hands. 

CORN— May be quoted at $1.60 for good 
yellow, at which figure 125 sacks are reported. 

BUCKWHEAT— Nominal at $2.50@3 from 
the wharf. 

RYE — In limited demand. The latest sale is 
reported at $2.12%. 

FEED— Remains with but little change. We 
quote Hay still firm at $11@16 from fair to 
choice; Straw, $7@'J; Bran, $28@30; Mid- 
dlings, $25 for feed, and $35@40 per ton for 
fine; Oil Cake Meal has advanced to $30. 

HONEY — In good demand at the following 
rates: Los Angeles, 5-gall cans, $r2@16, and 
Potter's, 2 lb do, at $4 '^ dozen. 

POTATOES— Demand light and stock large. 
We quote at $1.25(8*1.60. 

HOPS — This year's crop is still quotable at 
10(aa2%c. 

HIDES — We quote Dry, slaughterer's stock, 
18(a),l'J c; Salted ; 8@9c. Sales during the 
week 1,957 Cal. dry. 

WOOL— We quote good shipping, at 15@ 
17 %c; very choice, 18 %c; burry, aO@,12%c; 
slightly do, 13@14c. The market is bare of 
stock; prices remaining as last quoted. 

TALLOW— Quotable at 7@7%c, from ordi- 
nary to choice. 

SEEDS— California Mustard, none in the 
market; Flax 3@,3%c., Canary, 7@8c. 

BEANS — Quiet at the following rates. Bayo 
at $2.25@2.50; butter, $2.25; small white pink 
andred $1.87@2.00; pea, $2.00 per 100 pounds. 

FRESH MEAT— The market is firm and 
(piotations unchanged. We quote prices from 
slaughterers to dealers: 

BEEF— American, 1st quality, 10@llc 1^ lb. 
Do 2d do 9@10c i^^ltx 

Do 3d do 7@ 8c % lb. 

VEAL— From 8@ 12c. 

MUTTON— Steady at 9@10c. 'f, lb. 

LAMB— 10@llc. 1 lb. 

PORK— Undressed at 5%@6%c; dressed, 
gi-aiu fed, 8@8%c. 1^ ft. 

POULTRY, ETC.— In small supply, and 
prices slightly advanced. Young Chickens, $6@ 
7; Hens $7@8.5(); Roosters, $7(5i8.00: Ducks, 
tame, $8@,y 1^ doz; do wild, $l((/'3.00 ^ doz; 
geese, tame;$2.50@$3 1^ pair; wild, $1.75Cffi.3 ^ 
doz; tame Turkeys, 18(5i20c ^ lb; Hare, 1.50 
per doz; Doves, 50o do; Quail, $1.25@1..50. 

DAIRY PRODUCTS— California Butter, 
Iresh, in rolls, 40@50c; Packed rolls, 32(V/'37% 
c; Oregon firkin, 20@22%c;Eastern do, 25@ 
3'7 %c. The receipts of choice butter have been 
fair. 

Cheese — In fair supply, at unchanged rates. 
California, new, 12@15c., Eastern, 17c. 

yf^QOH — California fresh, 40@45c; Oregon, 
35c; Cahfoinia Lard, ll-ft) tins, 12@13%c; 
Oregon, 13%@14%c, according to package. 

FRUITS— We submit the following prices, 
for which we are indebted to A. Lusk & Co. : 
Cal Apples, per box, $1.00@$2.00; Oregon, 
$l(7f),$2.00; Pears, per box, $1.50@$4.00; Or- 
anges, per 1,000, $40@$50; Lemons, per box, 
$16; Pears, scarce. Oregon steamer just tele- 
gi-aj)hed, with apples for San Francisco. 

CASE GOODS— In 2 lb cans, per doz.. Apri- 
cots, $4; Ajiples, $2.50; Blackberries, $4 ; Ger- 
man Prunes, $4; Grapes, $4; Peach, table, $4; 
Peach, pie, $3; Pie, assorted, $3; Plum, table, 
$3,.50; Plum, pie, $3; Pears, $3.75; Quince, 
$3.50; Tomatoes, $2; Table, assorted, $3.75. 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS —Busi- 
ness in this department has revived in conse- 
((uence of the late rains, and dealers are now 
looking forward to a busy season. 

BAGS AND BAGGING — Are in moderate 
retpiest only, and will so be until the approach 
of the coming season. We quote wool bags at 
50(«)52%c. Oat Sacks 23x40, 12%c; 28x35, 18c; 
Potato Sacks, 17%c.; imitation Dnndees, 18@ 
19 c. Standard burlaps, 22x36, 12 %c. 
BUILDING AND FENCING MATERIALS— 
In good demand, and prices are reported firm. 
We (piote wholesale rates to dealers: Redwood 
Rough at $18; do Siding, $22.50; do Surfaced, 
$30; Fancy Pi(;kets, $30; Oregon Rough, $17; 
do Flooring, $27; do Fencing, $18; Laths, 
$3@3.25, and Redwood Shingles, $2.75 'f, M, 

DRIED FRUITS— In moderate request. We 
.quote the market as follows : Cal. Dried Apples, 



5%c; Oregon do, 6%c; Languedoc Almonds; 
25c; Figs, Smyrna, 1.5@20c; Prunes, Hungarian, 
16@17c, for old and new respectively, '^ lb; 
Raisins, layer, $4.25@5.00; Currants, Zante, 
16@:17c.; Citron, 50c. 

PROVISIONS— The stock of all kinds of 
Cured Meats are ib fair supply, and a good de- 
mand continues to exist. We quote jobbing 
rates as follows; Hams, California, atl3@13%c; 
Oregon do, 16%(5j.17c; Bacon, California, 15@ 
15%c; Oregon do, 16@16%c; Lard, California, 
12%@13%c; Oregon do, in kegs, 13@13%c 



Leather Market Report. 

[Corrected weekly by Dolliver & Bro.. No. 109. Post st.] 
San Francisco, Thursday, Jan. 12. 

Sole Leather. — The demand is good and 
the stock on hand light, on account of heavy 
shipments to the east. Piices rule firm. We 
quote : 

City Tanned 26 @29 

Santa Cruz 26 @:31 

Country 25 @28 

Calf and Kip Skins. — French stocks con- 
tinue scarce and high on account of the lack 
of exportation from French ports which has al- 
most entirely ceased. We quote : 

Best French Calf Skins, Tfl doz 75 00®inO 00 

Common French Calf Skins, 13 doz 36 00® T.') 00 

French Kips, ^ lb 100® 1.30 

California Kip, ^ doz 60 00® 80 00 

California Calf, ■^ Hi 100® 125 

Eastern Wheel Stuffed Calf, ^ ft 80® 1 00 

Eastern Bench Stuffed Calf, i(» ft 1 10® 1 25 

Sheep Roans for topping, all colors, TH doz 8 50® 13 00 

Sheep Roans for linings, Ji doz 5 .5(1® 10 50 

California Kusset Sheep Linings 175® 5 50 

HARNESS LEATHER, ^ ft 30® 37 

Fair Bridle, ^ ft 33® 40 

Skirting, 1^ doz 4,50® 4 75 

Welt Leather, ^ side 30 00® 50 00 

Buff Leather, ^ foot 22® 2G 

San Francisco Metal Market. 

PRICEa FOR INVOICES 

fobbing prices rule from ten lo fifteen per cent, higher than the 
foUowinQ quotutiona. 

Friday, -Jan. 13, 1871. 

IBOT. -Duty : Pig, $7 per ton ; Railroad, 60c ^ 100 fts.; 
Bar, l®l!^c ^i ib: Sheet, jiolished, 3c ^ ft; common, 
l)4®Hici3 ft; Plate, IJiic ^ ft; Pipe, l>5c i^ ft; 
Galvanized, 2)<ic lf» ft. 
Scotch and Eug. Pig Iron, Tjl ton... $34 @$35 50 

White Pig, ^ ton ® 35 00 

Rehned Bar, bad assortment, ^ ft.. — 03 ® 

Rehned Bar, good assortment, fi ft. — 04 @ 

Boiler, No. 1 to 4 — 04 3i® 

Plate, No. 5 to 9 @ — 04 M 

Sheet, No. 10 to 13 — 04>!i® — 05 

Sheet, No. 14 to 20 — 05 ® — 05M 

Sheet, No. 24 to 27 — 05 ® — 06 M 

Copper.— Duty : Sheathing, 3 )4c 1? ft; Pig and Bar, 

2;<ic Tf» ft. 

Sheathing, If* ft ® — 26 

Sheathing, Yellow — 2'0 ® — 21 

Sheathing, Old Yellow — 10 ® — 11 

Composition Nails — 21 ® — 22 

Composition Bolts — 21 ® — 22 

Tiv Plates.— Duty : 25 If* cent, ad valorem. 

Plates, Charcoal, IX, IP box 12 00 ® 

Plates, I C Charcoal 10 00 ® 10 50 

Booting Plates 10 00 ® 10 50 

Banca Tin, Slabs, f* ft • ® — 42 

Steel English Cast Steel, ^ft ® — 15 

Quicksilver.-^ ft @ — 90 

Lead.— Pig, ^ ft — 6 @— 7 

Sheet — 9 ® 

Pipe — 10 ® 11 — 

Bar — 8 ®— 9 

Zinc. -Sheets, -^ ft — 1054® — 11 

Borax — 35 @ — S8 



65 



10 



San Francisco Market Rates. 

"IVholenttle Price*. 

Friday. January 1 
Flour, Extra, ¥ bbl (i uu 

Do. f^uperllne 5 UU 

r^orn Moal, %« lou lbs 2 ?.■> 

Wheat, •p, luu as 2 00 

iJuts, %< lUu fts 1 4U 

Barley, "ij* luu lbs I 85 

Beans, %i luu fts 1 Sly, 

Potatoes,^ 100 fts 1 UO 

Hay , "^ ton lU uU 

Live Oak Woua,^cord lU 00 

Beef, extra, dressed, |* ft 8 

Sheep, OH toot 2 01) 

HoKS, on 1(1(11, |«ft 6 

Hogs. dressed, t* tt» ^^2 

GROCERIES, ETC. 
Sngar, crushed, f , lb 

Do. Hawaiian 9 

Coffee, Costa itica, ^ft — 

Do. Rio 

Tea, Japan, Ui ft 

Do. Oreen 

Hawaiian Rice, IH M> 

China Rice, %4 ft 

CoalOil.W Kallon 6i) 

Candles, ^ ft 14 

Overland Butter 30 

Ranch Butter. ^?, ft 45 

Isthmus Butter, ^ ft 25 

Cheese, Calilornia, f, lb 9 

Eggs, If* dozen 4() 

Lard, K ft iDi 

Ham and Bacon, ^ft 31 

Shoulders, *lft 9 

Ketull Jt*rlc«s. 
Butter, California, fresh, ^ lb 50 

do. pickled, ~#ft 40 

do. Oret!(in,i*ft 

Cheese, %* ft 20 

Honey,* ft 25 

Eggs.pfldzen J" 

Lard, %« ft 18 

Ham.s and Bacon,* ft »^ 

Cranberrie.s, ^ gallon vf 

Potatoes, i*lb 2 

Potatoes, Sweet, ^ lb -- 

Tomatoes, Tt* lb 2 

Onions, ^Ib 2 

Apples, Nu. 1, 13 ft * 

Pears, Table, » ft 5 

Plums, dried, %( ft 10 

Peaches, dried, '^ ft 10 

Oranges, W dozen 50 

Lem(jns, "p dozen 50 

Chickens, apiece ?5 

Turkeys, V ft — 

Snap, Pale and O. O 10 

Soap. Castile ■« tt> . . . . . . .^_^ V^ 

Pneumatic Gas at Make Island. — The 
Pacific Pneumatic Gas Comiiany has been 
officially notifiecl by Commodore Golds- 
borougli, Commander at Mare Island, that 
the Company's gas works at the Navy Yard 
are acceiited, and the contract comi>leted 
to the satisfaction of the United States au- 
thorities. 



3, 1871 


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[From our Sample Issue, Dec. 17, 1870.] 

THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 

In presenting to our readers the preliminary 
or sample number of the Pacific Rural Press, 
we do not claim that it is what it should be, by 
any means ; but the efforts of the publishers in 
conducting and building up the Scientific 
Press, is suflScient guarantee that no efforts will 
be spared to elevate their new paper, as fast as 
circumstances will permit, to such a standard 
of excellence and usefulness as will make it 
worthy and fit to represent the great and grow- 
ing agiicultural interest of the Pacific Coast. 
All we ask is the prompt and hearty co-opera- 
tion of our friends in extending to it such a 
support as will warrant the necessary outlay to 
make the paper what it should be . Being al- 
ready provided with an able corps of writers 
and workers in every department, a well equip- 
ped office, and a reputation for integrity and 
energy, which has been accorded by a generous 
pubhc and which has proved of the highest pe- 
cuniary value, we venture upon our new enter- 
prise with the fullest assurance of success. 

The object of the paper will be to please, in- 
terest and instruct all who peruse its columns. 
It will contain nothing which can offend the 
most fastidious — nothing which will either di- 
rectly or indirectly inculcate improper ideas or 
principles in the minds of either old or young. 
Our only aim will be to benefit and interest. 

No pains or reasonable expense ■ndll be spared 
to make the paper what its patrons desire to , 
have it, and what its proprietors mean to make 
it. Earnest labor, thought and study will be 
exercised to this end. 

Its miscellany will be neither trashy or tri- 
fling; and while it will be designed to elevate 
and instruct, it will at the same time be made 
to interest and please. 

The farmer will find the Agricultural De- 
partment well filled with really useful informa- 
tion, designed especially for use and practice 
on the Pacific Coast. 

The Housewife will find something in every 
issue to assist her in economizing her means, 
or in adding to the comforts of her home and 
the luxuries of her table. 

The Home Circle will always find much of 
interest and instruction for both old and young. 
Useful lessons will be given in the amenities of 
life, and in the simple laws of health. The 
children will not be forgotten ; as we propose to 
estiiblish a department for their especial benefit. 
We shall give an original New Year's story for 
the children in the first regular issue of the 
Rural. 

Our illustrations and embelishments will be 
of a high order — having utility and the elevation 
of taste and thought in constant view. Noth- 
ing in this line will be presented to pander to a 
vitiated taste. Imjirovements in this direction 
will be om- constant aim. The beautiful Cali- 
forniaj illustration which we present to-day, is 
one of a series of similar ones which we have 
already on hand and which will be given from 
time to time ; to be followed by others of equal 
or greater interest and beauty of execution. 

The publishers aim to make the Pacific Ru- 
ral Pkess, just the paper which Californians 
and other residents on this Coast should select 
as the one above all others which they would 
desire to SEND TO THEIR FRIENDS IN 
THE EAST, as a representative of California 
interests and as a remembrancer to the "old 
folks at home," that they are not forgotten in 
this far off land of gold, and busy industry. 



CORRESPONDENTS. 

We are authorized to announce the fol- 
lowing, among the well known writers on 
this coast, who will write regularly or oc- 
casionally for the columns of the Pacific 
KuEAL Press: Prof. Ezra S. Carr, of the 
University of California; I. N. Hoag, Sac- 
ramento; W. Wadsworth, Sacramento; T. 
M. Logan, M. D., Sacramento; Rev. O. C. 
Wheeler, Sacramento; E. S. Holden, M. 
D., Stockton; J. S. Harbison, Sacramento; 
S. H. Herring; Dr. Anderson, of Santa 
Cruz; besides several others — ladies and 
gentlemen — whom we may be at liberty to 
announce hereafter. 



Our Advertisers. — A more worthy list 
cannot be found in any journal. Much of 
the limited space allotted to advertising is 
alreadj- engaged. 

A New Agricultural Paper. — We were call- 
ed upon this week by Mr. C. T. Jennings, who 
is canvassing this county on behalf of the new 
agricultural paper to be published by Messrs. 
Dewey (fe Co., the publishers of the San Fran- 
cisco ScienUfic Press. 

The new paper is designed to meet a want 
which is much felt by all intelligent agricultur- 
ists of this Coast, where the conditions of cli- 
mate and soil are so unlike those of the Eastern 
States and the old world, that but limited appli- 
cation of experience gained there is of value 
here; and we very much need a medium such 
as a reliable and judiciously conducted agricul- 
tural journal may afford for exchanging and im- 
parting information of observations and experi- 
ences which pertain to our own circumstances. 

From personal knowledge of the character 
and resources of the publishers, and of the as- 
sistance to be employed, we believe the Parifir. 
Eural Press, the first number of which is to be 
issued on the 7th of January, will prove an iu- 
ti^resting and'useful paper to those employed in 
the rural industries. — Contra Costa (Jazeite. 



Pacific Rural Press. — Dewey Ac Co., of the 
Scientific Press, have just issued a sixteen-page 
paper, quarto form, bearing the foregoing title. 
It is to be devoted to the interests of agricul- 
ture, and will be freely illustrated. The speci- 
men number is creditable. The publishers say, 
in a circular accompanying the paper : 

We herewith present to your notice a copj' of 
the Pacific Rural Press, the publication of 
which we undertake after well testing the wants 
of the Pacific Coast farmers and rnralists by 
the publication of a Farming Edition of the 
Scientific Press. We have not only learned that 
there is a demand for a first-class home agricul- 
tural paper, but a disposition to support a ijood 
one. We are not only well situated for the un- 
dertaking, but have also the means and disposi- 
tion to make it a success, and shall employ the 
best writers in every department, and furnish 
superior engravings for illustrations and em- 
bellishments. 

We wish it success. — S. F. Call, Dee. 24. 



Commence Now 

And patronize your home agricultural 
paper before all others. We are determined 
to make a good paper, and one that will 
not only be profitable to farmers alone, but 
to their entire households — in fact, a favor- 
ite at every Pacific States' hearthstone. 
We need your encouragement more than 
ever at the start. Subscribe at once, and 
get up clubs as rapidly as possible if you 
believe in benefitting your neighbors. 



The Pacific Rural Press. — We have receiv- 
ed a sample copy of this new publication from 
the office of the San Francisco Scientific Pre.is 
of Dewey <fc Co. 

We are much pleased with it. It is a first 
class agricultural paper and is bound to have a 
good circulation in the state. 

It is in quarto form, and printed on good 
paper and type. 

It is tilled with good and appropriate matter, 
and not spoiled with personal puffs, published 
for personal considt rations. 

The illustrations are appropriate and in good 
taste. 

We look upon this journal as one which will 
fairly represent the industrial interests of Cali- 
fornia. — Sacramenio Union, Dec. 26. 



New Ageicultural Paper. — We have received 
from Dewey & Co., publishers of the San Fran- 
cisco Scientific Press, the pros])ectus of the 
Pacific Rural Press, a new agricultural paper to 
be published weekly, commencing January 7th. 
It will treat of agiiculture, horticulture, domes- 
tic manufactures and all matters pertaining to 
the industrial iuter(!sts of California. We un- 
derstand that I. N. Hoag, of Yolo County, and 
formerly Secretary of the State Agricultural 
Society, will be one of the editors and will do 
much to make it geuerallj' acceptable to the 
community. There is a great opening for a 
journal in this state of the character mentioned 
and for talent and ability in the editorial depart- 
ment. — Sacramento Daily Union, Dec. 16. 



Send in your subscriptions 
at once to Dewey & Co., Pub- 
lishers, No. 414, Clay street, 
San Francisco. 

January 4, 1870. ' 



DEA^EY »L CO., 

Publishers and Patent Agents, No. 414 Clay street 
below Sansome.San Francisco. 

Patents Obtained Promptly. 
Caveats Filed Expeditiously. 
Patent Reissues Taken Out. 
Patents Secured in Foreign Lands. 
Assignments Made and Recorded in Legal Form. 
Copies of Patents and Assignments Procured. 
Examinations of Patents made here and at 

Washington. 
Examinations made of Assignments Recorded 

in Washington. 
Examinations Ordered and Reported by Telk- 

ORAPH. 

Rejected Cases taken up and Patents Obtained. 

Interferences Prosecuted. 

Opinions Rendered regarding the Validity of 
latents and Assignments. 

Every Legitimate Branch of Patent Agency Bus- 
iness promptly and thoroughly conducted, 
Illustbatbd Circulars Frkk. 



30 



■<m 



[January 14, 1871. 



Douthett's Patent Double Motion 

D^SH CHURN. 

Making Butter in from 6 to 10 Minutes. 
The only really useful and practical 

C M XJ K, 3V 

Ever Offered to the Public. 



The olil stylo of DASBTER CHirRN always had the 
preference over all others, and with this simple and 




practical attachment, now stands wrriiomr a biv 
At the East it is rapidly taking the place of the 

Thermometer and Cylinder Churn, 

and its sales are enonuons. Having bought the 
Xlislit for tills Coast, 

wc are now prepared to furnish either large or small 

CHURNS AND CASTINGS 

as may be deslrpd. We mamifactnre six ilifferent sizes 
of churns and the small casting can be applied to the 
three smaller sizes, and the large one with the frame 
and balance wheel to the three larger ones. 




WE CHALLENGEXOMPETITION 

in this churn and invite any one needing a good chum 
to examine and try this one before purchasing elsewhere. 
The gearing is all simple, leaving nothing to get out 
of order; the dasher is easily reiuoved by simply 
opening or removing the guide holding it in Its place, 
leaving the churn 

ENTIEELY CLEAR OF AXY OBSTACLE. 

In fact, it is the only chum that ever has been offered 

which IS ENTIKELX 

FREE PKOM ANT OBJECTION, 

and we ofTer it as the 

Best Churn in Existence. 

No.| 1 Churn holds 2 gallons; 



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E. K. HOWES & CO. 

Nos. 118, 120 and 122 Front Street, San Francisco, Cal 
lvl-eow3mr 



KELSEY'S NURSERIES, 




O A KLA N D. 

Established in 1852. 
Is now more fully stocked than ever before. 

Fruit Trees, Ornamental Trees, Deciduous 

Shade trrcs. Kvcrgrei ns of all kinds: Fruit Plants; to 
wit: Uaspbcrrics. Strawberries, tloosebcn-ies, t'urrjiuts, 
Orai>es, Rhubarb, Asparagus and all Flowering i>lants, 
fur inside and outside cultun'. 

Jf'OItEST? TREES 

of Australia, Europe. China and Ja]>an, in fact we aim 
to have and to get all and ever>-thiug desirable. 

Parties planting can find in this establishment what- 
ever may \>e wanted, for use and beauty in fiiniishing a 
place without being obliged to go from one niirw'rv to 
another. Ivlr W. F. KELSEV, Proprietor. 



HERING'S NURSERY, 

OAKLAND, 

Comer of Delger St. and Telegraph Av. 

A choice collection of the most beautiful 
trees, shmbs, plants etc., to be found in 
California, suitable for general culture. 
Evergreen Tri'es, best standard srrts and 
fancy varieties; Deciduous and Evergreen 
Shntbory; Gohlen and Crimson leafed, and 
double liuwering Gerauiunis. 

Elegant Fuschias. 

splendid assortment of Roses, and many 
most desirable (ireen House and out-of- 
door leaf and flowering jilants. 
tS^'Oniers carefvUy filled and forwarded. 

The entire stock for sale, including hous- 
es and business in a good locality at a bar- 
gain. Address, F. A. HERING, Nurserj'man, 
lvl-2minr Oakland. 




KING'S NURSERY, 

ELM Street, (between Telegraph Av. and Broadway Ets.) 

<>ai*.Xja.:im>. 

green house plants 
ev'ergreen trees, 
shrubs, roses, etc 

A superior stock of large 
sized Australian Gum trees, 
including :- EUCALYPTUS 
GI.OBOLUS, (Blue Gumi, 
.extra tine street and shade 
'tree. EUCALYPTUS VIM- 
ENALIS, a beautiful droop- 
shade tree, tine leafed and 
fragrant; both sorts very 
popular. ACACIAS in vari- 
ety. Montery Pines, Mon- 
tery ('ypress, Lawson's Cy- 
press, etc., etc. Orders at- 
tended to. Address 
Ivl-tf M. KING, Nurseryman, Oakland. 

Trees for Silk and Trees for Shade. 





T am thinning,' out my Mvlukuiiy Plantations and 
will si 11 my siiriiluH tn^s 

VERY CHEAP. 

1 ye.ir old Mutticauleis $'M) per thousand. 

2 and 3 yr, old do from $25 to i$35 according 
to size. 

2 to 3 yr old Alba and Moretti from $30 to 
$40. 

Liberal disconnt on large orders or to the trade. 

Shade Trees! 

The large Whtte anh Br,ArK Mulbcrry'H are the bpBt 
Kliade trcts in the State. I will Ht-ll well grown trees of 
tht-Ke kindg from 12 tu :20 feet high, at 26 and 50 centb 
each. 

Silk Worm Eggs and Silk Manual Free 

to customers for trees. Heiid your onlers to 
Ivl-tfr I. N. HOAG, Sacramento. 

NEW SEEDS AND PLANTS. 

WK ''FT'ER Kon f^ALE 

CHOICESEEDS, BULBS AND PLANTS 

fntm Australia. Japan and Sandwich Islands. Ramie, 
tlie celebrated <'liina (irass. Vegetable, tyrass and Flow- 
er Seeds; new and rare Plants, Fruit Trees etc., at the 
oi.i) sTANB. «£/""Send for catalogue. '"^a 
E. E. MOORE, 425 Washington St., S. F. 
Ivl-lmr 



TREES AND PLANTS ! 



By the 100, 1000, 
lOO.OOU, both at 

WHOLESAI.E OB RETAIL, 
AT LOWEST MARKET 

RATES. 



Fruits gnamnteed true to name. My 
stoik embraces all the leading fruits of 
the country from the Apple to the Straw- 
berry—including the 

ORANOE. I.EMO.V AXU LIME. 

Also all the leading and favorite 





KIIADE A\D ORXAMEXTAL TUKKS. '^y'l'^X^ 
SlIRriiHEUy, VISES A\D PLAXTS, \-^''''^V 



MULttEUKr TREES AND VUTTISGS, 
AXD SILK »'UKM EGGS, ALSO THE 
Osage Orange Hedge Plant for fencing farms. Patent 
(irafting wax for top grafting, and the common Grafting 
Wax for toj) or root grafting. 

Senil for Circulars, Catalogues, Printed Directions and 
Price List. 
Send 2.5 cts for Hoag's Treatise on Silk Culture. 

AddreiM KOHEKT \VI I.T.IAIVISOX. 
Capital Nurseries, U St., bet. l.ith *; inth 

Sacramento Cal. 
I am also a partner in the Tree yard of Sayles & Wil- 
liamson on K St., bet. 8th k Uth streets, Sacramento. 
lvl-3mr 




LO^GATOS NURSERY, 

On the Los Oatos Creek 2 miles south of San Jose. 
This new nursery now contains an fine an assortment 

— OF— 

FRUIT TREES, ORNAMENTAL TREES, FOREST 

TREES, NIT TREES, SIIRIDS AND PLANTS, 

AMERICAN, EUROPEAN AND AUSTRAL. 

IAN EVERGREENS, AND 

PALM TREES ! 

as any first class nursery in 
the State of California with 
this advantage, viz: w(! have 
no old scrubby stock to get 
rid of Kvery care has been 
taken to secure 

Reliable Standard Sorts, 



BEST VAKIETIES; 

Proper Training, nnil Xlieoruus Orowtli ! 

We invite Nukservmen, Dealers anp Planters, to 
examine our 

STOCK AND PRICES. 

Our large and splendid collection of 

JSXJT TREEfs!, 

we deem worthy of special mention. These include 
200(1 Chestnuts, 1, 2 and 3 years old. .'iOOO Pecan Nut, 1 
2 and 3 years old; Wood very vahuible for timber. But- 
ternut, 1 and 2 years old. States Black Walnut, 1 and 2 
years old. California Black Walnut, 1, 2 and 3 years old. 
Hickory Nut. English Walnut, 1, and 2 years old. 
Sweet Almond. Soft Shell Almond. Paper Shell Al. 
mond, etc. 
Orders promptly attended to. Address 

SYLVESTER XEf^HAEL, 

Proprietor Lou Gatos A'ursei'y, Sitn close. 

Ivl-4in3m 



SAN LORENZO NURSERY! 

Established in 1853. 



We arc pre- 
partfl U* fur- / 
nlsh a(;ENKH.\i,, fs- 

ASHOKTMKNT of 

Fruit and Shade 
Trees at as low 
riitt'H as tiny 
lan be sold at 
any relinbht 
Nursery in Cal- 
ifornia. 

Or ers fiolir- 
it.d from all 
larH Bend for ratal 

J, 

lvl-3nir 




parts of thePa- 
eific States. All 
trccK earefully 
labeled and 
packed in the 
bfst poHflible 
manner for 
transportation. 
A liberal diH 
eoun^ will b<* 
n'adt' on lart;*' 
order». For fur- 
ther particu- 
'i^wv and ]»rier liwt. 

LEWELLING & SON, 

San Lorenzo. Alenieda Co., Cal. 




SHADE AND ORNAMENTAL 

T !«, E E SsJ, 

GraiJo "Vines and Outtings. 

WE OFFER A LARGE LOT OF THE 

White Mulberry, (Morns Alba) 

Of iuitable size for shade trees. 

The Mulberry is the most desirable 
tree to 1k' had for shade or Ornament, 
and as rapid growers as the Locust. 
They are long lived and will flourish 
on any soil where otlier trees will grow, and will live 
in overflowed land as well as the Cottonwood or Willow, 
and can be used fi>r Silk business if desired and are 
also valuable for timber. 



THE ELM, ASH AND OSAGE ORANGE, 

All very desirable Trees for shade and ornament. 
ALSO, 




Grape Roots and Cuttings. 



W. B. TV E SsS T, 

NURSERYMAN AND FLORIST, 

Evergreens, Fruit Trees, 

AND 

GREENHOUSE PLANTS. 

VPIiie and Table Orapca a .Hpcolallty. 

Nursery and Greenhouses ; one mile North of the .Asy- 
lum, fcstooJtton. 
15v21-4m. 

AMERICAN SEED STORE ! 

W. R. STRONG, 

SACKAMEXTO, <-.V I.IFOBXI A. 

A new and complete supply 



OP 

FRESH SEEDS OF ALL 
VARIETIES FOR THE 
FARM AND GARDEN, 
ADAPTED TO THE PA- 
CIFIC COAST. 

Ml oiir seeds are war- 
rited good and tnie to 
name, and are sold at low- 
est rates both at wholksalj: 
AND REiAiL. A liberal re. 
duction to the trade and 
those buying in large quanties. We are determined to 

GIVE SATISFACTION TO ALL OIU CUSTOMERS. 
Among our stocl» will be found nil vabiable kinds of 
Garden, Field, Flower. Herb and Tree Seed. Also 30.(HK) 
lbs. Alfalfa, of California growth. lied and White Clover. 
Timothy, lied Top, Blue Grass direct fri^m producers in 
Kentucky, kc, kf. 

The celebrated Ramadell Xom-ny Onts 
BS per Knuhel. 
Early Hose and other choice varieties of Potatoes, kc. 
All orders filled with dispatch and all Seeds carefully 
packed and sent or shipptd as directed. Catalogues or 
circulars sent on application free of charge. Address 
W. K. STRONG, 
lvl-3mr Sacramento CaL 

PURPLE POPPY, 

(Ambercirr ol' Clermont.] 

Just received and for sale by 





C J^. KELLOO.a-. 

FIVE DOLLARS PER.POCND. 

New York Seed Warehouse, 

Xo. 437 Sunsome Nt.,Snn Franrlaco. 

Ivl' 



Of all the choice varieties of Foreign and California, or 
Mission. Mulberry trees can be supplied by the 100 or 
1000 to the trade at low prices. 

IE7'A11 orders must be accompanied with the casb.'^BH 

Direct to A. P. SMITH, 

lvl-4in3mr Smith's Gardens, Sacramento. 



Fruit .and Ornamental 



\M7 JlC £.4 £^ 2^. 



TVeoflTer IhU Season, 1870 and 1871, 

A very large and superior stock of trees, etc., of best se- 
lected varieties of everything usually produced in well 
kept nurseries. Our trees are grown oi- good alluvial 
soil, and arc unsurpassed for thrifty growth ol root and 
stock, and are reliable as to name on lalxds. Onlers re- 
ceived bv Mail or Express, will be strictly attended to, 
and PACKINO done so as to INSURE A SAFE TRANSIT 
to any distance. 

Dealers and Agents allowed favorable terms. 

Priced Catalogues furnished on application. 



17v24-3m 



JOIIX SOCK, Xuraeryman, 

San «Joae* C'allt'ornla. 



GEO. F. SILVESTER. 

Seedsman, 

Importer and Dealer in all kinds of Vege- 
table, Flower, Field, Frnit & Tree Seeds, 
Garden Tools, Plants, Trees, &c. 

No 317 Washington St., bet. Battery and Front, SAN 
FRANCISCO. 

Farmers, Ranchmen and Land 
Owners, 

XA-KE NOTICE ! 

Having a large fniantity of fine large two year old 

MULBERRY TREES 

on hand more than for my own nse, I will sell on satis- 
factory terms as to price and time of payment. Th<! 

trees are of a 

Good Thrifty Growth, 

and well ad.ipted for shade or ornamental purposes or 
for feeding wonns. 

Address, 

■WM. M. HAYXIK, 
lv1'3mr Nucriimenfu. 



Wa. M. LVON. 



(HAS. C. BAlLNkU*. 



LYON & BARNES, 

Successors to Lyon k Son. dralers in Produce Vegeta- 
bles. R utter. Eggs, Green and Dried Fruits, Cheese, 
Poultry, Honey, Beans, etc., etc. 
Ivl-^mr No. '21 J Street Bacramonto. 



i 



January 14, 1871.] 



-^ 



31 



List of Societies and Officers. 



state Agricultural Society.— Officers; Presi- 
dent, Cmas. F. Reed, Grafton, Yolo County. Directors: 
H. M. Larue, Sacramento; H. R. Covey, San Francisco; 
R. S. Carey, Yolo; C. T. Wheeler, Sacramento; Edgar 
Mills, Sacramento: Robert Hamilton, Sacramento Wil- 
liam Blanding, San Francisco; E. J. Lewis, Tehama; 
William P. Coleman, Sacramento. OtHcers of the Board. 
Secretary, Robert Beck, Sacramento; Treasurer K. T. 
Brown, Sacramento. 

San Joaquin Valley Ag'l. Society.— Ofkicers; 
President, .J. K. Koak; Vice Presidents, Geo. H. Ladd, 
John Tuohy; Secretary; H. T. Cumptnu; Directors, .Tames 
C. Gage, George West. 

Upper Sacramento Agricultural Society.-Or- 
FiCEKs -President, Barman Bay; Secretary, E. Hallet. 

Bay District Horticultural Society, of Cal., 
9. F.-OFFicFJts: H. N. Bolander. Prest.; E. L. Reinier, 
V. P.; F. A. Miller, Sec; R. Turnbull, C. Schumau and 
F. A. Hering, Trustees. 

Contra Costa Co. Aericultural Society.— Of- 
FICEKs; Geo. P. Loncks. Prest., I achico; Henry Shuey, 
V. P., Lafayette; R. R Brock, Sec. Martinez; S. W John- 
son, Treasurer, Pacheco; G. W. Bryant, K, G. Davis, 
Directors, Pacheco. 

Santa Clara Valley Agr. Society.— Officers: 
President, William C, Williamson; Vice Presidents, Cole- 
man Younger, Cary Peebles; Treasurer, N. Schallenberg- 
er; Secretary, Tyler Beach; Directors, D. J. Porter, H. 
W. Scales. 



Send us Communicaticns.— They will be re 
Bpected. If you have not time or the experience to 
write finished articles, send us facts brief and plain. 
We will take care of them. Remember that writers im- 
prove themselves with others by use of the pen. Offi- 
cers of societies, clubs and meetings, please report. 



Our Printed Mail List notifies subscribers when 
their term expires, the last figures on the label signify- 
ing the year. We wish to be notified at once if any er- 
rors occur in names or dates. 



Thursday Noon our last forms go to press. Com- 
munications should be received a week in advance and 
advertisements as early in the week as possible. 



On>- Oenpral Aicent ai Sacramento. 

Mr. I. N. HoAO, at the office of the State Agricultural 
Society, in the Pavilion, comer of Fourth and M streets, 
in the capital city, is our duly authorized agent for re- 
ceiving subscriiJtions, advertisements, and receipting 
for the same. 
Mr. 8. H . Herrlnd, 

Our valuable agricultural correspondent during the 
past year, will continue to travel, and will report for the 
Pacific Rural Press. 
Caxtern Xravclllne Afifeilt. 

Wm. H MtrRRAT,'our active and valuable agent and cor- 
respondent, is now on his way East, and will look after 
the interests of our papers in the Western and Eastern 
States. 
1.. P. IMcCurty, 

Is our live California travelling agent and corres- 
pondent. 



Teovis k Wagner, 41 First Street.— Mill Stones, Belt- 
ing Cloth and general Mill Furnishing's. Portable Mills 
of all sizes from Ifi to 3fi inches. No superior manufac- 
tory for farmers and ranchmen. 2vl-lyspninr 



Success in Business.— Success In the business world 
usually depend upon being thoroughly prepared for its 
duties. Young men I if you would succeed in your busi- 
ness career, secure a good practical business education. 
This question being settled, the next is where to go. 
Why, go to the best, of course. Go to Heild's Busi- 
ness College, located in the new College Building, 24, 
Post Street, San Francisco. This is the only school up- 
on the Pacific Coast where young men can depend upon 
being thoroughly fitted for Bankers, Merchants, Clerks, 
and Book-keepers. This school is connected with the 
"International Business College Association" or Bryant 
k Stratton chain. Its scholarships are good for tuition 
in any of the forty colleges, located in all the leading 
commercial cities of the United States and Canada. 
There are many interesting features about the school 
which can not be discussed here. Call at the College 
and examine its workings. If unable, send for circu- 
luar, and Heald's College Journal, which will be sent 
free upon application. Address, E. P. Heald, Presi- 
dent, business College, San Francisco, Cal. lvl-3msnr 



THE CELEBRATED 

CRAIG MICROSCOPE 

Is an optical wonder, reveals the thousands of hid- 
den WONDERS OF NATURE: is of permanent use and prac- 
tical availability, combining iustniction with amuse- 
ment, and never losing its interest. It magnifies 

t£:n thousand times 

a power equal to other microscopes of many tim es its 
cost. Reveals coimtless little worlds all aroimd us, teem- 
ing with life, which to the naked eye must forever re- 
main a sealed book — as Eels in Vinegar, animals in Water 
Cheese Mites, Sugar and Itch Insei'ts, Milk Globlues, 
Claws and Hairs of Insects, Hundreds of eyes in a single 
eye of a fly. Dust of a Butterfly's wings to be perfectly 
formed feathers, the much talked of Tnchina Spiralia or 
pork worm, which was first discovered in America with 
this Microscope. 

It is of infinite value to professional men, to teachers 
and to students, but nowhere is it of greater value than 
on the family table, within the reach of every member. 
It will delight yourself, your children and friends dur- 
ing the long winter evenings. It will show you adulter- 
ations or uucleanliness of various kinds in food, as su- 
gar, tea, bread, meal, &c. 

It is of inestimable value to the Farmer. 

in examining insects which prey upon his crops. The 
power of a $50 microscope, and fo simple in its construc- 
tion that any child can use it understandingly.and with 
ajipreciation. 

A beautiful present, elegant. Instructive, amusing and 
cheap. Over 60,000 sold. 

During the past Six Y'ears its worth has been testified 
to by thousands of Scientific Men, Farmers, School 
Teachers, Students, Physicians, Heads of Families, 
and others, 

PRICE .$3.00.— Sent by mail, post-paid. 

every instrument is neatly boxed, and handsomely la- 
beled with full dir<-ctions foruse. Thousands have been 
sent by mail. Address, 

W. J. LINESS & CO., Chicago. 



FREE ! FREE ! 

"THE MICROSCOPE," a monthly Journal of informa- 
tion for the people— the mysteries of nature explained — 
interesting information on the wonders of creation — 
stories, sketches &c. Terms SI .00 per year. This jour- 
nal will be sent free for one year to any one purchasing 
a Craig Microscope at the regular price, S'i, (Craig Mi- 
croscope will be sent post-paid.) 

For sample copy, and our beautifully illustrated and 
descriptive circulars, and pages of testimimials of Craig 
MicroKcoxic, send six cents for postage to 

"W. J. LINESS & CO., 

Opticians, and sole Proprietors of Craig and Novelty Mi- 

croscojie, Chicago, 111. 

Agents and Dealebs, this Microscope sells in every 

family on its own merits, when exhibited. Large Profits. 

Send for terms. • jal4-Bmins4r 



BAKER & HAMILTON, 

IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN 



SILK WORM EG-G-S. 

2 AAA CARTONS JAPANESE ANNUALS, SILK 
5 l/U \J WORM EGGS, just arrived 

For Sale in Bond or Duty Paid. 

B. J. DORSEY, 

1..3mr 41 and 42 Merchants' Exchange, California st. 



The Pacific Pneumatic G-as Company 

Begs to call the attention of the public to its gas works 
which are suitable alike for domestic, manufactm-iug, 
and general uses. Their apparatus is the only one wor- 
thy of the confidence of those who desire an economical 
and brilliant light, with perfect safety from accidents. 

These works are in successful use in the following 
private residences: Gov. Haight, the En cinal, Alameda: 
H. F. Williams, Esq., South San Francisco; J. R. Arguel- 
lo, Esq., Santa Clara; A. P. Brayton, Esq., Oakland; O. 
W. Childs, Esq., Los Angeles; Mrs. Brayton, Oakland; 
Capt. Wilcox, San Diego; J. P. Jones, Esq., Gold Hill, 
Nevada; W. B. Isaacs, Esq., Post St., San Francisco; Jos. 
A. Donohoe, Esq., Menlo Park; M. Schallenberger, Esq., 
San Jose; Capt Kidd, Stockton; John Parrott, Esq., San 
Mateo; Col. J. C. Hays, Oakland; A. A. Cohen, Esq., Ala- 
meda; A. D. Bell, Taylor street, San Francisco; J. S. Em- 
ery Oakland, and Isaac Rcqua, Esq, Virginia City|Nevada. 
Also in the following public institutions: the City and 
Coimty Almshouse, San Francisco; the County Hosi^ital, 
Sacramento; the Industrial School, San Francisco; the 
State Institute for the Decf, Dumb and Blind. Berkely. 

Also, the following private institutions: The College 
of Santa Clara, Santa Clara: the Alameda Insane Asylum; 
Alameda; and the New Hall and Theater, Petaluma. 

Also In the following Mining and Manufacturing 
works. The Pacific Iron Works, San Francisco; the 
ChoUor-Potosi Hoisting Works, Virginia City; the Eu- 
reka Gold Mining Company's Hoisting Works and Mill, 
Grass Valley, California; the Crown Point Mining Co. 's 
Mill (the Rhode Island^ Gold Hill, Nevada. 

Also, in the following stores; E. Cohn k Co., Marys- 
ville, Gibson and Cross' (saloon). Gold Hill, Nevada; P. 
Brown & Bro., Marysville; Wm. Klein, Marysville, J. 
M. Browne, Gilroy; and N. Wagner & Bro., Marysville. 
Also, in the following hotels; Horton's New Hotel, 
South San Diego; the International Hotel, Virginia City, 
and the St. Charles Hotel, Carson City. 

Also, in large works adapted for town piirposes: in 
the Workshops, Streets and Officers' Residences, at the 
United States Navy Department, Mare Island. 

Pacific Pneumatic Gas Company; office 200 Sansome 
street, San Francisco. Send for Illustrated Pamphlet 
and Price List. A. D. BELL, Secretary. 

J. W. STOW, President. lvl-3m-r 



Crandali Patent Spring Bed, 

Received Premium for best Spring Bed at the State 
Fair and was on exhibition at all of the District Fairs 
n this State.* 

IT EXCELS 



I^fshtnesai Cleaullneaa, 

EluRtlcUy and Durability, 

Any other Spring Bed Ever Invented. 

Being without upholstery in can be aired at pleasure; 
while the springs being in couplets are self-supporting, 
thus dispensing with cords, twine, etc., and from the 
peculiar construction of the various parts it is impossi- 
ble for the bed to get out of order. 

Manufactory— 123 Front street, near corner of M, 
Sacramento. 

C;OOr,ET «fe GKEEV, Proprletorn. 



CHOICE POULTRY. 

I.leht Brahmas and "White I.eghoin'«, 

A few trios for sale. Also'S very choice young 
HOUDON COCKS. 

£6 es 

for hatching from the 
following Breeds: 

Light Brahmas, 

Dark Brahmas, 

Houdan, Bearded, 

Buff Cochins, 

Bl'k African Bantams, 

White Leghorns, 

Aylesbury Ducks. * 




KICHOLS «te 



'Importers and Breeders of Choice Poulti-y. 
25v2i-3m-lamin8 Brooklyn, Alameda Co. 




IMPLEMENTS AND MACHINES, PORTA- 
m.E STEAM ENGINES, HARD WAKE, 

Would call the attention of Farmers and Dealers in Ag- 
ricultural Implements to their very extensive stock for 
the trade of 1870-1871, 

CONSISTING OF . 

PlowN, H arrows. Cultivators, Morse lloes, 
QjintC PIowM, Seed Sowers, Buckeye Grain 
UrllU, mil's Cal. Sowers, Hay Cut- 
ters, Seed Cleaners, Grist Mills, 
Uarley Mills, Cider 3tills, Fan 
Mills, Griipe Crushers, Mow- 
ers, Reapers, Headers, Header Wagons, Threshers, 
Wh eled Rakes, Hay Presses, Rubber Belting, Leather 
Belting, Baling Wire, Baling Rope, Nails, Shovels, Bolts 
Rivets, etc., etc. Orders by mail or Express will re- 
ceive prompt attention. BAKER & HAMILTON, 
Nos' 9, II, 13, and 1.5, J street, Sacramento, 
lvl-3mr No8. 17 & 19 Front St., San Francisco. 



Chicken Ranch for Sale. 

A Chicken Ranch within the city, 
Four Koomed Houne and Outblldlnes 

and stock of Poultry, can be obtained for the sum of !?()00. 
Ground rent low; extent about two acres; affording an 
excellent opportunity for commencing a profitable busi- 
ness. For particulars apply on the premises on Potrero 
Avenue between 15th & liith St., or by letter addressed 
"R" at the office of this paper. 



Willamette Farmer, 

Salem, Oregon. 

The only Agricultural Paper published In 

Oregron. 

The Best Advertising Medium. 

Terms of Subscription:— One year, $2.60; six months, 
$1.6U. Address 
8v21-tf A. I,. STINSON. PoblUher. 



S, N. PUTNAM, 
522 Montg-omery Street, San Francisco. 

Dealer in improved and unimproved Farms, Grazing 
and Timber lauds. Particular attention given to pro- 
curing small Farms and Homesteads for purchasers, 
claims for pre-emptors &c., in every part of the State. 
lvl-3mr 



TEAM WANTED TO PUROHASE. 

A four or six horse team Ik wantcil l>y fli* ailvcrtiHor 
with or witliout Watson or ^aiif^- jilow. lirquirrd to he 
(h'livort'd at Gilroy, ■Watsoiivillr. Salinas, <>r thr vicinity 
of thoM; placo8. A party winhinti to st-li a tiuiii, viv., vnu 
hear o( a purchaser by seudiii^ a letter addreKHed B llu- 
KAL Press, coutainiug price and other partiovilarH. 



J. p. DA.LTON, 

r>EAI.ER IN 

Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Ev- 
green 

TREES, 



Shrubs and Flowering Plants, Seeds, Bulbs, etc. 

Depot cor. 13th and Broadway, Oakland. Ivl-mli 








ML POLICIES IN THE 




A/o/v ro/?^£/r{//f£ i/i yv. 



S/l// rA-A/vc/sco. 



Ovir Agents. 

Cue Friends can do much in aid of onr paper and tL 

tause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their 
influence and encouraging favors. Wo intend to send 
none but worthy men. 

Travellnar Aarents. 

W. H. MuBKAi— Eastern States. 

8. H. Herrinq— California. 

L. P .McCaktt, California. 

A. C. Knox, City Soliciting and Collecting Agent. 

SUBSCRIPTION RATES. 

Cash in Advance:— One year, $1; six months, $2.50; 
single copies, 10 cents; Monthly Series, $4. .50 per an- 
num; Quarterly Series (stiff paper binding) $5. [On 
Quarterly series, and papers sent to Foreign countries 
an additional sum must be added for advance postage.) 

ADVERTISING RATES. 

1 Miecfc. 1 month. 3 months. 1 year. 

One-half Inch $100 $3 00 $6 00 $20 00 

One inch 2 00 .5 00 10 00 36 00 

Two inches 3 7.5 7 00 18 00 70 00 

Three inches 5 25 12 50 27 00 105 00 

Four inches 6 75 IB 00 36 00 140 00 

One-fourth column. . 6 00 12 00 28 00 100 00 

Half column 12 00 20 00 54 00 200 00 

One column 20 00 40 00 100 00 400 00 

Mining and Legal Advertise vients will be inserted 
at special rates less than one-half the cost of daily 
publication 



"H 



THE NEW TYPE 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 

is printed, is from the 

OAIiirOENIA TYPE EOUNDET, 

405 and 407 Sansome St. 

GEO. L. FAULKNER, Agent. 

lvl-3minr 

McLURES PATENT CHURN. 

Patented May 17, 1870. 

Has taken the premium at all the State Fairs East of 
the Rocky Mountains. 

The Greatest Labor SaviDgMachine of the Age 

f^'Wai-j-anied fo niaJce Btilter in from Three, 
to Five Minutes. -"^a. 

It is self-cleaning, requires no scrubbing. 

100 JUST EEOEIVED. 

For sale by J. L. HUNT, 

lvl-2in6mr Cor. Battery and Washington sts. 

1000 Farms in Los Angeles Co. 

For Cotton. Wheat, Corn, Orapes, Oranges etc. Tlu^ 
"Abel SteariiH Haiiclio," 2011 siiuare miles in sections, 
quarter sections, etc., on (ioveriiiiient system of survey, 
forming blucks one mile square, with road on each side, 
fronting on the ocean; the llailroad to San Francisco to 
pass tlirougli them; the unsold portions subdivided, for 
sale oil long credit, or rent. The famous Anaheim is on 
this tract. For Maps, Circulars, etc., apply to B. F. 
NORTHAM, 4;)2 Montgomery St., San Francisco, or 
TIMO. LVNCH, at Anaheim and Los Angeles. lvl-3mr 




THE MASONIC MIRROR 

Is the only Masonic Publication on the Pacific Coast. 
The Second Volume is published weekly, in the popular 
and beautiful form of a 

QUARTO-MEDIUIVI SIXTEEN PAGE PAPER 

and is a first CLA.S3 

Literary and Family Newspaper, 

AS WELL AS THE 

Oi-jcanofthe Ma»"iiio Fraternity on the 
l*ac*ll1c C'Oast. 

ENDORSE.MENT OF THE OBAND LODGE. 

The following resolution was unanimously adopted by 
the M.-. W.-. Grand Lodge, F. . A -. M. . of the State of 
California, at its Annual Communication, October, 1870. 

Whereas, In the opinion of this Grand Lodge, a well 
conducted Masonic .lournal is of great benefit to the 
craft, in disseminating Masonic information among the 
tiMternity, as well as furnishing a medium for general 
Masonic intelligence. Therefore, 

Resolved, That this Grand Lodge, recognizing in the 
Masonic Mirror, edited by Brothers Amasa W. Bishop 
and Edwin A, Sherman, and published by the Masonic 
Publishing Company of San Francisco, a Masonic Jour- 
nal of the cliaracter above set forth, do hereby recom- 
mend the said Masonic Mirroii to the craft generally, 
as worthy of their most favorable consideration and 
support. 

ENDORSEMENT OF THE GRAND CON9ISTORT. 

At the communication gf the M •. P.-. Grand Consis- 
tory, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemason- 
ry in and for the State of California, held October, 1H70 
at San Francisco, the following resolution was unani- 
mously adopted: Resolved, That the Masonic Mirror, 
published in this city be the official organ of this Grand 
Consistory. 

TO ADVERTISERS. 
The Mirror presents the best Advertising medium on 
the Pacific Coast, as it circulates in every town and 
h.Tiulet, and among a class of citizens that it will be of 
advantage to advertisers to reach. 

BateK of Aclvertlnlna:. 

One Square of ten lines, or less, 1 time $ 1.00 

One Square per Month 2.00 

Quarter Column, " 5.00 

Half Column, " 10.00 

One Column, " 20.00 

Office, 008 Market St., San Francisco 19v2I-tf 



I. O. 0. F. ^^^^^^ 
THE NEW AGE 

A Weekly Joitrnal of Sixteen Pages. 



The 



' Ofncla 1 Orgnn " of the I. O. O. P. on 
the Pacific Const. 

Is devoted to Odd Fellowship, the Arts and Sciences 
and General Liter-^ture ; and as a lamil) paper is not 
surpassed by any journal in the United StatcM. Subscrip- 
tion price per year by mail, $5. Delivered In the city, 
per month, 60 cents. Office, Odd Fellows' Hall, 327 
Montgomery street, San Francisco. 19vl9 



(TO BE PUBLISHED SHORTLY.) 

'ASynopslsof British Gas Lighting.' 

000 pages, large 4-to, profusely illustrated. ^ 

This is the only compend of 

CAS LIGHTING 

ever projected, and will be the standard work of refer- 
ence among 

Companlca, 

aianufiictiirerM, 
£ne;lneerM, 

rnteiiteoK. anal 

Sclcntllic Moil 

Oenerally. 

Price $15.00, Payable on Delivery. 

It will bo sold only by Kubscription, which should be 
addressed to the Compiler, 

JA.MKH K. SMEDBKRO, 

Consulting Engineer S. F. Gas Co., 
20v21-« **'^N FRANCISCO, CAL. 



32 



[January 14, 1871 



[advertisement.] 

A NEW PAPEE rOE 1871. 




A First Class Pacific States Agri- 
cultural and Home Journal. 



Will be issned weekly on Saturdays, com- 
mencing Jan. 7th, lb71, containing sixteen pag- 
6s devoted to 

At;«'lf"lture, lI«»vtloiilt\ire, Stocli 

ItnlMtiiiir. Domestlo ISooiiouiy, 

Home >Ia.iiiita.<-tixres »Ie- 

cliiiiilcs, Intlxisti-les, «!to. 

With an able and ample corps of editors, sj)e- 
cial contributors and correspondents, we shall 
publish a liberal variety of articles, entertain- 
ing as well as instructive, which will not only 
make the Ruhaij Press an able assistant to its 
patrons, but an attractive and welcome visitor 
to every reader in every intelligent 

Home Circle, 

in the Pacific States. And more than this, we 
shall freight its columns with fresh thoughts, 
and new ideas, which hastened across the con- 
tinent by rail, shall awaken and ipiicken the 
zeal of the more staid and gradual moving cul- 
turists of the eastern and European States, to 
their 

Pleasure and Profit. 

We shall not only make a good paper for all hus- 
bandmen and homestead owners, ( who now, more 
than ever require a knowledge of new discover- 
ies in science and mechanical improvements, ) 
but sliall also render the journal a desideratum 
for those who contemplate becoming freehold- 
ers, and a large class of 

Mechanics, Teachers, Students, Business, 
Professional and Trades Men, 

whose interests are more or less identical with 
successful fanning, and the active develop- 
ment of our vast and rich resources. Few there 
are — male or female — who will not find pleasure 
and ennoblement in the study of progressive 
farming and gardening. 

Honest, intelligent and correct information 
will be faithfully given, in behalf of, and urging 

An improved Cultivation of the Soil; 
A greater Diversity of Products; 
Better Breeds of Stock; 
Better Varieties of Fruits; 
The Culture of New Products; 
Creation of New Home Industries; 
Adoption of Imjjroved Implements; 
Higher and Happier Ainis in Life, etc. 

Valuable and Timely Hints, 

will })e given weekly to lessen the labors of the 
fann, the household and the shop, and add to 
the health, the wealth and the wisdom of every 
patron of industry. 

How to Farm in the Pacific 
States. 

As the conditions and circumstances of soil 
and climate and scuisons on this coast are so pe- 
culiar that man}' of the approved methods of 
eastern agriculture are not at all applicable on 
our side of the Continent,^special attention 
will be given to considering the need, extent and 
character of the modifications necessary. This 
will alone render the paper of great practical 
value to our home readers and more essential to 
them than all the distant publications obtaina- 
ble, without such auxilliary and modifying in- 
structions. 

The following are among the specialties upon 
which the Pacific Rural Prk.ss will treat: 

Silk, Cotton and Sugar Beet Culture; Nurseries, 
Orchards, Trojsiealand small Fruits; Steam- 
plowing, seeding and harvesting for large 
tracts; Reclamation of swamp and un- 
productive lands; Hill and mountain farm- 
ing; (xrape growing; Fig, Rasin and Fruit 
drj-ing; Irrigation; Lessons and Lectures on 
the chemistry of growing crops and on fer- 
tilizing lands; Practical Farming vs. Specu- 
lation; Taxati(Ui of unimproved lands; 
Railroads and improved transportation for 
crops and the better class of immigrants; 
Farmer's Clubs, lectures and associations; 
Co-operation in farming, mechanism, man- 
ufacturing and other industries; Govern- 
ment lands for settlers whether sold by R. 
R. operators or the U. S. ; Reliable whole- 
sale and retail market reports; Brief notices 
of Mechanical and Scientific Progress; 
Instructions for regular and farmer me- 
chanics; Household Reading; Health and 
domestic receipts; a sprinkhng of sprightly 
reading; Life thoughts; Poetry, condensed 
stories, items of news, etc., will be given. 

A Plain and Simple Style 

Of writing will be our endeavor. Necessarily 
dealing largely in researches for facts we believe 
it desirable to present them in an inviting shape 
and in so comprehensive language that our 
special journahsm shall advance in popularity 
and common relish. 



No editorials or selectiotxs of unchaste or doubi- 
ful injlrience; or lottery, qxutck or other disreputable 
advertisements, wiU be admitted into Us columns. 

Arrangement of Matter. 

Our reports of agricultural, horticultural and 
other fairs, lectures, farmers' clubs and social 
literary meetings [the improvement and in- 
crease of which we shall especially advocate] 
will be carefully prepared in a valuable form for 
preservation; and the matter of our entire col- 
umns wiU be 80 classified as to be convenient to 
readers of various minds and individual tastes 
for ready perusal and future reference. 

Interesting Illustrations of Pacific States 

and Eastern Inventions and Machinery, 

Fine Arts, Science, Fruits, Kare 

Stock and Natural Scenery, 

Of special or peculiar interest to our readers 
will be published weekly in liberal variety. 
No pains or reasonable expense \vill be spared 
to furnish a 

Large and Eichly Pilled Journal 
Nicely printed on fine paper, which will favora- 
bly compare with the long established class 
journals of more populous fields and older com- 
munities. Although the latter have less oppor- 
tunities than new communities to be benefitted 
by printed information of discoveries, 

And Neighborly Experiences, 

the reading of agricultural newspapers and 
books is lately increasing ■with a rapidity 
quite astonishing, and with the most profitable 
results. 

We enter the field after a careful considera- 
tion and consultation with many of our leading 
agriculturists, with the strong conviction that 
such a journal on this coast is greatly needed 
and earnestly desired by the most jirospectively 
flourishing and rapidly progressing community 
in the Union if not in the world. We know 
the task before us, — two of the proprietors and 
editors having experienced respectively IS.and 
13 years of successful journalism in this state. 

SUBSCRIPTION IN ADVANCE. 

One copy one year $< .00 

One copy six montbB 2.25 

One copy three months 1.25 

Single copies 10 

CLUB RATES. 

Ten copies or more, first year, each $3.00 

[A free copy or premium sent to getter up of club.] 

A select variety of advertisements only will be insert- 
ed. Circulated widely among the most thrifty of our 
population, the P. R. P. will be the cheapest and 
most effective medium for a larue range of first class 
advertisements in the Pacific states. 

Correspondence is respectfully solicited from 
every worthy source. 

Local Canvassers Wanted for every town, 
city and county. Special inducements offered. 

Parties desiring to get up clubs or act as 
agents, -will be furnished sample copies and pros- 
pectus free. 

DEWETT Sn, Co., 
Publishers Patent Agents and Engravers, No. 
414 Clay st., San Francisco. Nov. 21, 1870. 

(Being also publiehers of the Scientific Peesb, we 
would say here that no change will be made in that 
paper except to improve it in its present character. 
Each journal will be published entirely distinct from 
the other.— D, k Co.) 



THK CHEAPEST 



Agricultural and Horticultural Journal 

In the United States. 



The Journal of the Fai*m, 

lO X..nrare OctsiTo Pttff^"* 

HANDSOMELY ILLUSTRATED, 
F*rIoe on.e Oolltvr a Year. 

CL0BS OF 20-------- FIFTY CENTS. 

ASVERTIARRS 

Are informed that its circulation is larger than that of 
any other paper of its class published in the state of 
Pennsylvania. 

Addrest JOURNAL OF THE FARM. 

20 S. Delaware Avenue, Philadelphia, or 

24v21-tf 230 8 Water Street, Chicago. 



PATENTS 

Boujylit fincl Soltl 

ON 

com:m:i*s«ss«io]V. 

The Latest and Most Valuable Inventions can always 

be found at the ofiJce of 

■WIESTER ^k. CO., 

Patent Brokers, 

IT Xciv Montgomery Street, San Fmnclaco. 



CIIPDAUIIIP DESIGNING AND ENGRAVING 
kliUnHVIlIU on wood and for electrotype cuts 



ON WOOD 



of every description, done by snpe* 
rior artists at the office of the 
SCIENTIFIC PRESS. Fine Cuts 
made for Book and Newspaper 
Illustrations, and for Fancy Labels for printing in 
various colors ; Monograms, Seals, tc., etc. Promp 
ezecntion and reasonable prices, 

r>J3Wi;Y A; CO., 

No. (U Olay street, 3. F. 

MARrposA, Dec. 27th, 1870.— Messrs. Dewey k Co. Pat- 
ent Agents; — Oentlem^n: — Allow me hen:with to tender 
you my sincere thanks for the efficient assistance you 
have tendered me in securing my patent and other pa- 
pers, as well as the promptness and energy displayed by 
you in our business transautious. 

Very Respectfully Yours, Jay. R. Palmeb. 



New Advertisements. 



JVo q>iack, indelicate or other diireputabk notict.i 
will be accepted. All advertisements in this paper 
appear in our montldy edition and bound vol- 
umes of the J'acific Kural Press for Bailruad 
Depots, Steamboats, Hotels, and other free read- 
ing rooms. 

Take Your Choice. — Since its first issue we have 
sent this paper to the subscribers of the farming edition 
of the Scientific Press. If we have thus transferred 
the names of any who prefer the SfiENTiFic Press, we 
will return their names to the list for that paper, and 
send back numbers, if notified in season. , - - 



ANNUAL MEETINO. 

The Annual Meeting of the St».te Agricultural Society 
for the election of ofilcers for the ensuing year and for 
the transaction; of such 'other business as may be 
necessary will be held at the Society's rooms in the Pa- 
vilion, comer 6 and M Streets, Sacramento, on the 27th 
of January 1871, at 10 o'clock A. M. A full attendance 
of members is desired. 

CHA8. F. HEED, Prest. 

BoBT. Beck, Secretary. 

Ivl-tdr 

We wish to Call 

The Espkclvl Attention of the owners of Bome of tlie 
best Patent Gang PlowH in California, to the 

''BUTLER PLOW," 

now on exhibition at the Scientific Press ofiice. 

As no arrangements have yet been made 
for their Manufacture or sale of territory 
eifected. 

For description of the PLOW, see article in the second 
number of the RcuaI. Press, 

"A Singular Looking Flow." 



Please Address, 



E. P. HICKS, S. F., Cal. 
2vl-ltr 



$5.60 in Gold.— A Present 

Of the splendid Steel Engraving Evangeline (Price $.5.6(1 
in gold) to subscribers for the ILLUSTRATED EXCEL- 
SIOR MAGAZINE. The Illustnitioiis alone are worth 
many times its cost, and the magazine reduced from $2.50 
to $1 .00 a year, is now one of the cheapest in the world. 
Contains Bp-ATrriFUL Stories, Sflenijid Pictures. 1n- 

TERESTINO PuZZLES Atn> REBUSES, CUTS OF LaUIEs' PAT- 
TERNS, Nrws, &c., &c. We will send the Magazine out- 
year, also this splendid Steel PJngniving on receipt of the 
regular subscription price, $l.oii and 8 cents for p< 'stage. 
Sample copies fbei<:. Address the Publisher, C. L. VAN 
ALLEN, 171 Broadway, Hew York. 2vl-ltinep*k8 



SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



U. S. & FOKEIGN 



PATENT AGENCY, 

Established in 1800, 

Is now the principal ofllceWest of the Mississippi River. 
By long and faithful attention 

Messrs. Dewey &. Co., 



Have built up an extensive business, and gained a large 
and successful pratttice and experience, which enables 
them to render greatly superior service to 



Pacific States Inventors, 



who can depend upon their advice resarding the patent- 
ability and worth of their inventions, the correct draw- 
ing >ip of their specifications in order to secure their full 
rights under firm patents wliich will stand the test of 
law in rase of infringement by others. 

Iflveutors securing really valuable claims through our 
Agency, will have our influence free in making the mer- 
its of their patents widely known through the columns 
of the PRESS — the best authority and medium of recom- 
mendation in such matters on this coast. 

If you have a valuable invention place it only in the 
hands of first class, responsible agents, who do not, for 
the want of experience or ability, assume false airs of su- 
periority and dignity, nor exact exhorbitant charges on 
account of transacting a limited business. 



Oirculars of Advice Free. 



Our 48 page circular will be furnished free on appli- 
cation. It contains extracts of the Patent Law, 112 il- 
lustrated mechanical movements; hints to inventors, 
and much other desirable information concerning the 
obtaining of patents, etc., for inventors aad patentees. 

OuB FoREKJN Patent Circular (free} gives informa- 
tion concerning the requirements of Foreign Govern- 
ments regarding the granting and working of patents. 

The Scientific Press and the Pacifk; Rural Press, 
both &rst class 16 page papers, are published at H per 
annum each, by 

DEWEY Sc CO., 

Patent Agents. Engravers and Publishers, No. 414, Clay 
St., San Francisco. 

A. T. DEWEY, GEO H. STBONO. 

W. B. KWEB, JOHN L. BOONE, 



FORWARD ! 



FORWARD! 



THE 



SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 

FOR isri. 

will be specialv devoted TO 

Mining,] Mechanic Arts, Inventions, and 
Home Industries of the Pacific States. 

PRINTED ON NEW TYiM], 

« 
AND rrs 

READING COLUMNS INCREASED, 

and 

Otherwise Improved in Value. 



The success of our improvements in 1870, and the re- 
duction of our subscription rates to $4 per annum, re- 
sulting in a large increa.se of subscriptions, has induced 
us to make the above announcement. 

CLUBS AT $3 PEK ANNUM 

for each name, will be received when ten or more per- 
sons co-operate in sending us their cash in advance 
Don't hesitate. Forward your own individual s^ibscrip- 
lion. No one knows the real value of the Press until 
they read it. Use your copy of the paper to induce 
others to subscribe, (if you like it yourself ), and in sub- 
sequent remittance for a club, we will allow you the 
difference first paid above club rates. 

DEWEX A CO., PublUhem. 



[ ADVEBTISEMKNT. ] 

Iiiterestiiia; Facts for Fariii- 

ers About IfamsdeH's 

Norway Oats. 

Beware of Spurious Seed. 

Nearly or quite all the unfavorable reports 
which have come to the ear of the public 
with regard to these oats, have been due 
directly to spurious seed; the high price 
that the Norway oat bears, operating as an 
inducement to swindlers. Buy no seed un- 
less genuine. See below from whom and 
how to get it injthis city. 




PRICES55. 

By mail, postage paid, 2 lb. packages, '.'i 
cts.; 5 lbs., Sl."5. By express (not pre- 
paid), IG lbs., ?4. In large quantities at 
still greater reduction. 

Clubs. — We advise parties desiring to 
buy small quantities only, to unite with 
their neighbors in a joint order, making 
the cost less for cash. 

Our Agents will receive orders for these 
oats on the above terms. 

For these Oats, in large or 
small quantity, send direct to 
the Pacific Rural Press ofBce, 414 
Clay St., San Francisco, DEWEY 
& CO., Agents. 



COLCMBIA Dec. 22d ISTO.— Messrs. Dewey & Co.,— (rcn- 
I'emen.—l hereby acknowledge the nceipt of my Letters 
Patent for my Sewing Matrhine, (through your agency), 
and to say that I am perfectly pleased, is only a poor 
way of expressing my gratitude for the manner in which 
you have attended to my business, and e8tablishe<l my 
claims. Bespectfully Yours, Per. Johnson. 




Number 3.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JAN. 21, 1871. 



[Volume I. 



OUE POULTRY PEESENTATION. 

In the annexed beautiful poultry illustration 
we have represented thi'ee of the most popular 
and valuable 



breeds of fowls 
which are now 
claiming the at- 
tention of poul- 
try fanciers. 

In the upper 
left-hand cor- 
ner is seen a 
pair of Silver- 
Spangled Ham- 
burgs. This 
breed, though 
beautiful, i^ 
scarce, and but 
very little i 
said about then I 
in the journal 
of the da;) 
They are c 
two varieties— 
the Silver anc 
the Ooldev 
Spangled, siuu 
lar in size and 
form, but dif 
fering in coloi 
The Spangled 
Hamburgs ai( 
non-setters, but 
very good lay- 
ers of small 
eggs. Thefowh 
are of medium 
size, and a 
often mistaken 
for Spangled 
Poland Fowls 
from which 
they are dis- 
tinguished bj 
their large top- 
not being col- 
ored instead o1 
white. The su- 
perior beauty, 
as well as more 
useful qualities 
of this fowl, 
should cause 
them to be 
more abun- 
dant. They are 
indeed both 
useful and or- 
namental. 

In the lower 
left-hand cor- 
ner of the illus- 
tration a pair 
of Dark Bramas 
may be seen. 
This fowl 
stands at the 
head of the 
Asiatic breeds, 
in regard to 
size, and is per- 
haps superior, 
for all really 
useful pur- 
poses, to any 
other bree d 
known. They 
are easily con- 
fined by a four- 
foot fence, are 
quiet and do- 
mestic in their 
habits, lay well, 
are exceedingly 
hardy, and fur- 
nish large, rap- 
idly- growing 
chickens for the 
table. There 
are light and 
dark varieties, 
but we presume 
there is no dif- 



jority of instances, carried off by these cross- 
breeds. The pure Brahmas, however, are all 
that can be reasonably asked for in a farm yard 
fowl. 



fowl, drawn true to nature, and the whole forms 
as pretty a group as is often met with any- 
where. 
. The business of poultry raising, in this State, 




PORTRAITS 



FOWLS 



WM. 



SHEPHERD, EVANSTON, 



ference in the intrinsic value of the two. For 
the fowls, Mr. Tegitmeir, in the Joiirmd of the 
Bath and West of E)ujtand Society, recommends 
a cross between Bramas and Dorkings, and at 
the winter shows in England, where prizes 
have been gi^en for the best couple of fattened 
dead chickens, they have been, in a great ma- 



The pair of Houdans, which occupy the right- 
hand side of the engraving, are fine specimens. 
This is a Frencn breed, and is very popular in 
France. The Houdans are also non-sitters, 
profuse layers, good table fowls, and, in the 
land of their nativity, are said to be hardy. 

Each of the above is a portrait of a living 



is becoming one of much importance, and it is 
with no little pleasure that we note the desire 
that is being manifested among our people to 
secure good breeds. Indeed, there is a feeling 
of public interest in that matter felt everywhere 
throughout ftie country — a feeling that leads 
those engaged in the businods to regard it as a 



science worthy of study and careful research. 

It is also a business that pays, wherever it is 
properly entered upon and conducted in a care- 
ful and intelligent manner. Books are now 

pubhshed ujion 
the business, 
and the papers, 
everywhere, are 
giving hints to 
poultry raisers, 
which may bo 
lead with botli 
]3 r o ti t and 
pleasure. A 
p iper is also 
pubhshed, de- 
voted exclu- 
sively to this 
interest. 

Ijlformation 
IS now so gen- 
erally diffused, 
'^^ md good fowls 
so easily attain- 
ible, that there 
IS no excuse for 
my serious 
mistakes, and 
no reason why 
farmers should 
fiil to i^roeure 
the most profit- 
ible kinds. 

The rapid 
-Ci'owth of our 
cities and large 
towns is con- 
stantly increas- 
ing the demand 
for poultry and 
tggs; and as 
this increase is 
one which will 
( outinue indef- 
initely, there is 
vei-y iitt]e dan- 
ger that the 
business will 
be overdone. 

The quantity 
of eggs con- 
sumed in New 
lork is enor- 
mous, amount- 
ing, by careful 
estimates, to an 
inmial value of 
f2, 000,000; 
and that of 
poultry to fully 
$1,0 0,0 oil 
more! Boston, 
with much less 
than half the 
population of 
New York, con- 
sumes consid- 
erably more 
than half as 
much in value 
of poultry and 
sggs. 

The value of 
poultry in the 
United States, 
according to 
the census of 
1860, was about 
fl 5,00 0,0 0. 
We cannot bo 
^ much short of 
$20,000,000 
at the present 
time. 

We have no 
statistics from 
San Francisco; 
but it is well 
known that th(! 
consumption of 
eggs and poul- 
try here is 
much larger in 
proportion to 
our population than in either New York or 
Boston. Eggs are also dearer here, although 
the cost of food for poultry is much lower. 
Hence there seems to be no reason why tho 
business should not pay well, or why eggs 
should be sent to this market over 2,000 milea 
of railroad, 



34 



"^^r^ 



[January 21, 1871. 



ECHANICAL 1?R0GRESS. 



Vacuum Tanning. — The editor of the 
Boston Hide and Leather Interest has re- 
cently visited the establishment of Messrs. 
Norton, Dorr and Hunt, at Lewiston, 
Maine, to See the working of the above 
named process, and thinks it well worth 
the attention of tanners. The "vaemim 
tank" is of wood, copper lined, and cai)a- 
blo of containing 100 "sides." At oneend, 
an air-tight iron door, also copper-lined, 
is opened to receive the hides, which are 
hung upon hooks within, and the door is 
then closed. Several "junks," containing 
tanning liquor of different strengths, are 
placed underneath the tank, and connected 
with it by copper pipes so arranged that 
the liquor from either alone can be ad- 
mitted into it at will. At the top of the 
tank enters the pipe from an air-pump 
driven by water power. There is a pipe 
and stoj)cock to admit the external air at 
the proper time; also a vacuum gauge and 
a li(iuor gauge. Everything being ready, 
the air-ininip is started, and at the proper 
moment as indicated by tlie vacuum gauge, 
the liquor from one of the junks is let in, 
and allowed to flow until the gauge shows 
that no more will enter, when it is stopped, 
and the external air admitted. In about 
two hours the liquor is drawn oft' and a 
stronger one sent in in the same way from 
another junk, and so on, the strength be- 
ing greater and the time longer for each. 
The liquor is changed four times the first 
day, and afterwards as often as may be 
necessary. The time required to tan a 
calf skin is two or three days; the heaviest 
hides need twenty. Some belting which 
was tanned in 16 days by this process hat! 
been running for several months, and was 
pronounced a very superior article. 

The advantages claimed for this method 
are; — the saving of time, — and therefore of 
interest on th(! cost of hides until they are 
returned to the market as leatlier, — the 
saving of labor, — as the hides have to be 
handled but once, — the saving in bark, — 
for there is not time for chemical changes 
which affect the tannin, — and the increased 
weight, owing to the comparatively slight 
loss of gelatine by decomposition in a tan- 
ning so rapidlj' carried through. Although 
the first cost of the "plant" is somewhat 
greater than for the usual method, these 
advantages are said to largely cotinterbal- 
ance it. 



New Mining Locomotives. — The U. S. 
RaUrond Register oi Dec. 24th describes two 
small locomotives just completed at the 
Baldwin Works, for the Wilkesbarre Coal 
& Iron Co., to take the place of mules 
underground. We give part of the descrip- 
tion: "The wheels were small, but heavy, 
with a broad, flat tread, and very light 
flange. The two cylinders, 9 inches in 
diameter (inside) by 12 inches stroke, lie 
under the front end of the boiler. The; 
jiiston rods play between groups of four 
8(iuare slide rods, and a simply adjusted 
link motion works just forward of the fire 
box. The connections are of course in- 
side, on the cranked axle of one of the two 
pairs of drivers {of 30 inches) , which are 
the only wheels. The fire box and low 
platform overhangs l)ehind. As coal is al- 
ways at hand, no coal space is needed, and 
the water tank is folded over the top and 
sides of the boiler, acting as a jacket, and 
feeling quite hot to tin? hand. This tank 
holds 190 gallons, and the whole engine, 
with fuel and water weighs nearly 15, 000 
pounds. The makers guarantee that it 
shall haul, under all circumstances, with 
wet and dirty rails, on a level, IMO gross 
tons; on a 60 foot gradient, 80 gross tons; 
and on a 100 foot gradient, 50 gross tons." 



Transmitting Power by Means of Com- 
pressed Air. — At a late meeting of the 
Polytechnic Club of the American Insti- 
tute, W. S. Henson read a r-^port "prepared 
by him for Horace H. Day, who had em* 
jjloyed him as engineer to conduct a series 
of experiments, to determine tlie feasibility- 
of a plan for utilizing at Buffalo, N. Y., a 
206 foot fall at Niagara, on the American 
side, 20 miles distant. We quote from this 
report: — " In response to your request for 
the elements necessary for the transmission 
of 5,000 horse power from Niagara Falls to 
Buffalo (about 20 miles), using your mag- 
nificent power f)f 206 feet fall, I suggest 
the utilization of 185 feet of this fall by the 
direct compressing power of a column of 
water acting as a ram, without the inter- 
vention of water wheels or tlie friction of 
cylindrical compressors with moving pis- 
tons, because by the use at that point of such 
compressors, you absorb the heat gener- 
ated in the act of compression and avoid 
the loss from friction l)y piston or cylin- 
der, and all the wear and tear of ponderous 
water wheels. This direct acting hydraulic 
pressure, working in one sense as a ram, 
may be made to develop any amount of 
pressure desirable, and taking into account 
the cost of pipes and other considerations, 
I would suggest that the pressure should 
not be less than 80 lbs. or more than 100 
lbs. per square inch; and a \n\ie of 42 
inches in diameter would transmit from Ni- 
agara Falls to Buffalo a column of air com- 
pressed to 100 lbs., with a velocity of ten 
feet per second, and a loss from friction of 
tube, for the whole distance, not exceeding 
one per cent, of the power transmitted, and 
deliver for use over 5,000 horse jjower of 
cold air. I should recommend, however, 
a pipe of 36 inches diameter, which should 
deliver a column of air at 100 lbs. j)ressure 
and 14.33 feet per second terminal velocity, 
and give a full 5,000 horse power of cold 
air, worked expansively at a loss by fric- 
tion and exceeding five per cent, for the 20 
miles." 



Solution of Silk in Photography.— 
We have alluded to the paper by J. Spiller, 
F. C. S., upon a method for the detection 
of other fibres in fabrics purporting to be 
entirely of silk, based upon the fact that 
silk alone is immediately and completely 
soluble in concentrated hydrochloric acid, 
lu conclusicn, Mr. Spiller remarks briefly 
upon the chemical properties of this silk 
solution. We quote: " The mucilaginous 
liquid so jirepared cannot be evaporated, 
even over a water bath, without becoming 
somewhat carbonized; the free acid maybe 
partially separated by dialysis, or by ex- 
posure to air in a shallow capsule, placed 
within a bell-jar charged with a liberal sup- 
ply of slaked lime to absorb the hydro- 
chloric fumes, but the resulting solution 
will not then bear dilution with water 
without precijjitation of the animal matter. 
Ammonia, added in. excess, forms a clear 
solution, which I am hopeful of being able 
to employ in i)hotograjihy ; for when this 
liquid is evaporated, there is left a brown 
saline residue of rough astringent flavor, 
which, when mixed with acjueous nitrate 
of silver, gives a peculiar flocculcnt form 
of argentic chloride, which is no longer 
curdy, and much more rapidly aflected by 
light than the ordinary condition of chlo- 
ride of silver. These properties enable the 
silk compound to be usefully enqjloyed in 
the production of "matt-paper" prints and 
direct solar-camera enlargements. Its ap- 
plication to the collodio-chloride process 
appears also to be worthy of trial." 



g^CIENTIFIC PROGRESS. 



The " White Cloud" Engine. — We take 
the following from 7'/«e Enjineer of Dec. 
9th: "At the request of the inventor, we 
have recently been present at trials with a 
first experimental engine on a new prin- 
ciple. This engine compresses air in 
stages, passing it at each stage through 
water, by which process it is highly satu- 
rated, and the heat given out by the com- 
pression of the air at each stage is so en- 
tirely taken into the saturation, that even 
at the 400 lb. per square inch of pressure 
at which the engine was run during the 
trials, we witnessed the pumps remain 
quite cold. The highly compressed "white 
cloud" resulting from the operation is 
passed onwards to a coil in a heating cham- 
ber, and from this coil to the cylinder. As 
in all first exi)erimental engines, both the 
arrangements and j)roportions are lulmit- 
tedly as yet very imi)erfect. We may in- 
stant^e one evident defect in the fact that, 
with the charge cut ofl" at one-fourth the 
stroke, and 400 lb. i)ressure, 100 lb. of 
pressui-e is wasted into the exhaust. This 
excessive waste with a larger cylinder might 
be saved, and with other advantages ob- 
tainable from such increase in its .size, 
might be expressed in effective power. 
With a cylinder of i% inches diameter, 
and a 6-inch stroke, an exertion of about 
4-horse eflective power on a continually 
suspended load was obtained, at a con- 
sumption of fuel about equal to that used 
by those i)rize engines at the late Oxford 
engine trials, which so exerted th'^t amount 
of horse-power." 



Miocene Man not Proved. — The fol- 
lowing is from a notice by W. Boyd Daw- 
kins, in Nature, of M. Hamy's "I'aheon- 
tology of Man": "The evidence adduced 
by M. Bourgeois of the discovery of flint 
flakes and scrapers in the Miocene strata 
of Thenay, along with remains of the 
hornless rhinoceros and mastodon, proves, 
according to M. Hamy, that man was an 
inh.ibitant of Miocene Europe. It is, how- 
ever, rejected by most of the French and 
English savants', because M. Bourgeois has 
not shown that the implements in question 
may not have been derived ultimately from 
the surface of the ground, where they are 
very almndant. While M. Hamy acknowl- 
edges this to be the case, he does not see 
its full bearing on the value of the testi- 
mony. The implements probably are of 
Quaternary, or even of post-(iuat(u-nary 
age, and certainly cannot be considered de- 
cisive of the sojourn of man in Europe 
during the Miocene epoch, although the 
climate at the time was almost tropical, 
and the contlitions of life easy. Nor can 
the evidence of the grooved bones of Hali- 
there, found l>y M. Delaunay at Puance in 
Maine-et-Loire be accei>ted, because it 
cannot be proved that the grooves may not 
have been caused by some other agency 
than that of man. The proof f)f the ex- 
istence of man in Europe during the Plio- 
cene epoch derived from the strite in the 
fossil bones found at Saint Prest and in 
the valley of the Arno, accej>ted by M. 
Hamy, is equally unsatisfactory. The 
flint "arrow-head" and other rude frag- 
ments said to have been obtained at the 
former place from the same horizon as the 
bones of Ete]>has meridioruilis, by M. Bour- 
geois, the stout chamijion of Miocene 
man, do not afford the precise and exact 
testimony which is demanded for the es- 
tablishment of the case. The presence, 
fndeed, of man in Europe in the IMiocene 
and Pliocene epoch is as yet non-proven, 
and we must be c<mtent to await future 
discoveries. The result of the labors of 
archaeologists and geologists throughout 
Europe during the last ten years has not 
placed the iulvent of man further back than 
the river gravels of the Somme, and the 
epoch of the caves, both of which are post- 
glacial or post-pliocene, or quaternary, in 
other words ])Osterior to the gi-(!at submer- 
gence and refrigeration of northen Euro])e, 
through which many of the Pliocene mam- 
malia were destroyed." 

EozooN Canadense. — It will be remem- 
bered that some time since Messrs. Logan, 
Dawson, Carpenter and Hunt, announced 
the discovery of organic remains in the 
Laurentian rocks of Canada; and it was 
said that here we had the earliest known 
trace of animal life. The subject has been 
considerably discussed. Nature for Dec. 
22<1 contains a letter from T. M. Keade, in 
which, after briefly reviewing the history 
of the controversy, the writer gives his 
own reasons for considering the so-called 
organism a merely mineral produi;tion. 
We quote a single paragraph: "The broad 
fact then remains unshaken that in unal- 
tered rocks no Eozoonal structures have 
yet been discovered. On the other hand, 
in metamorphosed rocks such structures 
are abundant, and even Dr. (iiiml)el, of 
the Bavarian Survey, a believer inEozoiin, 
has been much mystified by finding its 
features in impossible jjlaces. Not only 
do we find it in the Laurenti.ans, but in 
rocks of a much later date, but curiously 
only in those that have undergone altera- 
tion. If it be an organism, then hydro- 
thermal action, it seems, is necessar3' to 
its development, not as one would suspect 
during life, but ages after its entombment 
is sedimentary deposits." 

Absorption of Sulphur by Gold. — A 
jiaper with the above title was read at a re- 
cent meeting of the Philosophical Society 
at Wellington, New Zealand, by W. Skey, 
Government analyst. The author, while 
recently investigating the caus(>s of the re- 
l^orted loss of gold at the Thames gold 
fields during its extraction from the ore. 
found that gold is acted on by suli)huretted 
hyib'ogcn, and thus a sul])ludc is formed 
which tarnishes the surface. Also that 
gold combines with free sulphur at a tem- 
perature of 212' Fahr. (lold thus snljjhur- 
ized on the surface will not amalgamate 
with mercury. The loss of gold is not alto- 
gether due to the condition of the mercury, 
as has hitherto been supjjosed, as he has 
found this sulphide on th(> surface of native 
gold of every degree of purity. 



Vision Under Water.— A correspond- 
ent of Nature makes a "Contribution to the 
dioptrics of vision," from which we quote: 
"A('ouple of watch-glasses, placed with 
their concavities towards one another, so 
as to cnclo.sc a convex lenticular portion of 
air, when immers(>d in water, disperse the 
rays of light and diminish the size of ob- 
jects seen through them, because they 
force the more refractive medium, the 
water, to assume a concare shai)e in rela- 
tion to the air between the glasses. The 
same watch-glasses placed witli their 'con- 
vex surfaces towards one another, and con- 
nected around their edges by a water-tight 
rim, thus enclosing a concave h'nticular 
portion of air, when immersed in water, 
refract the rays of light convergently to a 
focus and magnify olijects, because they 
force the more rei'ractAe medium to as- 
sume a convex shape in relation to the air 
between the glasses. Their magnifying 
j)ower or focal distance under water is 
somewhat less than that of the same glasses 
in the reversed position and filled with 
water is in air; the slight difference be- 
ing owing to the greater refractive power 
of the glass in air than in water. I found 
that two glasses of a curvature of al)OutlJi 
inch radius thus placed formed in water a 
lens having a focus of about two inches. 
This air-lens, as it may bo called, com- 
pletely sui)iDlies the loss of our anterior 
lens in wattjr, aud restores perfect vision. 
Of course the same magnifying power may 
be obtained by various combinations of 
differently curved glasses, or by plano-con- 
cave or concavo-convex air-lenses. The 
advantages of this kind of lens for suba- 
queous vision over a glass lens are obvi- 
ous. It can be made of any required size 
so as to command a large lateral field of 
vision. It ceases to act as a lens the in- 
stant it emerges from the water, and does 
not interfere "w-ith vision in the air, as then 
we merely look through two thin pieces 
of glass with some air between them. 
There is no provoking loss of refractive 
power, as in the case of the glass lens; and 
lastly, it can be made very cheaply. 
With either form of lens we can see from 
below the water objects in the air above us 
quite distinctly if the surface of the water 
is smooth, less distincly if it is agitated." 

The Yale Expedition. — The New York 
Herald of Dec. 24th has an article giving 
some notes of the excursion of Prof. O. C. 
Marsh's scientific party, among which we 
find the following:— At the Antelope well, 
where Prof. Marsh discovered, in 1868, the 
fossil liliputian horse, which he has since 
named Equuspareulus, — were found several j 
others, making in all eighteen distinct 
species of fossil horses so far discovered 
on this continent. "Of the other anim.als 
obtained from this well, there were two 1 
kinds of rhinoceros, an animal something j 
like the hog, one or two allied to the j 
camel, and two or three carniverous ani- I 
mals, one of them larger than a lion. In | 
all, fifteen species of extinct animals were 
found in a space of ten feet in diameter and I 
only six or eignt feet in depth, making it| 
by far the most remarkable animal discov- 
ery ever made in any part of the world.l 
It is supposed this locality was once thcl 
margin of a great lake, and that the anil 
mals sunk down in the mire when the.^l 
went into the water to drink." 



African Explorations.— Dr. Petermannj 
the leading geographical authority in (tbiI 
many, has just received imjiortant letteij 
and maps from the distsnguished Africoj 
explorer. Dr. Schweinfurth with news 
the 29th of July. This traveler reports 
lengthy journey in the direction of t)l 
e<iuator, by means of which our previof 
knowledge of the sources of the Nile H 
lieen enlarged, and to some extent modifi«( 
The source of the Schari river, flowing 
to liake Tsad, has been discovered, ol 
Lake Piaggias, of which so much has Ixj 
written, has jirobably no existence ! — r 
raid, Dec. 31. 



Sulphuret of Zinc. — A. Wagner recci 
a series of experiments made with sulpli'p 
of zinc, purpos-elyjirepiired and leftstan(|i 
exjwsed to the air. The chief resuU 
that sulphide of z'nc hardly oxidizes afl 
and for what little it does, it evolvesi 
I^huretted hydrogen, and differs essentl 
from the sulphurets of iron and mi 
nese, which become, under the same pj 
(titions, converted into oxides, sulphujl 
ing set free. — Dinyler's Journal. 

Delicate Colok-Test for StbtchjI.- 
W. T. Wenzell finds that a solution c|» 
grain of i)ermanganate of potas.sa i | 
thousand grammes of sul]>huric 
detect even a trace of strychnia. 



January 21, 1871.] 



35 



kORRESPONDENCE. 



Bound East. 

[Continued from page 19.] 

The Union Pacific Railroad. 

The entei-prise shown in building this 
road, the longest in the world, cannot be 
too highly praised, and its present and 
prosi^ective value to the whole coiintry 
cannot be over-estimated. Koads are great 
civilizers. The action of Marshal Wade in 
building common roads in Scotland, years 
ago, is said to have exercised a more bene- 
ficial effect on that country in advancing 
the interests of the people in all resi^ects, 
than had been accomplished by the most 
strenuoiis exertions of legislators and jihi- 
lanthropists during long jjeriods of time. 
What Wade's roads did for Scotland, our 
railroads are doing for the United States. 
Our trans-continental road is opening up 
vast natural resources, which otherwise 
would remain lost to the world. 

The present Board of Managers of the 
road are deserving of the highest credit for 
the manner in which they conduct the 
affairs of so great and important an insti- 
tution. They are liberal in tlieir action, 
ever ready to aid in develojung the districts 
along the line, and do all in their power to 
forward the interests of the country. In 
these matters they are aided by the efficient 
corps of officers connected Avitli the road. 
The road is built as well and managed per- 
hajDS better than most Eastern roads, the 
traveler has the best of accommodations, 
and the freight charges are indeed remark- 
ably low. 

There has been considerable discussion 
as to which is the shortest route from St. 
Louis to San Francisco — via Omaha or via 
Kansas City. A gentleman writing to a 
paper in Omaha, qiiotes tliese figures: 
From St. Louis to Omaha, 438 miles; from 
Omaha to Cheyenne, 51G miles; total, 954 
miles. From St. Louis to Kansas City, 272 
miles; from Kansas City to Cheyenne, 745 
miles; total, 1,017 miles; showing a differ- 
ence in favor of Omaha of 63 miles. Tliis 
difference will be increased fully 100 miles 
as soon as another road, now building, is 
completed. 

Omaha and Council Bluffs. 

Omaha, the present terminus of the 
Union Pacific Eailroad, is a go-ahead place 
of 15,000 to 18,000 inhabitants. It was the 
first settlement made in Nebraska, although 
it did not attain any considerable impor- 
tance or size until the Union Pacific Rail- 
road was inaugurated. Since that time it 
has grown very rapidly. It has a large 
area of fertile territory tributary to it, and 
its connections by steamboat and locomo- 
tive are bringing to it a vast amount of 
trade. It now sujiports four newspapers, 
has a large number of hotels, contains many 
fine residences, etc., etc. Between this 
city and Council Bluffs, situated just oppo- 
site, on the east side of the Missouri (but 
three miles back from the banks of the 
river) , there is considerable rivalry. Coun- 
cil Bluffs is also quite old as a settlement, 
but young as a city. It was the Kanesville 
of the Mormons from 1846 until 1853, when 
the present name was adopted. 

The great bridge over the Missouri, built 
by the Union Pacific, is one of the first ob- 
jects of attraction. It is built after "Post's 
patent," will be of iron and half a mile 
long. It will be 50 feet above high water 
mark, and will rest on hollow ii-on pipes 
(cylinders, 8% feet in diameter), filled in 
with concrete, rock, etc. The spans, 250 
feet in length, are 11 in number. Work is 
going on night and day, and the bridge will 
be completed some time in 1871. I am 
told that it will cost about .$2,000,000. 

The machine shops, etc., of the railroad 
are well worth a visit. They are situated 
near the river on a tract of some 30 acres 
in area, are of brick, and are most com- 
plete in all respects. 

The 12,000 inhabitants of Council Bluffs 
are live people. They have a street rail- 



way, several papers, fine school houses and 
churches, a large (the State) Deaf and 
Dumb Asylum, several flouring mills, and 
other evidences of progressing civilization. 
The Council Bluffs Iron Works must not 
be forgotten. Here 40 men are emjiloyed. 
The company has just secured the control 
of Borchoff's (?) imi^rovements in mining 
machinery, among which pressed shoes 
and dies deserve mention. These are made 
of the best and toughest iron, cast with 
neck down, and while hot subjected to a 
heavy screw pressure, which makes them 
very solid and close-grained. I am in- 
formed that they have been tested thor- 
oughly in Colorado, and have given great 
satisfaction, Ijeing very durable. 

The Omaha Reduction Works. 

Meeting Mr. Leojiold Balbach, I was 
kindly invited by him to take a walk 
through the works of the Omaha Smelting 
and Refining Company. Mr. Balbach has 
been engaged from boyhood in the smelting 
operations carried on at Newark, Now .Jer- 
sey, and the comjjany has been fortunate in 
being able to secure his valuable services 
as Superintendent. 

Being anxious to furnish items of interest 
to the readers of the Peess, I send you on 
the information which I have obtained, 
I try to give/Kci!.s', and facts only. 

Ground was broken on the 15th of Octo- 
ber. The U. P. R. R. Co. gianted the 
company all the ground which they re- 
quired, and a side track has been laid to the 
works, which are now nearly completed. On 
and after the first of .January, the company 
will be prepared to receive ores and bul- 
lion. 

The main building is 40x80 feet. Here 
are two reverberatory furnaces, two shaft 
furnaces, four separating furnaces and a 
cupelling furnace. In a side-building, 
30x30, is placed a 20-horse power engine, 
with boiler, etc. Each separating furnace 
has a capacity of from 4 to 5 tons in 24 
hours, is Gxi) feet, the hearth 4x5 feet, and 
the kettles are 22 in. deep and 30 in. in di- 
ameter. The main stack is 55 feet, and the 
second is 35 feet high. There will be used 
for furnaces, stacks, etc., 15,000 fire-brick 
and 175,000 common brick; also 20 tons of 
castings, etc. The iron work comes from 
the foundry of Hall and Brothers. They 
are now building an addition, 30x40 feet, 
with two more furnaces for refining the 
lead. 

When the works are running, some 20 or 
more workmen will be employed. Coal 
from the Wyoming coal mine, on the U. P. 
E. R., will be used in the reverberatory 
furnaces. Arrangements have been made 
with the railroad, by virtue of which 
ore will V)e transported from Ogden to 
the works at tlie rate of iflOO currency per 
car load of 10 tons. The charges will be : 
for reducing ores, ;j?30 to 50 ciirrency per 
ton ; for desilverizing bullion, !ttil6'^^ to 
.$22% currency per ton. Returns will be 
made in two to ionr weeks. The company 
will increase the cai^acity of the works as 
they may find it necessary. 

The Balbach Process. 

The Balbach process for separating silver 
and gold from lead will be used liere. The 
process consists in melting tlie lead that 
contains the gold and silver in a fiirnace 
with an inclined hearth, and drawing it off 
into a kettle containing a certain amount of 
zinc in a molten state. After all the lead 
is thus drawn oft", the latter is thoroughly 
mixed with the zinc, after which it is cast 
into pigs or bars and replaced in a similar 
furnace, and just sufficient heat given to 
melt the lead, but not to melt either zinc, 
silver or gold. The latter alloy is then 
placed in retorts where the zinc is distilled 
off" from the silver and gold with a small 
portion of the lead, after which the latter 
three metals are placed upon a cupel for 
further refining. w. h. m. 

[To be continued.] 

Notes of Travel in San Joaquin County, 

[Written for tlie Press.] 

Stockton Statistics. 

San Joaquin County at present con- 
tains 21,079 inhabitants, an increase of 124 
per cent, in ten years. The city of Stock- 
ton (the county seat) is situated on the San 
Joaquin river, 125 miles from San Francis- 
co by water and 90 miles by rail, and 50 
miles from Sacramento. It contains 10,033 
inhabitants, a gain of 170 per cent, in 10 
years, and is the fourth city in the state, 
as regards population, but the second in 
manufactures. Of these last I will speak 
further along. The outstanding indebted- 
ness of the county is but .§314,102, without 
any floating indebtedness. The following 
returns, from the U. S. Marshal's report, 



show the real value of property in the 
county to be $23,474,805, an increase of 
$20,591,761 in ten years. The real estate 
transactions for the 12 months ending Dec. 
31, 1870, were $1,085,488; the U. S. Land 
Office sales for the same period, in the 
county at large, foot up 262,825 acres, paid 
for, 2jre-empted and otherwise. .$160,885 
worth of brick and .$155, .300 worth of frame 
buildings were erected in Stockton in 1870. 
The street and sidewalk imi^rovements for 
the same year amounted to $83,000. The 
number of children attending the public 
schools in this city, according to the an- 
nual report of the Superintendent of Public 
Schools, ending July, 1870, was 2,709; and 
$50,312.38 was expended last year for 
buildings, salaries of teachers, etc., for the 
convenience of, and educating the same. 
The mortality for 1870 was 205. The num- 
ber of marriages for the same period was 
162. The number of inches rain fall for 
1870 was 7.66, The city contains 3 banks 
roi^resenting an aggregate capital of .$1,2.50,- 
000. 

The secret organizations represented here 
are the T. and A. M., Independent Order 
of Odd Fellows, and Red Men; and the 
order of the Knights of Pithias, are about 
starting a Lodge here. Of the three form- 
er, all are in a prosi^erous condition and 
have a large and still increasing member- 
ship. The Odd Fellows of this city formed 
an association in 1867, known as the Odd 
Fellows Hall Association, and ptirchased a 
lot and built one of the finest halls of the 
kind in the State, which cost .$47,000. In 
1867, they borrowed $22, .500, and on Oct. 
1st, 1870, they had decreased this indebted- 
ness to $15,349.83. They expect to clear 
off the entire indebtedness by June 19th 
1873. C. O. Burton, is Brest., Joseph Ad- 
ams, Treasurer, and T. K. Hook, Secretary 
of the Association. 

Ship Canal— Railroads. 

The Stockton Ship Canal Company is a 
very importont association. The incorpor- 
ators are G. S. Evans, P. Bargion, J. Sedg- 
wick, S. Eldridge, S. Badger, T. K. Hook, 
G. A. Shurtleff, J. Schrick, C. G. Hubner, 
J. M. Cavis, Wm. H. Knight, H. H. Ban- 
croft, G. L. Kenney, N. Spos.ati, C. M. 
Weber, P. Neistrath, W. S. Moss, N. M. 
Orr, K. C. Sargent and C. M. Creanor. 
The Directors are Wm. H. Kniglit, (Pres- 
ident) , T. K. Hook (Vice President) C. G. 
Hubner, (Treasurer) , S. Eldridge, and H,, 
H. Bancroft. The grantees of the Stockton 
Ship Canal franchise, granted by the last 
Legislature, have assigned their interest 
therein to the above named incorjiorators. 
The project is one of the greatest imj^or- 
tance to Stockton, and the people will help 
it on if they are alive to their interests. I 
promise in a future article to give an ex- 
tended account, and to illustrate this witli 
a diagram, (your sjjace permitting,) and in 
connection with the same, its converging 
lines of railroads, in j)rocess of completion. 

At the present writing, about 10 miles of 
the S. & C. R. R. are finished, to a point, 
where a new town is being laid out, to be 
called Holdenville. Four miles farther 
along, on the same road, another town is 
being laid out to be called Petersburg. 
Both of these are named in honor of two 
prominent citizens of Stockton. From 
Petersburg it is projiosed to build three 
lines, one to Angels Camji, and Murphy's; 
the main road to extend to Cojujcropolis 
and Sonora; and the other branch to Farm- 
ington. Knights Ferry, and so on. 40 miles 
of the iron rail is on board vessels now 
due at your port. 

Manufactures. 

The Stockton Woolen Mills, Lambert, 
Doitghty & Tatterson proprietors, have 
manufactured to date (only recently started) 
$10,000 worth of blankets, $5,000 worth of 
which have been actually sold. Thoy 
emjiloy regularly 20 men. The works are 
run by a forty-horse jjower engine, with a 
capacity of running four times the machinery 
now in operation. The fabrics of this mill 
are in good demand with the citizens here, 



but the Lack of funds, to extend tlif' 
pacity, is the only draw-back to inti 
ing their goods to the world at large. 

Of tanneries, there are several here, do- 
ing, I am informed, a good trade. As yet 
I have visited but one, that of ,J. S. Derby, 
situated on Mormon Slough in the sub- 
urbs of Stockton. Mr. D. employs regu- 
larly 5 men, and is doing a business of 
.$20,000 per annum; for nine months of 
the year he turns out 120 sides per week. 
Calf, Kip, Harness, Skirting and Sole 
Leather is his speciality. 

The Stockton Iron Works, Farrington, 
Hyatt & Co., proprietors, manufacture 
steam engines, iron and brass castings, and 
regularly employ 11 men. The machinery 
is run by steam j^ower and is ke2")t busy 
the year round. 

Matteson & Williamson, are the manufac- 
turers of all kinds of jjIows. They hold the 
patent-right of the American Chief Iron 
Sulky Gang Plows, of which they manu- 
factured 120 last year, which they sold for 
$11,400, besides numerous and sundry 
other plows, harrows, cultivators, etc., to 
the extent of $25,000, or $30,000 more. 
The total amount of manufactured articles 
by all the different manufactories in iron, 
wood and tin, in Stockton for the year just 
ended, was $1,392,918. 

Sperry&Co.'s grist mill, on the comer 
of Beaver andLeavy sts., is .50x100 ft., four 
stories high, and cost its previous and pres- 
ent proprietors .$150,000 to erect. For 
the last four years it has averaged yearly 
70,000 bbls. of flour, and 500tonsof ground 
barley. It is run by an engine of 185 
horse power, supi^lied by three tubular 
boilers, of 54 inches diameter, 16 ft., long, 
with 49 3% -inch tubes in each; the ca- 
pacity of this mill is 500 bbls. of flour .and 
25 tons of ground barley per 24 hours run. 

Livery and Sale Stables. — M. Magner, of 
the "El Dorado," has probably the largest 
stock of hor.ses, from 40 to 50 head. His 
princijial business in summer is witli tour- 
ists to the Big Trees and Yosemite. He 
keeps a register of all tourists, names, 
which it is quite interesting to review. He 
has on hand all kinds of imjiorted buggies, 
carriages, and wagons for sale, having the 
agency of several i^rominent manufactories 
in the East. The "Main Street" stable, 
kept by Doak & Dunning, and the "Welier" 
stable, by Beldiii tt Morris, .are worthy of 
mention, but in the absence of statistics, I 
must p.ass them. 

The "Yosemite" stable, Geo. Fox, pro- 
prietor, was completed in May last, and is 
one of the finest of its kind in the State. 
It is of brick, 75x75 ft., with gas and ar- 
tesian water throughout the whole. It has 
a capacity of stabling 200 heiid of horses, 
and cost $14,000. Mr. F. h,as at present 
forty-six head of horses, fourteen of which 
are valued at .$500 each and upwards. For 
his dark bay horse, Defimice, he has re- 
fused $2, .500. This horse is considered one 
of the fastest 7>ace/-.s on the California turf. 
Without any attempt to flatter, I think he 
has the largest number of fine horses and 
corresjjonding turnouts in the State. 
Fine Stock. 

Hiram Di"ew. — This fine stallion is six 
years old, a deep cherry V>iiy, with black 
points, no white, stands Ki hands high, 
weighs about 1,200 pounds, and shows well 
for speed, having made a 3 minute gait with 
4 weeks training from the bitting harness. 
He was raised in Penobscot Co., Maine, and 
imported to this State in May last, by W. 
E. Green, who disposed of a one-half in- 
terest to L. E. Yates of Stockton, where he 
is now kept. He was raised by 'Old Drew' 
of Maine, who was the origin of many fine 
and fast trotters, among which is the cele- 
brated stallion, McOlellan, now in San 
Francisco; also the Cloudman horse, sup- 
posed to be now in New Jersey. Both of 
these have trotted low down in the twen- 
ties. Also gi-and sire to Little Fred, who 
trotted in the fall of 1869, at Philadelphia, 
in 2:21. Of tlie jjedigree of Old Drew, but 
little is known, except that his dam was a 
fast trotting mare of English origin, hav- 
ing trotted 20 miles in one hour, subse- 
quent to her bringing Old Drew. The 
dam of Hiram Drew was sired by Old 
Eaton, of Maine, out of mare sired by Anson 
Messenger, he by Winthrop Mes.senger, 
and he by Imported Messenger. Old Eaton 
was sired by the Avery horse of Maine out 
of a Highlander Mare. The Avery Horse 
by Massachusetts Messenger; dam, a Mor- 
gan mare. 

Chieftain. — This excellent stallion is 
owned by J. H. Dodge and M. T. Noyes. 
He is 16% hands high, light bay, black 
legs and tail, weighs 1,3.50 lbs., is 14 years 
old, v.ilucd at $6,000, and is considered 
among the best of his kind in the State. 
He is the sire of Defiance, the celebrated 
jjficer owned by Geo. Fox of Stockton ; also 
of Grant, owned by Sargent of your city; 
also of Flora, the trotter. l. p. MC. 

[To bo Continued.) 



34 



■c^G^ mmmmmmm^mmm ^ 



[January 21, 1871. 



ECHANICAL M^ROGRESS. 



Vacuum Tanning. — The editor of the 
Boston Hide and Leather Interest has re. 
cently visited the establishment of Messrs. 
Norton, Dorr and Hunt, at Lewiston, 
Maine, to See the -working of the above 
named process, and thinks it well worth 
the attention of tanners. The "vacuum 
tank" is of wood, copper lined, and cajia- 
ble of containing 100 "sides." At oneend, 
an air-tight iron door, also eoi)per-lined, 
is opened to receive the hides, which are 
hung upon hooks within, and the door is ' 
then closed. Several "junks," containing 
tanning liquor of different strengths, are 
placed underneath the tank, and connected 
with it by copper pipes so arranged that j 
the liquor from either alone can be ad- j 
mittcd into it at will. At the top of the 
tank enters the pipe from an air-pump 
driven by water power. There is a pipe 
and stopcock to admit the i^sternal air at 
the proj)er time; also a vacuum gauge and '■ 
a li(iu()r gauge. Everything being ready, j 
the air-pump is started, and at the proper 
moment as indicated by tlie vacuum gauge, 
the liquor from one of the junks is let in, 
and allowed to flow imtil the gauge shows 
that no more will enter, when it is stopped, 
and the external air admitted. In about 
two hours the liquor is drawn ofi" and a 
stronger one sent in in the .same way from 
anotlier junk, and so on, the strength be- 
ing greater and the time longer for each. 
The liquor is changed four times tlie first 
day, and afterwards as often as may be 
necessary. The time required to tan a 
calf skin is two or three days; the heaviest 
hides need twenty. Some belting which 
was tanned in 16 days by this process had 
been running for several months, and was 
pronounced a very superior article. 

The advantages claimed for this method 
are; — the saving of time, — and therefore of 
interest on the cost of hides until they are 
returned to the market as leather, — the 
saving of labor, — as the hides liave to be 
handled but once, — the saving in bark, — 
for there is not time for chemical changes 
which afifect the tannin, — and the increased 
weight, owing to the comparatively slight 
loss of gelatine by decomposition in a tan- 
ning so rapidly carried through. Although 
the first cost of the "plant" is somewhat 
greater than for the usual method, these 
advantages are said to largely counterbal- 
ance it. 



New Mining LocoMOTn'ES. — The U. S. 
Railroad Register oi Dec. 24th describes two 
small locomotives just completed at the 
Baldwin Works, for the Wilkesbarre Coal 
& Iron Co., to take the place of mules 
underground. We give part of the descrip- 
tion: "The wheels were small, but heavy, 
with a broad, Hat tread, and very light 
flange. The two cylinders, 9 inches in 
diameter (inside) by 12 inches stroke, lie 
under the front end of the boiler. The 
piston rods play between groups of four 
scjuare slide rods, and a simply adjusted 
link motion works just forward of the fire 
box. The connections are of course in- 
side, on the crankid axle of one of the two 
pairs of drivers (of ^'O inches) , which are 
the only wheels. The fire box and low 
platform overhangs behind. As coal is al- 
ways at hand, no coal space is needed, and 
the water tank is folded over tlie top and 
sides of the boiler, a<'ting as a jacket, and 
feeling quite hot to the liand. This tank 
holds I'JO gallons, and the whole engine, 
with fuel and water weighs nearly l.">,000 
pounds. The makers guarantee that it 
shall haul, under all circumstances, with 
wet and dirty rails, on a level, 'MX) gi-oss 
tons; on a 60 foot gradient, 80 gross tons; 
and on a 100 foot gradient, 50 gross tons." 



Transmitting Power by Means of Com- 
PRE.SSED Air. — At a late meeting of the 
Polytechnic Club of the American Insti- 
tute, W. S. Hcnson read a r'^portlprepared 
by him for Horace H. Day, who had em-" 
ployed him as engineer to conduct a series 
of experiments, to determine the feasibility 
of a plan for utilizing at Buffalo, N. Y., a 
20G foot fall at Niagara, on the American 
side, 20 miles distant. We quote from this 
report: — " In response to your request for 
the elements necessary for the transmission 
of 5,000 horse power from Niagara Falls to 
Buffalo (about 20 miles) , using your mag- 
nificent power of 206 feet fall, I suggest 
the utilization of 185 feet of this fall by the 
direct compressing power of a column of 
water acting as a ram, without the inter- 
vention of water wheels or the friction of 
cylindrical compressors with moving pis- 
tons, liecauseby the use at that point of such 
compressors, you absorb the heat gener- 
ated in the act of comi)ression and avoid 
the loss from friction by jiiston or cylin- 
der, and all the wear and tear of ponderous 
water wheels. This direct acting In'draulic 
pressure, working in one sense as a ram, 
may l>e made to develop any amount of 
pressure desirable, and taking into account 
the cost of pipes and other considerations, 
I would suggest that the pressure should 
not be less than 80 lbs. or more than 100 
lbs. i)er square inch; and a pipe of 42 
inches in diameter would transmit from Ni- 
agara Falls to Buffalo a column of air com- 
pressed to 100 lbs. , with a velocity of ten 
feet per second, and a loss from friction of 
tube, for the whole distance, not exceeding 
one per cent, of the power transmitted, and 
deliver for use over 5,000 horse power of 
cold air. I should recommend, however, 
a pipe of 36 inches diameter, which should 
deliver a column of air at ItW ll)s. pressure 
and 14.33 feet per second terminal velocity, 
and give a full 5,000 horse power of cold 
air, worked expansively at a loss by fric- 
tion and exceeding five per cent, for the 20 
miles." 



Solution of Silk in Photography. — 
We have alluded to the paper by J. Spiller, 
F. C. S., upon a method for the detection 
of other fibres in fabrics purporting to be 
entirely of silk, based upon the fact that 
silk alone is immediately and completely 
soluble in concentrated hydrochloric acid, 
lu conclusion, Mr. Spiller remarks briefly 
upon the chemical properties of this silk 
solution. We quote: " The mucilaginous 
liquid so prepared cannot be evaporated, 
even over a water bath, without becoming 
somewhat carbonized; the free acid maybe 
partially separated by dialysis, or by ex- 
posure to air in a shallow capsule, placed 
within a bell-jar charged with a liberal sup- 
ply of slaked lime to absorb the hydro- 
chloric fumes, but the resulting solution 
will not then bear dilution with water 
without precij>itation of the animal matter. 
Ammonia, added in. excess, forms a clear 
solution, which I am hopeful of being able 
to employ in photography ; for when this 
liquid is evaporated, there is left a brown 
saline residue of rough astringent fiavor, 
which, when mixed with a(iueous nitrate 
of silver, gives a peculiar flocculent form 
of argentic chloride, which is no longer 
curdy, and much more rapidly affected by 
light than the ordinary condition of chlo- 
ride of silver. These properties enable the 
silk compound to be usefully enqjloyed in 
the production of "matt-paper" prints and 
direct solar-camera enlargements. Its ap- 
plication to the collodio-chloride process 
appears also to be worthy of trial." 



The " White Cloud" Engine. — We take 
the following from The Engineer of Dec. 
9th: "At the request of the inventor, we 
have recently been present at trials with a 
first experimental engine on a new prin- 
ciple. This engine compresses air in 
stages, passing it at each stage through 
water, by which process it is highly satu- 
rated, and the heat given out by the com- 
pression of the air at each stage is so en- 
tirely taken into the saturation, that even 
at the 400 lb. per square inch of pressure 
at which the engine was run during the 
trials, we witnessed the pumps remain 
quite cold. The highly compressed "white 
cloud" resulting from the operation is 
passed onwards to a coil in a heating cham- 
ber, and from this coil to the cylinder. As 
in all first experimental engines, both the 
arrangements and proportions are admit- 
tedly as yet very imperfect. We may in- 
stance one evident defect in the fact that, 
with the charge cut oflf at one-fourth the 
stroke, and 400 lb. pressure, 100 lb. of 
pressure is wasted into the exhaust. This 
excessive waste with a largercylinder might 
be saved, and with other advantages ob- 
tainable from such increase in its .size, 
might be expressed in effective power. 
With a cylinder of ^% inches diameter, 
and a 6-inch stroke, an exertion of about 
4-horse effective power on a continually 
suspended load was obtained, at a con- 
sumption of fuel about equal to that used 
by tliose prize engines at the late Oxford 
engine trials, which so exerted thlit amount 
of horse-i)ower." 



I^CIENTIFIC 



2!^R0GRESS. 



Miocene Man not Proved. — The fol- 
lowing is from a notice by W. Boyd Daw- 
kins, in Nature, of M. Hamj-'s "Palieon- 
tology of Man": "The evidence adduced 
by M. Bourgeois of the discovery of flint 
flakes and scrapers in the Miocene strata 
of Thenay, along with remains of the 
hornless rhinoceros and mastodon, proves, 
according to M. Hamy, that man wiis an 
inhabitant of Miocene Euroise. It is, how- 
ever, rejecttnl by most of the French and 
English saranis, becaiise M. Bourgeois has 
not shown that the implements in question 
may not have been derived ultimately from 
the surface of the ground, where they are 
very abundant. While M. Hamy acknowl- 
edges this to be the case, he does not see 
its full bearing on the value of the testi- 
mony. The implements ijrobably are of 
Quaternary, or even of post-quaternary 
age, and certainly cannot be considered de- 
cisive of the sojourn of man in Euro))e 
during the ^Miocene epoch, although tlie 
climate at the time was almost trojiical, 
and the conditions of life easy. Nor can 
the evidence of the grooved bones of Hali- 
there, found by M. Delaunay at Puance in 
Maine-et-Loire be accepted, because it 
cannot be proved that the grooves may not 
have been caused by some otlicr agency 
than that of man. The proof of the ex- 
istence of man in Europe during the Plio- 
cene epoch derived from the striie in the 
fossil bones found at Saint Prest and in 
the valley of the Arno, accejjted by M. 
Hamy, is equally unsatisfactory. The 
flint "arrow-head" and other rude frag- 
ments said to have been obtained at the 
former place from the same horizon as the 
bones of Elephas vieridionalis, by M. Bour- 
geois, the stout champion of Miocene 
man, do not afford the precise and exact 
testimony which is demanded for the es- 
tablishment of the case. The presence, 
fndced, of man in Europe in the Miocene 
and Pliocene epoch is as ytt non-proven, 
and we must be content to await future 
discoveries. The result of the labors of 
archspologists and geologists throughout 
Eui-ope during the last ten years has not 
placed the advent of man further back than 
the river gravels of the Somme, and the 
epoch of the caves, both of which are post- 
glacial or post-pliocene, or quaternary, in 
other words posterior to the great submer- 
gence and refrigeration of northen Europe, 
through which many of the Pliocene mam- 
malia were destroyed," 

EozooN Canadense. — It will be remem- 
bered that some time since Messrs. Logan, 
Dawson, Carpenter and Hunt, announced 
the discovery of organic remains in the 
Laurentian rocks of Canada; and it was 
said that here we had the earliest known 
trace of animal life. The subject has been 
considerably discussed. Nature for Dec. 
22d contains a letter from T. M. Eeade, in 
which, after briefly reviewing the history 
of the controversy, the writer gives his 
own reasons for considering the so-called 
organism a merely mineral production. 
We (luote a single paragraph: "TheViroad 
fact then remains unshaken that in unal- 
tered rocks no Eozoonal structures have 
yet been discovered. On the other hand, 
in metamorphosed rocks such structures 
are abundant, and even Dr. Giimbel, of 
the Bavarian Survey, a believer inEozoiJn, 
has been much mystified by finding its 
features in impos.sible i)laces. Not only 
do we find it in the Laurentians, but in 
rocks of a much later date, luit curiously 
only in those that have undergone alt<>ra- 
tion. If it be an organism, then hydro- 
thermal action, it seems, is necessary to 
its development, not as one would suspect 
during life, but ages after its entombment 
is sedimentary deposits." 

Absorption op Sulphur by Gold. — A 
pa)ier with the above title was read at a re- 
cent meeting of the Philosophical Society 
at Wellington, New Zealand, by W. Skey, 
Government analyst. The author, while 
recently investigating the causes of the re- 
])orted loss of gold at the Thames gold 
fields during its extraction from tlie ore, 
found that gold is acted on by sul))huretted 
hyib'ogen, and thus a sulphide is formed 
which tarnishes the surface. Also that 
gold combines with free suljdiur at a tem- 
perature of 212 Fahr. Gold thus sulpliur- 
ized cm the surface will not amalgamate 
with mercury. The loss of gold is not alto- 
gether due to the condition of the mercury, 
as has hitherto been s»ij)posed, as he has 
found this sulphide on the surface of native 
gold of every degree of purity. 



Vision Under Water.— A correspond- 
ent of Nature makes a "Contribution to the 
dioptrics of vision," from whidi we quote: 
"A couple of watdi-glasses, placed with 
their concavities towards one another, so 
as to enclose a convex lenticular jjortion of 
air, when immersed in water, disperse the 
rays of light and diminish the size of ob- 
jects seen through them, because they 
force the more refractive medium, tlie 
water, to assume a concare shape in rela- 
tion to the air between the glasses. The 
same watch-glasses placed with their Von- 
vex surfaces towards one another, and con- 
nected around their edges by a water-tight 
rim, thus enclosing a concave lenticular 
jiortion of air, when immersed in water, 
refract the rays of light convergently to a 
focus and magnify objects, because they 
force the more refrac■ti^•e medium to as- 
sume a convex shape in relation to the air 
between the glasses. Their magnifying 
power or ftx'al distance under water is 
somewhat less than that of the same glasses 
in the reversed position and filled with 
water is in air; the slight difference be- 
ing owing to the greater refractive power 
of the glass in air than in water. I found 
that two glasses of a curvature of about IJi 
inch radius thus ])laced formed in water a 
lens having a focus of about two inches. 
This air-lens, as it may be called, com- 
pletely suijplies the loss of our anterior 
lens in water, aud restores perfect vision. 
Of course the same magnifying jiowermay 
be obtained by various combinations of 
differently curved glasses, or by i)lano-con- 
cave or concavo-convex air-lenses. The 
advantages of this kind of lens for suba- 
queous vision over a glass lens are obvi- 
ous. It can be matle of any required size 
so as to command a large lateral field of 
vision. It ceases to act as a lens the in- 
stant it emerges from the water, and does 
not interfere with vision in the air, as then 
we merely look through two thin pieces 
of glass with some air between them. 
There is no provoking loss of refractive 
power, as in the case of the glass lens; and 
lastly, it can be made very cheaply. 
With either form of lens we can see from 
below the water objects in the air above us 
quite distinctly if the surface of the water 
is smooth, less distincly if it is agitated." 

The Yale Expedition. — The New York 
Herald of Dec. 24th has an article g^iving 
some notes of the excursion of Prof. O. ('. 
Marsh's scientific party, among which we 
find the following: — At the Antelope well, 
where Prof. Marsh discovered, in 1868, the 
fossil liliputian horse, which he has since 
named Eqnusparvtdus, — were found several 
others, making in all eighteen distinct 
species of fossil horses so far discovered 
on this continent. "Of the other animals 
obtained from this well, there were two 
kinds of rliinoceros, an animal something 
like the hog, one or two allied to the 
camel, and two or three carniverous ani- 
mals, one of them larger than a lion. In 
all, fifteen species of extinct animals were 
found in a space of ten feet in diameter and 
only six or eignt feet in depth, making it 
by far the most remarkable animal discov- 
ery ever matle in any part of the world. 
It is supposed this locality was once the 
margin of a gi'eat lake, and that the ani- 
mals sunk down in the mire when they 
went into the water to drink." 



African Exi'lobations.— Dr. Petermann, 
the lending geograjihical authority in (fer- 
many, has just received imjiortant lett<'rs 
and maps from the distsnguished African 
explorer. Dr. Schweinfurth with news to 
the 29th of July. This traveler reports a 
lengthy journey in the direction of the 
eciuatflr, by means of which our previous 
knowledge of the soiirces of the Nile has 
been enlarged, and to someextent modified. 
The source of tlie Schari river, flowing in- 
to Lake Tsad, has been discovered, and 
Lake Piaggias, of which so much has been 
written, has probably no existence !—Co«^- 
raiit, Dec. 31. 

Sulphubet of Zinc. — A. Wagner records 
a series of experiments made with sulphuret 
of zinc, purjjoi-ely prepared and left standing 
exposed to the air. The chief result is, 
that suljihide of z'nc hardly oxidizes at all; 
and for what little it does, it evolves sul- 
phuretted hydrogen, and differs essentially 
from the suliihuri'ts of iron and manga- 
nese, which become, under the same con- 
ditions, converted iiito oxides, sulphur be- 
ing set free. — Dinyler's Journal. 

Delicate Color-Test fob Strychnia. — 
W. T. Wenzell finds that a solution of one 
gi-ain of i)ermanganate of i)otas.sa in two 
thousand grammes of snl]>hurii! acid will 
detect even a trace of strychnia. 




Bound East. 

[Continued from page 19.] 

The Union Pacific Railroad. 

The enterprise shown in bnilding this 
road, the longest in the world, cannot be 
too highly praised, and its present and 
prospective value to tlie whole country 
cannot be over-estimated. Roads are great 
civilizers. The action of Marshal Wade in 
building common roads in Scotland, years 
ago, is said to have exercised a more bene- 
ficial effect on that country in advancing 
the interests of the people in all respects, 
than had been accomplished by the most 
strenuous exertions of legislators and phi- 
lanthropists during long ijeriods of time. 
What Wade's roads did for Scotland, our 
railroads are doing for the United States. 
Our trans-continental road is opening up 
vast natural resources, which otherwise 
Avoiild remain lost to the world. 

The present Board of Managers of the 
road are deserving of the highest credit for 
the manner in which they conduct the 
affairs of so great and imijortant an insti- 
tution. They are liberal in their action, 
ever ready to aid in developing the districts 
along the line, and do all in their power to 
forward the interests of the country. In 
these matters they are aided by the efficient 
corps of officers connected with the road. 
The road is built as well and managed per- 
haps better than most Eastern roads, the 
traveler has the best of accommodations, 
and the freight charges are indeed remark- 
ably low. 

There has been considerable discussion 
as to which is the shortest route from St. 
Loiiis to San Francisco — via Omaha or via 
Kansas City. A gentleman writing to a 
paper in Omaha, quotes these figures: 
From St. Louis to Omaha, 438 miles; from 
Omaha to Cheyenne, 51() miles; total, 954 
miles. From St. Louis to Kansas City, 272 
miles; fi-om Kansas City to Cheyenne, 745 
miles; total, 1,017 miles; showing a differ- 
ence in favor of Omaha of 63 miles. This 
difference will be increased fully 100 miles 
as soon as another road, now building, is 
completed. 

Omaha and Council Bluffs. 

Omaha, the present terminus of the 
Union Pacific Eailroad, is a go-ahead i^lace 
of 15,000 to 18,000 inhabitants. It was the 
first settlement made in Nebraska, although 
it did not attain any considerable impor- 
tance or size until the Union Pacific Eail- 
road was inaugurated. Since that time it 
has grown very rajjidly. It has a large 
area of fertile territory tributary to it, and 
its connections by steamboat and locomo- 
tive are bringing to it a vast amount of 
trade. It now supports four newspajjers, 
has a large number of hotels, contains many 
fine residences, etc., etc. Between this 
city and Council Bluffs, situated just oj)po- 
site, on the east side of the Missouri (biit 
three miles back from the banks of the 
river) , there is considei'able rivalry. Coun- 
cil Bluffs is also quite old as a settlement, 
but young as a city. It was the Kanesville 
of the Mormons from 1846 until 1853, when 
the present name was adopted. 

The great bridge over the Missouri, built 
by the Union Pacific, is one of the first ob- 
jects of attraction. It is built after "Post's 
patent," will be of iron and half a mile 
long. It will be 50 feet above high water 
mark, and Avill rest on hollow iron pipes 
(cylinders, 8% feet in diameter), filled in 
with concrete, rock, etc. The sjjans, 250 
feet in length, are 11 in number. Work is 
going on night and day, and the bridge will 
be completed some time in 1871. I am 
told that it will cost about $2,000,000. 

The machine shops, etc., of the railroad 
are well worth a visit. They are situated 
near the river on a tract of some 30 acres 
in area, are of brick, and are most com- 
plete in all respects. 

The 12,000 inhabitants of Council Bluffs 
are live people. They have a street rail- 



way, several pajjers, fine school houses and 
churches, a large (the State) Deaf and 
Dumb Asylum, several flouring mills, and 
other evidences of progre.ssing civilization. 
The Council Bluffs Iron Works must not 
be forgotten. Here 40 men are emijloyod. 
The company has just secured the control 
of Borchofl"'s (?) improvements in mining 
machinery, among which pressed shoes 
and dies deserve mention. These are made 
of the best and toughest iron, cast with 
neck down, and while hot subjected to a 
heavy screw pressure, which makes them 
very solid and close-grained. I am in- 
formed that they have been tested thor- 
oughly in Colorado, and have given great 
satisfaction, being very durable. 

The Omaha Reduction Works. 

Jleeting Mr. Leopold Balbach, I was 
kindly invited by him to take a walk 
through the works of the Omaha Smelting 
and Refining Company. Mr. Balbach has 
been engaged from boyhood in the smelting 
operations carried on at Newark, New Jer- 
sey, and the company has been fortunate in 
being able to secure his valuable services 
as superintendent. 

Being anxious to furnish items of interest 
to the readers of the Puess, I send jon on 
the information which I have obtained, 
I tiy to give /"arts, and facts only. 

Ground was broken on the 15th of Octo- 
ber. The U. P. R. R. Co. gi-anted the 
company all the ground which tliey re- 
quired, and a side track has been laid to the 
works, which are now nearly completed. On 
and after the first of .January, the comjiany 
will be prepared to receive ores and bul- 
lion. 

The main building is 40x80 feet. Here 
are two reverber.atory furnaces, two shaft 
furnaces, four separating furnaces and a 
cupelling furnace. In a side-building, 
30x30, is placed a 20-horse power engine, 
with boiler, etc. Each separating furnace 
has a capacity of from 4 to 5 tons in 24 
hours, is 6x9 feet, the hearth 4x5 feet, and 
the kettles are 22 in. deep and 30 in. in di- 
ameter. The main stack is 55 feet, and the 
second is 35 feet high. There will be used 
for furnaces, stacks, etc., 15,000 tire-brick 
and 175,000 common brick; also 20 tons of 
castings, etc. The iron work comes fi'om 
the foundi-y of Hall and Brothers. They 
are now building an atldition, 30x40 feet, 
with two more furnaces for refining the 
lead. 

When the works are running, some 20 or 
more workmen will be employed. Coal 
from the Wyoming coal mine, on the U. P. 
R. R., will be used in tlie reverberatory 
furnaces. Arrangements have been made 
with the railroad, by virtue of which 
ore will be transported from Ogden to 
the works at the rate of .$100 currency jier 
car load of 10 tons. The charges will be : 
for reducing ores, $.30 to 50 currency Y>er 
ton ; for desilverizing bullion, !|fl6J'$ to 
.'tf22% currency per ton. Returns will be 
made in two to four weeks. The company 
will increase the capacity of the works as 
they may find it necessary. 

The Balbach Process. 

The Balbach process for separating silver 
and gold from lead will be used here. The, 
process consists in melting tlie lead that 
contains the gold and silver in a furnace 
with an inclined hearth, and drawing it off 
into a kettle containing a certain amount of 
zinc in a molten state. After all the lead 
is thus drawn off', the latter is thoroughly 
mixed with the zinc, after which it is cast 
into pigs or bars and replaced in a similar 
furnace, and just sufficient heat given to 
melt the lead, but not to melt either zinc, 
silver or gold. The latter alloy is then 
placed in retorts where the zinc is distilled 
oft' from the silver and gold with a small 
portion of the lead, after which the latter 
three metals are placed ux^on a cupel for 
further refining. w. h. m. 

[To be contimied.] 

Notes of Travel in San Joaquin County. 

[Written for the Press.] 

Stockton Statistics. 

San Joaquin County at present con- 
tains 21,079 inhabitants, an increase of 124 
per cent, in ten years. The city of Stock- 
ton (the county seat) is situated on the San 
Joaquin river, 125 miles from San Francis- 
co by water and 90 miles by rail , and 50 
miles from Sacramento. It contains 10,033 
inhabitants, a gain of 170 per cent, in 10 
years, and is the fourth city in the state, 
as regards iiopulation, but the second in 
manufactures. Of these last I will speak 
further along. The outstanding indebted- 
ness of tl)e county is but .$314,102, without 
any floating indebtedness. The following 
returns, from the U. S. Marshal's report, 



show the real value of- i^roperty in the 
county to be $23,474,805, an increase of 
$20,591,761 in ten years. The real estate 
transactions for the 12 months ending Dec. 
31, 1870, were $1,085,488; the U. S. Land 
Office sales for the same period, in the 
county at large, foot up 262,825 acres, ^^aid 
for, pre-empted and otherwise. $160,885 
worth of brick and $155,300 worth of frame 
buildings were erected in Stockton in 1870. 
The street and sidewalk imi^rovements for 
the same year amounted to $83,000. The 
number of children attending the public 
schools in this city, according to the an- 
nual rejiort of the Superintendent of Pulilic 
Schools, ending July, 1870, was 2,709; and 
$50,312.38 was expended last year for 
buildings, salaries of teachers, etc., for the 
convenience of, and educating the same. 
The mortality for 1870 was 205. The num- 
ber of marriages for the same period was 
162. The number of inches rain fall for 
1870 was 7,60, The city contains 3 banks 
representing an aggregate capital of $1,2.50,- 
000. 

The secret organizations represented here 
are the T. and A. M., Independent Order 
of Odd Fellows, and Red Men; and the 
order of the Knights of Pithias, are about 
starting a Lodge here. Of the three form- 
er, all are in a prosperous condition and 
have a large and still increasing member- 
ship. The Odd Fellows of this city formed 
an association in 1807, known as the Odd 
Fellows Hall Association, and purchased a 
lot and built one of the finest halls of the 
kind in the State, which cost .$47,000. In 
1867, they borrowed $22,1300, and on Oct. 
1st, 1870, they had decreased this indebted- 
ness to $15,349.83. They expect to clear 
off the entire indebtedness by June 19tli 
1873. C. O. Burton, is Brest., Joseph Ad- 
ams, Treasurer, and T. K. Hook, Secretary 
of the Association. 

Ship Canal— Railroads. 

The Stockton Ship C'aiial Company is a 
very importont association. The incorpor- 
ators are G. S. Evans, P. Bargion, J. Sedg- 
wick, S. Eldridge, S. Badger, T. K. Hook, 
G. A. Shurtleff, J. Schrick, C. G. Hubner, 
J. M. Cavis, Wm. H. Knight, H. H. Ban- 
croft, G. L. Kenney, N. Sposati, C. M. 
Weber, P. Neistrath, W. S. Moss, N. M. 
Orr, K. C. Sargent and C. M. Creanor. 
The Directors are Wm. H. Knight, (Pres- 
ident), T. K. Hook (Vice President) C. G. 
Hubner, (Treasurer) , S. Eldridge, and H,, 
H. Bancroft. The grantees of the Stockton 
Ship Canal franchise, granted by the last 
Legislature, have assigned their interest 
therein to the above named incorporators. 
The i^roject is one of the greatest impor- 
tance to Stockton, and the people will help 
it on if they are alive to their interests. I 
promise in a future article to give an ex- 
tended account, and to illustrate this with 
a diagi-am, (your space permitting,) and in 
connection with the same, its converging 
lines of railroiids, in process of comijletion. 

At the present writing, about 10 miles of 
the S. & C. R. R. are finished, to a i^oint. 
where a new town is being laid out, to be 
called Holdenville. Four miles farther 
along, on the same road, another town is 
being laid out to be called Petersburg 
Both of these are named in honor of two 
prominent citizens of Stockton. From 
Petersburg it is proposed to build three 
lines, one to Angels Camp, and Murphy's; 
the main road to extend to Copi^eropolis 
and Sonora; and the other branch to Farm- 
ington. Knights Ferry, and so on. 40 miles 
of the iron rail is on board vessels now 
due at your port. 

Manufactures. 

The Stockton Woolen Mills, Lambert, 
Doughty & Tatterson jiroprietors, have 
manufactured to date (only recently started) 
,$10,000 worth of blankets, $5,000 worth of 
wliich have been actually sold. They 
emi^loy regularly 20 men. The works arc 
run by a forty-horse power engine, with a 
capacity of running four times the machinery 
now in operation. The fabrics of this mill 
are in good demand with the citizens here, 



35 



but the lack of funds, to extend ■ ca- 

pacity, is the only draw-back ti uc- 

ing their goods to the world at lai ^ 

Of tanneries, there are several hei-e, do- 
ing, I am informed, a good trade. As yet 
I have visited but one, that of ,7. S. Derby, 
situated on Mormon Slough in the sub- 
urbs of Stockton. Mr. D. employs regu- 
larly 5 men, and is doing a business of 
.$20,000 i^er annum; for nine months of 
tlie year he turns out 120 sides pev week. 
Calf, Kip, Harness, Skirting and Sole 
Leather is his speciality. 

The Stockton Iron Works, Farrington, 
Hyatt & Co., proprietors, manufacture 
steam engines, iron and brass castings, and 
regularly employ 11 men. The macliinery 
is run by steam power and is kept busy 
the year round. 

Matteson & Williamson, are the manufac- 
turers of all kinds of i)lows. They hold the 
jiatent-right of the American Chief Iron 
Sulky Gang Plows, of which they manu- 
factured 120 last year, which they sold for 
$11,400, besides numerous and sundry 
other plows, harrows, cultivators, etc., to 
the extent of $25,000, or $30,000 more. 
The total amount of manufactured articles 
by all the different manufactories in iron, 
wood and tin, in Stockton for the year just 
ended, was $1,392,918. 

Sperry&Co.'s grist mill, on the comer 
of Beaver andLeavy.sts., is 50x100 ft., four 
stories high, and cost its previous and pres- 
ent proprietors $150,000 to erect. For 
the last four years it has averaged yearly 
70,000 bbls. of flour, and 500 tons of ground 
barley. It is run by an engine of 185 
horse power, sui:)plied by tliree tubular 
boilers, of 54 inches diameter, 16 ft., long, 
with 49 3%-inch tubes in each; the ca- 
pacity of this mill is .500 bbls. of flour and 
25 tons of ground barley jjcr 24 hours run. 

Livery and Sale Stables. — M. Magner, of 
the "El Dorado," has probably the largest 
stock of horses, from 40 to 50 head. His 
principal business in summer is with tour- 
ists to the Big Trees and Yosemite. He 
keeps a register of all tourists, names, 
which it is quite interesting to review. Ho 
has on hand all kinds of imiiorted buggies, 
carriages, and wagons for sale, having the 
agency of several jirominent manufactories 
in the East. The "Main Street" stable, 
kept by Doak &Dunning, and the "Weber" 
stable, by Boldin & Morris, fire worthy of 
mention, but in the absence of statistics, I 
must pass them. 

The "Yosemite" stable, Geo. Fox, pro- 
prietor, was completed in May last, and is 
one of the finest of its kind in the State. 
It is of brick, 75x75 ft. , with gas and ar- 
tesian water throughout the whole. It has 
a capacity of stabling 200 head of horses, 
and cost $14,000. Mr. P. has at present 
forty-six head of horses, fourteen of which 
are valued at .$500 each and upwards. For 
his dark bay horse, JJufance, he has re- 
fused $2,500. This horse is considered one 
of the fastest 7Jacens- on the California turf. 
Without any attempt to flatter, I think he 
has the largest number of fine horses and 
corresponding turnouts in the State. 
Fine Stock. 

Hiram Drew. — This fine stallion is six 
years old, a deep cherry bay, with black 
points, no white, stancls 16 hands high, 
weighs about 1,200 ])ounds, aiid shows well 
for speed, having made a 3 minute gait with 
4 weeks training from the bitting harness. 
He was raised in Penobscot Co., Maine, and 
imported to this State in May last, by W. 
E. Green, who disposed of a one-half in- 
terest to L. E. Yates of Stockton, where he 
is now kept. He was raised by 'Old Drew' 
of Maine, who was the origin of many fine 
and fast trotters, among which is the cele- 
lirated stallion, McOlellan, now in San 
Francisco; also the Cloudman horse, sup- 
posed to be now in New Jersey. Both of 
these have trotted low down in the twen- 
ties. Also grand sire to Little Fred, who 
trotted in the fall of 1869, at Philadelphia, 
in 2:21. Of the jjedigree of Old Drew, but 
little is known, except that his dam was a 
fast trotting mare of English origin, hav- 
ing trotted 20 miles in one hour, subse- 
quent to her bringing Old Drew. The 
dam of Hiram Drew was sired by Old 
Eaton, of Maine, out of mare sired by Anson 
Messenger, he by Winthroj) Mes.senger, 
and he by Imported Messenger. Old Eaton 
was sired by the Avery horse of Maine out 
of a Highlander Mare. The Avery Horse 
by Massachusetts Messenger; dam, a Mor- 
gan mare. 

Chieftain. — This excellent stallion is 
owned l)y J. H. Dodge and M. T. Noyes. 
He is 16% hands high, liglit bay, black 
legs and tail, weighs 1,3,50 lbs., is 14 years 
old, valued at $6,000, and is considered 
among the best of his kind in the State. 
He is the sire of Defiance, the celebrated 
pacer owned by Geo. Fox of Stockton; also 
of Grant, owned by Sargent of your city; 
also of Flora, the trotter. L. r. mc. 

[To be Continned.J 



36 



^mmmm^^ 



^^ 



[January 21, 1871. 



THE NEEDS OP AGRICULTURAL 
COMMUNITIES. 

[ByDr. E. S. CaRB, Prof, of Clumistry aud Agriculture 
in the Univirsity of CHlifornia.J 

Written for tbe Pbess. 

In England the bigliest efibrts of states- 
manship have been exerttul forjthe ehnation 
of imlnstry. In Prussia, where the govern- 
ment re(inires that every child should he 
educated, assuming that it is the right aud 
the duty of the state to protect itself from 
ignorance as well as crime, the Agriciiltn- 
ral and "Building" (i. e. mechanical 
schools,) are munificently endowed and 
8ti])ported. Those Avho desire to know on 
what a vast scale this noble work was jiro- 
gressing in every part of continental Eu- 
rope, before the war, are referred to the 
exhaustive rejjort of the American Commis- 
sion to the Paris Exposition, a work which 
furnishes an admirable illustration of the 
value of these international exchanges of 
knowledge. Should you visit 

The Royal Land and Forest Academy, 
at Hohenhcim, a few miles fromStuttgard, 
yon V ill first notice a government forest of 
five thousand acres. Th(^se i)ractical Ger- 
mans know the importance of preserving 
their forests ; they do not invite droughts 
aud floods by the wholesale destruction of 
trees. Adjoining this is a farm of 5,000 
acres, upon twenty acres of which, divided 
into one hundred plats, experiments are 
made upon soils and their preparation, new 
plants and the best and most economical 
methods of culture. A Botanical Garden 
exhibits all the vai'ieties of plants which 
can be grown in that climate, there is a 
Beet Sugar Factory, a Brewery, a Distill- 
ery, a Starch Factory, a '\'^inegar Factory, 
a Malting and Fruit growing establishment, 
a Silkworm establishment, .and Machine 
Shops, where agricultural implements are 
made, mended and tested; this department 
being expected to furnish the rest of Ger- 
many with the best models. You are a 
farmer, and an intelligent and successful 
one perhaps, yet as you look day after day 
through each of the various dei^artments, 
you think how many l)lunders j-ou and j'otir 
neighbors have made, and feel what a wise 
economy it is which has gathered into one 
])lace, and under the most favorable con- 
ditions, everything which illustrates hus- 
bandry. 

And if you are a student, looking to 
agriculture as a life \)usincss, you find : 
First — that all the studies are pursued in 
(connection with actual practice in the field 
and forest; and. Second — that they embrace 
not only the general principles of agricul- 
ture, comi)Osition and quality of soils, etc. ; 
but all specialities, such as mciulow cul- 
ture; hop, 'grape aud tobacco culture; that 
of fruits and veg(!tabl<>s, breeding of do- 
mestic animals in general, and of each 
class in particular, including the smaller 
animals, silkworms, bees, the dairy, and 
the oversight and management of farms. 
Parallel with this, there is carrieil along 
through the course of study, arithmetic 
and algeljra, book-keeping, a knowledge of 
the laws and i)rinci])l('s of taxation, i)hysi(!S, 
general and agricultural chentistry, geolo- 
gy, vegetable physiology and zoology, 
veterinary science aud forestry. 

Somehow the whole business of farming 
looks very difterent from what it tlid at 
home, and you wonder sometimes that the 
ditterence has not been more distinctly 
stated. Your fellow students will be in 
the higher departments. Sons of the 
gentry, fitting themselves for the general 
management of estates; young men of the 
middle class, fitting themselves for stew- 
ards; lower down, the sons of peasants in 
training for the routine of farm work, who 
spend three or four hours in study and the 
rest in actual labor. Besides, there is a 
three weeks' course of instruction for com- 
mon school teachers, who take that time in 
vacation to post themselves in the general 
l)rinciples of agriculture. And having 
been brought uj) in the belief that we 
"beat the universe in otircommon schools," 
you try in vain to recall any common school 
teacher who knows anything of agriculture, 
excejjt a way of escape from it, or of any 
hint you ever got in a common or uncom- 
mon school of its importance or value. 



Experimental Stations. 

Scattered around in various neighbor- 
hoods, in Prussia, are what are called "ex- 
perimental stations," where from 12 to 20 
acres of land arc divided into small sections 
for experiments in fertilizers, rotation of 
crops, etc., with a chemical laboratory and 
l)rofessor attached, and with accommo- 
dations for animals, so that questions of 
breeding, feeding and fattening may be de- 
cided. These are the nurs(>ries which pre- 
l)are agi'icultural teachers for the secondary 
scliools, and which are entirely supported 
bytlie governni(nit. One cannot but dream 
that the day will come when county and 
district societies in our own country may 
aim at some work as far-reaching in its use- 
fulness. Something in this direction would 
be of special value in a climate as variable 
as ours. 

Industrial Education in Russia. 

But Bussia, whose mighty strides in 
every department of progress marks her as 
a rising jiower among the nations, seems to 
outstrip all otliers in the magnittide of her 
plans for industrial education. In 18.50 
she founded the Imperial Agrictiltural In- 
stitute at Gorigoritz, embracing prim.ary, 
intermediate and superior departments. 
Then followed the establishment of centers 
for the i)roduction of silk (with instruction 
— everywhere instruction, in the art), of 
fruits and esculents, llax, timber, according 
to soil, climate and habits of the people. 
To the Academy of Agriculture in Moscow 
the government makes an annual appro- 
priation of $100,000. Nor is she doing 
less for the schools of arts and trades. One 
hundred thousand dollars is annually ex- 
pended for the school of arts and trades at 
Moscow, where there are 1-t tlieoretical 
j)rofessors, and a still gr(>ater number of 
practical meclianics who oversee the work, 
and add by earnings of theinselv(>s and pu- 
l)ils the additional sum of |;40,000 to the 
su])p()rtof the institution. In ('aucasia,the 
tuition, in excellent schools, is not <mly 
free, but small incomes are secured to meet 
the ex])enses of students, who receive $40 
the first year, ^ii-i the second,. ^72 the third, 
and j?S0 for the fourth and last year, l)e- 
sides board, lodging and books. All this 
expense and trouble to teach the arts of 
peace; how to possess the earth and till it 
with plenitude of blessing ! 
in This Country, 
Until within a very few years, there has 
been no governmental patronage of agri- 
culture and the mechanic arts, t^xcept 
through "State Societies," which have or- 
ganized annual exhibitions and fairs. 
These have usually been self-supjiorting. 
The Army had its West Point, the Navy its 
Academy, — Agriculture the crumbs which 
fell from the talde of national bounty, in 
the shape of a "Bureau." Kestricted l)y 
inadequate a])propriations, and seriously 
interrupted by the war, this most impor- 
tant and most neglected branch of the 
public service has nevertheless built up a 
vast rei)ository of useful knowledge relat- 
ing to agriculture; has disseminated this 
1)V reports, gathered and disseminated 
seeds and cuttings frtmi every part of the 
globe; investigated the most inqjortant 
subjects of climates, soils, fertilizers, de- 
structive insects; and has done enough to 
make every farmer feel the importance of a 
representation which shall foster and sus- 
tain it. 

The foreign models I have held up for 
imitation require an adaptation to our spe- 
cial necessities and the peculiarities of otir 
social and political condition. There, the 
strong aim of enlightened d(!spotism has 
reached downward to uplift industry; here 
the process is reversed, and action has been 
slow and feeble, because the peo])le have 
not come to feel, ax one man, the responsi- 
l)ility of sovereignty. This is the reason 
why nothing worthy of the nation was 
done for industrial education, until Con- 
gress, by the Act of July 2d, 1802, gave to 
each of the States the means of foumluKj, 
not of sustaining, nurseries of intelligent 
indHstry. The object of the grant was un- 
doubtedly to make more farmers and me- 
chanics, and not, as has been a.ssumed, to 
educate the sous of farmers and mechanics. 

All our colleges are feeders of the pro- 
fessions; the object of Congress, in the Act 
referred to, was to arrange institutions 
which would feed and fill the ranks of the 
great industries, and not to make an un- 
fair distinction between the son of a farmer 
and that of his doctor or clergyman. And 
therefore the spirit of this act, will never 
be carried out where an Agricultural Pro- 
fessorship is tacked upon some classical 
institution, and left to Hutter in the un- 
kindly winds of competition with depart- 
ments which have prestiges and a class or 
aristocratic sentiment in their favor. 

Nor will its noble purj)ose ever be ac- 
complished in any state whose people do 
not appreciate the magnitude of the gift, 
and zealously guard against its jjerversion. 



UNSUCCESSFUL FARMING. 

Farming, like every trade, profession or 
vocation, has its proportion of unsuccessful 
followers. This may be attributed to a num- 
ber of causes, some of which we propose to 
notice. The man who is about to engage 
in any vocation should first make himself 
thoroughly acqmiinted with the wants of it; 
then canvass his talents and know his fitness 
for it. Students shajjc their education to 
meet the demands of their professions; so 
should the 3-oung farmer prepare himself to 
meet all the; reciuirements of his vocation. 
Many ])rofessionj^l m(>n fail, from lack of 
knowledge of their ])rofessions; so do many 
farmers fail from lack of knowledge of their 
business, and no ambition or desire to gain 
it by experience. Colleges are more numer- 
ous for the education of i)rofc9sit)nals than 
they are for farmers, for the reason that the 
mind needs more cultivation to accomi)li.sh 
alone as much as the mind and body can to- 
gether. There is no school better than a 
well-managed farm, to prepare the young 
farmer for his duties. Our agricultural col- 
leges are valuabh' institutions in advancing 
the student in the primary branches, but 
the farm only can give the diploma, and 
make the farmer. 

Farmers, do not fail so much from lack of 
knowledge as they do from want of action. 
If tlieir knowledge is not applied to labor 
prompted by energy and perseverance, it 
will accomi)lish nothing. Book-learning 
enters largely into the success of farming 
where it is properly applied ; though there are 
many successful farmers who scofl" at what 
they <m11 book-farming; yet there aretlious- 
ands of others that can attribute their suc- 
cess in a great measure to that source of 
knowledge. It is necessary that the farmer 
shotild be well acquaint<'d with the differ- 
ent compositions of the soil, and know the 
wants of every plant, so that he may 
api)ly the projier i)hint-food, or sow 
his seed where the proper elements exist 
necessary to make the crop a success. 

We have known farmers of many years' 
experience to plow up old, rich i)asture of 
our rich i)rairie soil, and sow the same to 
wheat, and still continue planting their corn 
in fields that are exhausted of the elements 
required to make the croji. The result was, 
there was a tremendous growth of straw with 
little wheat and a light croj) of corn; while, 
if the fields had been employed vice versa, 
there would have been a heavy crop of corn, 
and a fair yield of wheat. 

One of the plainest indications of unsuc- 
cessful farming is to see the manure unem- 
ployed and going to waste. When wc; see 
this, there is no need of looking beyond the 
stables and yards to find out the condition 
of the farm, or judge accurately of the suc- 
cess of its owner. We recently saw a farmer 
scrai>ing the mi\nure out of his yards into 
the highway with a roiul-s(craper. , Adjacent 
the yards was a ti<dd of corn that told a pit- 
iful tale of want. One fourth of our Western 
farmers make little or no use of their ma- 
nures, most of whomtliink that it don't i)ay, 
as it makes the weeds grow; they aim to get 
their soil in such a condition that it will not 
sustain the life of weeds, not thinking that 
it will have the same effect on the crops. 
We consider the manure-heap a gold mine 
to everj' farmer. To be sure, a large amount 
of dirt and labor must l)e enq)loyed with it 
in order to secure the precious metal ; so the 
Irishman roijlied when he was asked as to 
his sticcess in gold-mining: — "There is jilen- 
ty of gold, but so much dirt with it, it is 
hard to gather it." 

Not only should the manure beemjiloyed, 
but a system of farming should be followed 
that would sujiply abundantly this indis- 
pensable article. Very many farmers fail 
by following a sj-stem of farming that ex- 
hausts the soil; everything is taken from, 
and nothing returned to it Thus we see 
that those who engage in mixed husbancb'y 
by raising a variety of stock and produce, 
and consume^ the latter on the farm, are 
more successful. 

Many farmers raise one kind of produce 
to the exclusion of nearly every thing else, 
and finding a low price for it, they have noth- 
ing else to fall back on, to eipialize profits. 
This is the situation of many who have 
raised broom-corn extensively the past sea- 
son. A ])roper rotation of crops is neces- 
sary to the success of every farmer. If this 
is not strictly observed, the crops will de- 
teriorate, and the soil become impoverished. 
Different soils require different rotations, 
but all soils should be employed liberally 
in producing grass for both hay and i>asture. 
It is necessary to raise stock to practice a siic- 
cessful rotation of crops. As stock raising 
is the most successful branch of American 
agricultural industry, and by far the most 
profitable, every farmer should engage in it 
to some extent, at least. It is self-evident 
that every one should not raise stock to the 
entire exclusion of soiling grain, for the 
business would soon bo overdone. 



A large i)roportiou of our farmers make 
little or no progi-ess in agriculture, which 
may generally be traced to lack of energy, 
want of interest, or mere shiftlessne.s's. 
Their machinery and all farm implements 
are left out expo.sed.at all times, to all kinds 
of weather; their stocks — genendly of the 
poorest breeds — are kept in close pens or 
poor pastures dtiring the summer, and fed 
in the winter on straw and what they can 
pick up, and sheltered by the warm side of 
a skeleton fence ; their grain is hurried off' 
to market, regardless of the iirice.orexjjos- 
ed to the weather at home until it is so dam- 
aged that it brings a poor i)rice, and stock 
will scarcely eat it; they take or reiwlnoag- 
ricidtural jiapers; in fact, everything is con- 
ducted in a manner that In-ings discredit and 
poverty to the owner. 

We believe that there is a brighter day 
dawning; that a i)owerful influence is being 
exerted that will bring about a reformation 
in due time. Farmers are being awakened 
to a sense of their duties, and begin to look 
around with renewed interest, and take hold 
with increased energy. It is scarcely nec- 
essary to add, that this ))romising state of 
affairs is being brought about tlirough the 
powerful influence of our agricultural pa- 
pers, chief among which is the Western 
Rural. They are searching out nearly every 
farmer, and pointing out the way to success 
aud long prosperity, that he cannot fail to 
see and follow tlierein. There are those who 
will not yet heed instructions — as there are 
in every branch of industry — but continue 
in the even tenor of their slothful career. 

Our agrictdtural press isa cheaji and ines- 
timable source of education to every farmer; 
it is an agricultural college on every farm 
\vher(> its pajjcrs are studied and instruct- 
ions follow(Ml. The success of the farmer is 
dtie in a great measure t<j the influence of 
the agritniltural papers; and the admirable 
success of many of our agricultural jour- 
nals is due to the hearty support of the farm- 
er — the success of one is the success of the 
other. Then, brother farmer and Jlr. Edi- 
tor, let us each continue to lab<u- for the 
benefit of the other, and all will be crown- 
ed with success. — Western Rural. 



AGRICULTURAL EXCITEMENTS. 

The lessons of the pa.st are not well re- 
membered. Every few daj-s some new ex- 
citementis raised about the enormous ijrotits 
that are to be miule by such and such crops, 
or sui'h and such animals. (.)ur older farm- 
ers will rememb(>r the excitement raised 
some thirty years ago or more over the silk 
worm. J^verybody was infected by an in- 
sane desire to raise silk. A little ^ater and 
an equally strong propensity was exhil>ited 
for Shanghai chickens. After this came the 
sheep fever; then the strawberry and grape 
excitement; and now we have the small 
grain and potato sijeculations. lutersi)ers- 
ed with the above we have had side-.shows 
of hops, cranberries, pigs and cattle. Whiles 
these excitements have la-sted, many cred- 
ulous farmers have lieen seduced from their 
routine of mixed crops, and have ventured 
their all upon these new fangled idca,s. 

We are not prepared to condemn these 
flights f)f insanity, although thej' z-eflect 
somewhat upon, our intelligence; but they 
have usually resulted in some good to the 
country, if not to the individuals. We would 
iulvise our farmer friends, however, to hold 
themselves aloof from all such excitements, 
and not allow themselves to be blinded by 
any glittering specialities. Stick to a sys- 
tem of mixed crops, for there litis your on- 
ly sure prospect of making money. If you 
desire to experiment with broom-corn or 
Magie hogs, ho])s or fancy oats, do it in 
such a way as will not destroy all other 
sources of making money for the season. — 
Kansas Farmer. 



A MoDEi, Gakden. — An educated and ex- 
periencetl horticulturist and gardener pro- 
poses to establish near this city [San Fran- 
cisco] a model garden, where exotic fruits 
will be gi-own and su])lied at all sea.sons of 
the year, and vegetables ditto. He intends 
also to go into the nursery business on an 
extensive sttale. The gentleman comes with 
the most flattering endorsements from prom- 
inent men in the East, where he has inan- 
guratetl similar enterprises. He certainly 
has the mo.st beautiful climate in the world 
in which to operate, and it is hoped that 
his i)lans may be matiued and i)ut in oper- 
ation at once. — Alta. 



The New Cattle Disease, which has re- 
cently appeareil in Massachusetts, appears 
to be making rai)id progress, and its mys- 
terious steps and destructive chariu'ter have 
caused so m\ich alarm among the stock 
farmers of that state, that its consideration 
will bo one of the fitst matters which will 
be brought uj) for consideration at the 
forthcoming session of the Legislature. 



January 21, 1871.] 



-^^ 



37 



Sl|iEp Hilsi^NJD^y. 

Wool gmwing being one of the leading 
industries of the State, the following im- 
portant facts and hints with regard to it 
will be read with interest. We copy from 
the Wool Circular of McLennan, Whelan 
& Grisar, Wool Graders and Packers, of 
this city ; 

Conditions of the Wool Interest i 

California. — Our wool this sj^rJug has 
redeemed its good character, showing im- 
proved blood, tending towards longer and 
sounder staple, and compares favorably 
wi^h the clip of 1808. It has come into 
more general use with our Eastern manu- 
facturers, and has commanded the favor of 
all those who have used it. 

OiiEGON. — Its condition is not as good as 
in former years, nor is the staple as uni- 
form. Some lots were of tender stajile and 
of poor texture. 

Years ago Oregon wool was character- 
ized by freedom fi'om burrs, seed and tags; 
it Was lustrous and well adapted for comb- 
ing purposes. Since then, through some 
mistake in breeding, the nature of Oregon 
Wool has com2)letely changed, and to-day 
it is not as good as our choice California. 
Hints About Breeding. 

Since wool-growing has become an ob- 
ject of So much impoi"tauce in California, 
it must naturally be of interest to the wool 
growers to ascertain what description of 
wool can be i^roduced to the best advan- 
tage 2)ermanently, or, in other words, wliat 
class of sheej) will become acclimatized 
here, so as eventually to form a natural 
standard for this climate. 

California Wools at present class as 31e- 
diiiin Wools, and even tlie choicest clips do 
not come up to the standard of Fine Wools, 
as compared with some other wools ; but, 
as medium, they are fast growing in favor 
with the manufacturers. This, togetlier 
with the fact that the wool of flocks not too 
high-l)red always are cleaner, sounder in 
staple, and more healthy than hner wools 
raised here, would seem to point out dis- 
tinctly that California must look to a Me- 
dium Wool as her standard of production. 

Most of the flocks at i^resent in this 
country would doubtless be much im- 
proved by the infusion of a little blood of 
long-wooled sheep. The introduction of 
the Cotswold and Leicester breeds of sheep 
into this State has 2:)roved a success in most 
instances. Undoubtedly, the length of 
staple and adaptability of the fleece thus 
raised has rendered Califorhia wools desira- 
ble for many purposes for which they hei-e- 
tofore were not suitalde. With the increas- 
ing demand for long wool, together with 
the well established fact that other coun- 
tries can grow short fine wools cheaper 
than California, it would certainly seem to 
be the most profitable course for sheep 
farmers here to 2:>roduce long, sound wool. 
A Suggestion. 

We consider it advisable to aj^peal to the 
good sense of our farmers to add a few 
head of sheep to their general farming 
stock, as is done in Canada. These sheejj 
will be a benefit to their farm in eating the 
grass which other stock do not consume, 
and giving the best manure in return. 
These small herds can be better cared for 
than large ones, they are more easily kept 
clean and their wool will alwa> s fetch a 
higher jn-ice than others. 

KECEIPTS OF WOOL FOIl 1870. 

From CaUfornia, (pounds) 21,072,660 

Oregon, " 1,703,970 

On baud .Jan. iBt 1870 800,000 

23,576,630 
Of the above amount there was: 

Exported 19,237,871 

Bought by S:in Francisco Factories 3,000,000 

" by other Factories 750,000 

Physiological Facts in Sheep-Eaising. 
— It is a constant physiological result that 
with a given race, the less skeleton is de- 
veloped, the longer becomes the staple of 
tlio fleece. Such, then, arf the new char- 
acters deducted one from the other ; a more 
cylindrical structure; a diminution in the 
volume of the bone; tlie disappearance of 
the folds of the skin ; a suj^pression of the 
horn; a very notable contraction of the 
head and of the deformities which dishon- 
ored it; a descent of the wool upon the 
parts of the body where it had neither 
quality nor value; the choice pieces, the 
sides (cotclettes) and legs, become more 
marked and acquii-e more weight; tlie wool 
of medium qualities becomes more abund- 
ant, and is at tlie same time soft and long; 
the growth of the animal is more rapid; 
the fattcning-is more easy; the return of 
flesh greater, and the quality more a2)2)ro- 
ciable. 



T^EE ClJLXtl^E. 



THE MULBERRY FOR SHADE TREES. 

"Amiter" in the Sacramento Union of Jan- 
uary 7th gives some very good advice in re- 
gard to 23l£tiiting shade trees, and recom- 
mends the mulberry as one of the best va- 
rieties for that 2)Ui'23ose, Those who have 
witnessed the beautiful white mulbeii-y 
trees lining the streets of Philadel2Jliia, 
will heartily endorse the views ex2)ressed 
in the following' extract : — 

In this country everybody who has a 
house and lot in town or city, or residence 
or farm in the country, should 2Jlant shade 
trees. It is the cliea2)est and most rational 
way to ornament the homestead and ren- 
der the s2)ot Selected as the home of the 
family inviting, attractive and beautiful. 
Of course we would not forget the fruit. 
We like to see every a232^i'02>riate \Aaxie in a 
town lot filled with some choice fruit tree, 
and we would have an orchard containing 
all the valuable varieties of fruit on every 
farm in the country. But tliere are always 
2)laces about every town lot or farm where 
shadle trees are more appro2iriate than fruit. 
Wlien the front yard of a town or city resi- 
dence is sufiiciently large, an intermingling 
of fruit trees, shade trees and shrubbery is 
always 2Jleasing to the eye and agreeable to 
the senses. It is suggestive — combining, 
as it does, the useful Avith the ornamental. 
The children of every family should be in- 
duced to become interested in the cultiva- 
tion and growth of trees. They will learn 
from them useful lessons of cai-e and in- 
dustry, of thrift and 2>i'os2)erity. Trees 
2)lanted by us live and grow when we 
slee2). They perpetuate our memory when 
we are dead. 

There is nothing more indicative of the 
good taste and general enterprise and 2>ros- 
2)erity of the citizens of a town than to see 
the sidewalks well lined with a2ii)ropriate 
and graceful shade trees. There is noth- 
ing contributes more to the beauty and at- 
tractiveness of the landscape in the coun- 
try, than well-selected and thrifty shade 
trees about the farm buildings, along the 
2jublic streets, private roads and division 
fences. 

Not only do trees add to the beauty but 
to the real value of 23i'02>erty U2)on which 
they are 2ilanted. Unlike other im2)rove- 
ments which decrease in value by the la2)se 
of time, trees .are constantly increasing in 
value to the land u2Jon which they grow. 

The favorable influence of trees u2)on the 
soil and climate, es23ecially in this State, 
might also be urged in their favor, and we 
might S2)eak of the 2Jros2)ective scarcity of 
wood and timber as an inducement to 2Jlant 
shade trees, but these arguments a2)23ly 
with greater force in connection with the 
subject of artificial forest culture. Now, as 
to the kind of trees to be selected for shade. 
The Cottonwood has been extensively used 
in this State because in early days it was 
most easily obtained, and being a ra25id 
grower, it has 23roved a good substitute 
for more valuable and a2)25ro2)riate varie- 
ties. 

It is objectionable in towns es2)ecially 
for want of grace in form and a habit of 
growing too large. It is also adirtyti-ee; 
in the early summer its cotton falling, fills 
every nook and corner about the 25lace with 
its disagreeable 2n-esence, and in the fall it 
sheds a sticky and gummy substance U2ion 
everything within its reach. The Lom- 
bardy poplar has been introduced quite ex- 
tensively of late. It also has ra2Jid growth 
in its favor, but this is about its only rec- 
ommendation. It is majestic and stately, 
and would be very a232^i"o23riate as a land- 
mark on some distant corner of the farm or 
in connection with the wee2)ing willow to 
mark the living S2)ring or watering Y>la,ce 
for cattle on an extensive stock range. But 
as a shade tree in a town or city or about a 
country residence, it is entirely out of 
2)lace. It is about as gi'aceful and aflbrds 
about the same amount of shade as a stee- 
2ile on a school-house. In the Atlantic 
States, where these trees once had their 
day, the better taste of the peo2)le has 
doomed them to destruction, and they will 
soon disa252Jear among us. A few ever- 
greens are always 2)leasing and a2ipropri- 
ate, but too many are offensive to good 
taste. The locust is a beautiful tree and a 
fine grower, but of short life. 

Its habit of throwing np s23routs from 
the roots wliere the soil about it is dis- 
turbed or its branches 2)runed closely, ren- 
ders it objectionable for 23lanting in or 
near tlie garden or along the borders of 
cultivated fields. The elm makes a beauti- 
ful and graceful shade tree, though it is a 
slow grower. The white mulberry and tlie 
variety known as the moj-etti are highly 



recommended as symmetrical and ra2)id 
growers, and clean and beautiful shade 
trees. They are in a232^earance something 
like the elm, their foliage being somewliat 
of a dee2Jer green and more luxuriant, and 
the form of the tree more spreading and 
com2)act. Sam25les of these trees may be 
seen on the line of the sidewalk in front of 
the residence of Judge Crocker in this city, 
also at the old city gardens on L street. 
They are certainly among the most beauti- 
ful trees in the city, and this quality alone 
recommends them for general trial. It is 
said that their roots 2ienetrate dee2i into the 
soil and never throw iip s2)routs, however 
much the surface may be cultivated about 
them. 

Another feature in their favor is their 
fruit, which would afford food for birds 
and prevent the destruction of clierries and 
other more useful kinds. Again, their 
leaves can be rendered valuable as a food 
for the silk worm, thus sup2wrting and 
bringing into general use a valuable and 
2irofitabIe industiy. Among the varieties 
of trees available for shade in this country, 
I believe the mulberry will in time be 
found in the first rank. 



Dummy Engines fob San Jose. — We 
believe it is generally known that the 
Santa Clara and San Jose Railroad Co. have 
ordered from the East one or more dummy 
engines. A recent number of the Detroit 
Inventor says of this engine: — "We exam- 
ined the dummy engine invented and con- 
structed for the San Jose and Santa Clara 
Railroad, and find them to be perfect mod- 
els of com23actnes8, i)ower and simplicity. 
They are said, 1)y the makers, to be almost 
noiseless in their 02ieration, thus over- 
coming the 2>rejndice which has long exist- 
ed against the use of engines on street rail- 
roads." 



Parasites in Wild Game. — The Contra 
Costa Gazelle says that the 2)arasites found 
in the wild duck, alluded to in our last 
issue, seem to corres2)ond with those found 
in the hog — several instances of which 
have recentty been observed in swine kill- 
ed about Pacheco. 



Egg Supply Cut Off. — The English are 
lamenting over a recent edict of the Tours 
Government prohibiting the further ex- 
2iortation of eggs and butter from France. 
Johnny Bull's breakfast tables are suffer- 



Eng, one of the Siamese twins who has 
recently been seriously affected by 2Jalsy, 
is said to be failing ra2ndly. Chong is not 
affected physically, thus far, by the illness 
of his brother. 



Agricultural Reports. — We are under 
obligation to Hon. A. A. Sargent, our able 
and industrious Congressman, for late 
copies of the U. S. Agricultural Ee2Jorts. 

Newspaper Mortality. — Fifty-nine 
news2ia2)ers in the towns and cities of the 
Pacific coast have jjerished during the 
23ast 2Jear. 

The names of the new oflicers for the S. 
C. V. Ag. Society will be found in our list 
of Societies. 

Leaded. — From thirty to forty -men are 
now lying on the broad of their backs sick, 
owing to being leaded, caused by working 
in the mines of this district. The 23eculiar- 
ity of the mines here are that men on an 
average cannot work over twenty days in 
any mine or mill in this district without 
suffering from an attack of leading. 
Whether this is caused by foul air or like 
cause we have not ascertained for a certain- 
ty, but judge thatit isowingtothe 2Jeculiar 
kind of rock or ore which they work. Mi- 
ners will have to use tlie utmostcarein kee2)- 
ing regular in their habits of all kinds, and 
when an attack starts in, let them start in 
with the doctor's advice immediately. By 
observing the necessary caution they will 
save themselves many a day of suffering. — 
Pioche Record. 



Streets Paved with Silver. — The Gold 
Hill NeiL-s of Jan. 14th, says: A careful 
assay made a few days ago of the dirt on 
Main street. Gold Hill, to the depth of 
four feet, showed a yield of silver of $028, 
with a trace of gold. Talkaboutthestreets 
of Jcrusahmi being 2>aved with gold! 
Here in Gold Hill our main street is 2>aved 
with silver or, as the Chinamen used to 
say in California, "two pan, one color." 



PACIFIC COAST INDUST' 

The record of exports from i . ,ity 
shows, most unmistakably, that the general 
industry of the Pacific Coast is in a pros- 
25erous condition. The sum total of the 
25roducts of our industry, aside from the 
23recious metals, is considerably in excess 
of $20,000,000. That of this State alone 
reaches very near or quite to that amount. 

Our exports of wheat for the year 1870, 
were within a small fraction of $8,000,000 
in value. Though something less than last 
year, the larger surplus holding over, and 
the advanced 23i'ice which it commands, 
will bring it fully up to last year's figure. 
Had the season been favorable there would 
have been quite a large excess. 

Our wool 2>roduct makes a still better 
proportional exhibit. The yield has in- 
creased from 897,0.38 pounds in 18(56, to 
3,655,000 pounds for 1870. This is surely 
most satisfactory 25rogress. Some im23or- 
tant facts and suggestions, with regard to 
this great industry, will be found in 
another column of our present issue. 

Our leather interest presents an almost 
equally satisfactory exhibit. Although its 
increase may not be so ra2nd, its progress 
is healthy and highly creditable to the 
State. California leather takes the highest 
rank in the Eastern States, commands the 
highest 23rice in the market, and has always 
a ready sale. One manufacturing house 
ex2Jorted 100 tons of leather during six 
months, only, of the 2)ast year. 

The general manufacturing industry of 
the State is steadily 25rogressing in im2>or- 
tance and value. 

The Pacific Rolling Mill of this city has 
added the rolling of railroad iron to its 
other operations, and has taken a contract 
to furnish a large 2)ortion of the iron for a 
25-mile section of the Northern Pacific 
Railroad. 

The San Francisco Smelting Works, 
owned by our worthy Mayor, T. H. Selby, 
in com2:)any with an Eastern 2^arty, is 
doing a very large and 2)rofitable business; 
is working U23 the •'mrtte" from our "base 
metal mines." Large quantities of bar lead, 
lead 23ipe and shot, not required for con- 
sum25tion here, is being shi2)2Jed East. 

Our woolen manufactures are also doing 
a thriving business and answering large or- 
ders from the East. 

More than half of all the boots and shoes 
worn on this coast are now made here; 
while five years ago more than four-fifths of 
our supply was obtained from the East. 
Many minor manufacturing interests — large 
in the aggregate — have also become well 
establi-shcd among us, and others are being 
constantly introduced. Mr. Strong, an ex- 
23erienced cotton 2'lanter from the South, is 
making 2'i"('paration to enter largely into 
he culture of cotton in this state, where he 
believes the middling grades of that textile 
can be grown more advantageously than in 
the so-called cotton states. If his experi- 
ment succeeds a new industry of magnifi- 
cent 2>i'02'ortions will be 023ened n]} to the 
state. 

The culture and manufacture of silk is 
becoming more |and more promising, and 
there is every reason to believe that we 
shall soon be producing silk in considerable 
quantity, from California cocoons. Ar- 
rangements are now in progress which will 
result in the introduction here of a few 
skilled O2)erativos from abroad, through 
whose instructions our own peo2ile Avill 
soon be able to utilize the thousands of 
mulberry trees, now coming to maturity in 
various 2iortions of the State. 

We have already in the market, sugar, 
the product of our own soil and manufac- 
ture, which will compare favorably Avith 
any imported article; and it is safe to say, 
that this enterprise, so suddenly and so 
practically initiated, will very soon take a 
stand as one of the leading and most im- 
2)ortant industries of the State. 

We may truly say that the year 1871 
dawns u2)on us under circumstances most 
encouraging for our future prosperity. 



38 



•^^T^Si^KiiigMi^^^^ 



[January 21, 1871. 



fGRICULTURALyNDUSTRY 
Successful Cultivation of the Desert- 

The experiments which are now being 
made under the direction or encourage- 
ment of the Kansas Pacific and Union Pa- 
cific Railways in the cultivation of the 
great unwatered plains near the eastern 
base of the Rocky Mountains, are most en- 
couraging, and lead to confident auticij)a- 
tions of eomplcte ultimate success. These 
exi)eviments have been undertaken, by the 
roads mentioned, to prove the practicability 
of the cultivation of those lands, and there- 
by give them a market -value from Avhich 
^loth the roads and the ])eople at large will 
profit. The few isolated experiments thus 
undertaken will encourage the settlement 
of other sections, similarly situated, until 
the entire stretch of country across the 
"Plains," bordering upon the 
railroad lines, will be brought un- 
der cultivation and made tributary 
to said roads. 

Success in those localities will 
lead to similar experiments on 
this side of the Rocky Mountains, 
until, in all ])robability, millions of 
acres in California, Nevada, Utah, 
and Arizona, now considered worth 
less for cultivation, will be made 
to I'ontribute to the sustenance of 
our rapidly-growing interior poj)- 
ulation, and to the general com- 
merce of tlie country. 

Mr. R. S. Elliott, " Industrial 
Agent" of the Kansas Pacific Rail- 
road Co., has recently submitted 
a repoi-t of what he has done in 
this direction, from which we con- 
dense as follows: Mr. C. seems 
to have selected three different 
locations on the line of the road 
— viz: Wilson Station, 2'^ miles 
west of the IMissonri Slate line, 
nd 1,.58G fe(!t above tide Avater; 
Ellis Station, 6C miles still further 
west, 2,019 feet abovethe sea; and 
Pond Creek, 82 miles still fur- 
ther west, and at an elevation of 
3,175feet. 

Only a few acres of ground were 
broken up at each ])lace, merely 
Buflicieut for experimental purposes. Ow- 
ing to the lateness of the season, th.e work 
was not don(! as thoroughly as it should 
have been; yet the prospects thus far arc 
most encouraging, and given as follows: 

The first planting was done at Pond 
Creek, on the 26th of September, 1870, 
■when four acres of wheat, three of rye and 
two of barley were sown — timothy being 
sown on the wheat. On the IJtth of Octo- 
ber (three weeks from soM-ing) the grain 
was up and doing well, and still doing well 
on the 14th of November. This experi- 
ment is being made without irrigation, in 
the very midst of the "dry jilains," and in 
a soil the least i>romising on the entire line 
of the roa<l — and 240 miles west of what has 
hitherto been considered the limit of arable 
effort, depending upon natural rain fall. A 
second trial upon a thoroughly rotted sod 
must be far more favorable. 

At Ellis, on the 20th of October, three 
acres of wheat, three of rye, one of barley 
■were sown; on the 22d and 24th more wheat 
and rye; also varions grass seed— Italian 
rye grass, Lucerne, Alseike clover, Sacin- 
foin, vetches, etc., were sown. Three 
■weeks from sowing the grain was uj), and 
seen from the car windows as the trains 
passed; and the Lucerne was forming its 
third leaf. This experiment is also with- 
out irrigation. The fullest success is an- 
ticipated; and such a result, it is claimed, 
will establish the practicability of diversi- 
fied agriculture throughout the entire 
region. 

At Wtlson, two acres of wheat, two of 
rye, one of barley, and one, each, of timo- 
thy and Lucerne, were sown; also nuts and 



seeds of trees— burr oak, iieciin, chestnut, 
])each and ailanthus were planted — all on 
the 11th and 12th of November. Nineteen 
days afterwards the grain was u}} and prom- 
ising well, notwithstanding the late sow- 
ing. Winter wheat was sown in each ease. 

Mr. Elliott concludes his report with the 
expression of his belief that forests can 
also be established in nearly all parts of 
the plains — even without artificial irri- 
gation, if deep plowing and thorough cul- 
tivation ai'e adojrted, and rapid growing 
trees selected for the first planting. Seed- 
ling trees at Bunker Hill Station, 252 miles 
from State Lino, and 1,800 feet above the 
sea, and transplanted trees at Kit Carson, 
attest the practicability of tree belts, as 
snow shields, at the cuts along the track. 

Wherever irrigation can be made practica- 
ble, in com))aratively rainless countries, no 
doubt much better results may be obtained 
than c;iii be realized from natural moisture. 



sitiod fruits of the soil. We look upon the 
experiments now being made in this di- 
rection as of the highest imiiortance and 
most fruitful in promise. 

CORN SHELLER. 

Our readers will remember that we 
showed them a device last week, which 
rendered the husking of corn a light task. 
We now take another step, and show them 
an invention which renders the slielluig 
easy. The lai-ge engraving shows the pro- 
gressive farmer, who, — instead of banish- 
ing himself to his cold barn to shell the 
necessary turn of corn, (for which work he 
has had no time during the day) , and wear- 
ing the skin off his hands, in the old way, 
— has adopted the neAV device, and now 
shells bj- his own fireside, amid pleasant 
com pany. 

The small cut shows more plainly the 
construction of the device to whicli wo re- 




O'HARA'3 PATENT POCKET 
Along the line of the Union Pacific Rail- 
road that company has under consideration 
plans for an extensive system of irrigation. 
In Arizona, works for irrigation have been 
set on foot under the direction of a Federal 
oilicer, for which an appropriation of 
$1.50,000 has been niiule by Congress. In 
Utah there are'ftlready 130,000 acres under a 
judicious system of artificial irrigation, 
which are now producing anniial crops 
valued at $4,.500,0(M1. Ii-rigation is doing 
much for Colorado. A late number of 
the Denver News publishes some highly 
interesting facts, showing the trifling cost 
of irrigation compared with the favorable 
results' obtained, in that Territory. 

Every intelligent person is or ought to 
be aware of what has been done in India 
and China by artificial irrigation; and not- 
withstjinding the advantages of cheap labor 
there, a similar plan and scale of iiTigation 
on the comparatively rainless portions of 
this continent would do equally as much 
for us. We may not be able to convert our 
deserts into gardens of paradise; but we 
can cause flowers and fruits and grains and 
grasses and trees to grow, wherever water 
can be made to flow over our arid lands, 
and thus support large populations, where 
now all is desolation and waste. What 
irrigation has done for India, it may be 
made to do, at least to a reasonable extent, 
for us on this Pacific Slope. 

Thousands of acres along the valley of 
the Humboldt, and in numeroiis other s(>c- 
tious of what has generally been consid- 
ered the desert land of the "Great Interior 



GIANT OOKN 8HELLEE. 

fer (which is known as O'Hara's Pocket 
Giant Corn Sheller), and the manner of 
holding it. It certainly commends itself 
to the favorable consideration of the prac- 
tical farmer, who has to do his own work. 
It is small, light and cheaj), is very dura- 
ble, and enables one to work very rapidly. 
As evidence of this last, w^e have the testi- 
monial of a farmer, of Ottowa, Ohio, who 
shelled 22 bushels of corn m four hours 
with it on the first trial. Many others 
might be given. It can be used in shelling 
for meal or seed with esjjecial advantage, 
for any part of the ear can be shelled into 
one measure, and the rest into another, 
and thus the farmer can at once sort the 
grains, selecting the larger ones for seed, 
etc., etc. 

Althoiigh only about a year has elapsed 
since the slieller first appeared, it has be- 
come very extensively 
used, 50,000 having 
been sold in this short 
time. We have been 
presented with one, 
andare inclined 
to consider it a very 
valuable little affair, 
which it is c;'onomy 
is clieaj), costing but 
4i;l.,50 — a sum which it will i)robably save 
to the purchaser in a short time. It 
does not scatter, and will shell the largest 
Indian corn and the smallest poj) corn. 

Any ])erson desiring further information 

mav obtain it by addressing Chas. M. 

O'Hara, 114 W. Fourth street, Cincinnati, 

or by ajiplying to Wiester & Co., 17 



California Agricultural Notes. 

LrvE Stock in Calikoknia. — The num- 
ber of live stock in California, according 
to the Surveyor General's Report, (Marin, 
Plumas, Tuolumncand Shasta not included) 
is as follows: Neat cattle, 787,771; oxen, 
11,345; beef cattle, 300,367; calves, 168,- 
614; cows, 247,003; asses, 1,866; mules, 
26,284; horses, 241,146; sheep, 2,975,753. 

Hogs Poisoned. — The Snelling Argun of 
January 7th chronicles an accident which 
has many a precedent: "We understand 
from a gentleman living in the neighbor- 
hood of Plainsburg, that our friend, A. 
Harrel, present Chairman of oixr County 
Board of Supervisors, had the misfortune 
to lose about fifty fat hogs by i)oison last 
week. The poison was phosphorus, ^)ut 
out in adjoining fields to destoy squirrels, 
gophers and other vermin." 

The Cactus Fence is an institution i)e- 
culiar to ISIexico, The variety of the plant 
used fr>r this ])urpose is called the orgando. 
It is eight-sided, and shoots up straight as 
an arrow, from ten to twenty feet in height 
and five to eight inches in thickness. The 
fence-builders cut their cactus in sections 
of the right length, stick the cut into a 
trench, cover the earth around it to the 
iloi)th of a foot, and the fence is made. 
The i)ieces are set as closely together as 
possible, and as they take root and grow 
for centuries, the fence improves with age, 
instead of going to decay like many other 
fences. 

Castob Beans in Los Angeles County. 
— The Los Ange'es Nf.us i-ays that the rais- 
ing of castor Ix'ans is attracting some- 
thing of attention hereabouts. Several 
farmers, who last season cultivated a few 
acres, have met with results that have been 
eminently satisfactory. In this section 
the crop must undoubtedly jirove a jn'ofi- 
table one. The plant will thrive ujiou 
soils that are too dry for many other prod- 
ucts, and th(^ cost of i-ultivation is said to 
be loss than for the same uum1)er of acres 
in corn. A ready market, at remunerative 
rates, is alw.iys oi)cn. 

Lahoe Flock or Tukkeys. — A man in 
the lower jiart of PL-u'cr has ha<l a flock of 
turkeys numbering fifteen thousand, and 
has employed five men in herding tliem. 

Merino Sheep. — A drove of 98 S|)anish 
Merino sheep, selected from the b(>st flocks 
in Yormont. were shi])ped to California 
overland a few days since. 

Cattle are i)erishing in Douglas coun- 
ty, Oregon, for want of feed. 

Tall Growth.— Lombardypojdars, says 
the San Jose Mfrcun/, grown from the 
sli]), in this valley, the past season, have 
attain(>d the height of fifteen feet. 

New Crop of Oranoes. — By the last 
steamer from Los Angeles, about 55,00<J 
oranges and lemons, of the new crop, were 
received. The quality is, a« usual, better 
than that of any others brought to this 
market, though not as good as they will be 
a few weeks hence. 

Sheep from Los Angeles. — The steam- 
er William Tabor brotight up 1,000 sheep 
from Los Angeles, one day last week. 

To prevent balls of snow on horses feet, 
let the hoof and fetlock be vn'W cleaned, 
and then rub with soft soaj) i)revious to 
their going out in snowy weather. 




.Ohio, -,_.,, 
Basin," may, by proper culture and care, | j;(<.^ Montgomery street (Grand Hotel), 
be made to yield bounteously of the diver- 1 San Francisco. 



Eastern Agricultural Notes. 

Castor Beans — Remarkable Growth. 
—The editor of Howe's Mouthltf, St. Louis, 
Mo., has raised the past season a ca-stor 
bean plant which was 12?^ inches in cir- 
cumference at tlie giound, and 15 feet 3 
inches high, and the aggregate length of 
the branches was 90 feet 8 inches ; so that 
the whole longitudinal growth of the main 
stem and branches was 105 feet 10 inches. 
The branches were evenly distributed along 
the length of the stem, giving the tree 
(for such it may be called) a very symmet- 
rical form. 

Apples. — Soventy-five bushels of apjiles, 
of fair quality, were recently sold by auc- 
tion in Grafton, Vermont, for one cent a 
bushel. 

An acre of land near Newjjort, Rhode 
Island, lately sold for .«5,;i93.40. 

The Rhine Vintage.— The vintage of 
the Rhine for 1870 is a failure. German 
superstition avers that every year written 
with a c_vi)her at the end is a fatal one for 
the vintage. The wine in 1860 was anath- 
ematized under the epithet of "Garibald," 
and that of 1870 will doubtless be cursed 
in the name of "Napoleon." 

A man in Maine has a cow that in a 
twelve-month made as many pounds of 
butter as there are days in a year, besides 
fattening a calf to 110 pounds. 



January 21, 1871.] 



^-^m 



39 



w 



POPULAR 



|?ECTURES. 



Varporization and the Elastic Force of 
Steam. 

[Prof. John LeConte before the Mechanic Akts Col- 
LEOE, Mechanics' Institute Hall, S. ¥. Eeijorted 
expressly for the Pkess.] 

Physical Science. 

Lect. I., Jan. 14th. In commencing this 
series of lectures, the Professor made some in- 
troductory remarks with reference to the branch 
of knowledge to which the lectures relate. 
Physical science, he said, treats of the jihenom- 
ena of matter, of the external world, in dis- 
tinction from the phenomena of the internal 
consciousness. Attention should be paid to the 
meaning of the term "law" in physics. The 
word was originally borrowed from civil and 
moral life, and then applied to physical facts . 
In morals, we understand laws to be rules laid 
down for the government of rational beings, 
and in accordance with which we ought to act. 
But natural laws are the rules, not according to 
which nature ougld to act, but according to 
which she does act. If we find deviations from 
a supposed rule, this is proof that it is not a 
natural law. In this sense, it is absurd to speak 
of violations of the law of nature. The mixing 
of these two meanings of the term has given 
rise to much sophistical writing. 

Physical Science is a science founded on ob- 
servation and experiment. By observation we 
mean the careful scrutiny of what is going on 
in nature; by experiment, the artificial repro- 
duction of these facts. The latter aids very ma- 
terially the former, so much so that a science 
where experiments are possible, advances much 
faster than one where this is not the case. On 
this account, meteorology progresses very 
slowly. Climatic changes are so connected in 
all parts of the world, that we cannot expect 
very great advance here until all portions of the 
earth communicate by the telegraph, so that we 
can know of the meteorological conditions 
everywhere. Again, astronomy made but slow 
progress until it became a branch of mathemat- 
ics, when it advanced more in 50 years than it 
had done previously in 2,000. The reason is 
obvious. When the phenomena are complex, 
we can divide them up into their factors by ex- 
periments, and study out the causes one by one. 
The sources of errors in experiments may be 
classified under four heads. 1st. Those arising 
from the imperfections of our senses, which 
often tend to mislead; 2d. Those from the im- 
perfections of our apparatus. These two classes 
of errors can be avoided in great measure by 
l^roper care and study. 3d. Those caused by our 
temperaments. Thus, in astronomical observa- 
tions, it has often been noticed and acknowl- 
edged that a person of sanguine temperament is 
apt to anticipate, and one of lymphatic temper- 
ament to delay, the moment when, forinstance, 
a star crosses the hues of the telescoise. 4th. 
From a want of conscientiousness, a tendency to 
see things as we want them. In the jDresent 
state of physical science, hardly any one would 
designedly state that he saw things which he 
did not see, yet the views of many ai-e modified 
by their pre-existing ideas, by partiality, com- 
bativeness or bad temper. 

Although observation and experiment sujjply 
facts, yet they do not make science, for science 
is not a mere collection of bare facts, but facts 
classified and reduced to order. 

Physical science is necessarily connected with 
the science of numbers ; all physical facts are 
capable of measurement. Hence this scienoe 
demands a knowledge of at least the elements of 
mathematics. But for this reason, — as the hu- 
man mind is not satisfied -with the mere knowl- 
edge Unit, or lolmt, a thing is, but desires to 
know Iwio much it is, — physical examinations 
caiTy much satisfaction with them. 

Physical science does not investigate the 
essence of things, does not tell what heat or 
gravity or electricity is (the function of meta- 
physics), but what heat or gravity or electricity 
does. 

Boiling— evaporation. 
The lecturer, after these introductory re- 
marks, proceeded to speak of the immediate 
subject of the evening. All are familiar with 
the fact, he said, that, in applying heat to water, 
alcohol, ether or like bodies, vapor is generated, 
with a distinct elastic force, in the body of the 
liquid, which vapor rises and causes that move- 
ment in the liquid which is called boiling. All 
know, moreover , that such liquids will generate 



vapor, without boiUng, on their surface, which 
action we call evaporation. In most liquids 
this wiU occur at all temperatures. It has often 
been observed that snow disappears from high 
places even at 20 or 30 degrees below zero, and 
laundresses know that the wet linen will get 
dry although it may be so cold that the water is 
frozen on them. Now boiling takes place at 
certain fixed temperatures, as at 212 degrees, 
Fah., for water, or at 176 degrees for alcohol, 
while evaporation occurs, as before said, at all 
temperatures. The term vaporization, as used 
in these lectures, will include both boiling and 
evaporation. 

The first point to be now considered is, — 
whether there is any limit to vaporization; 
whether we can make a liquid so cold that it 
will not give off vapor. Dalton and Sir Hum- 
phrey Davy adopted the idea that every body, 
even metals, give out vapor. Biot applied this 
idea in his theory of meteorites, supposing that 
through electrical agency the vapors of metals 
were collected and condensed, and the meteoric 
stones were thus formed. But Blot's theory 
has been proved entirely false. 

Experiments about Evaporation. 
The vapor theorj' alluded to has also been 
disproved. Bellini suspended, from the cork, a 
strip of bright polished zinc in a bottle over a 
little sulphuric acid. If the sulphuric acid 
always gave out vapors, these would of course 
attack and oxidize the surface of the zinc. But 
Bellini found that by proper care he could keep 
the zinc bright a long time; he did so for two 
years. Faraday made a similar experiment, 
suspending gold leaf in a bottle over mercury. 
At a temperature of 80 or 90 degrees, Fah., 
vapors given off amalgamated the gold, but by 
reducing the temperature, the amount amal- 
gamated was reduced, and at 60 degrees no 
amalgamation took place, therefore no vapors 
were given off by the mercury. Many other 
experiments made in a similar way with other 
substances showed the same apparent results — 
that by reducing the temperature sufficiently, no 
vajiors were given out by bodies which vapor- 
ized at higher temperatures. 

In 1854, Brame attempted to re-investigate 
the whole subject. He suggested that the above 
experiments did not disprove the existence of 
vapors, as perhaps these might still exist (at 
the low temperatures given) but in a state of 
such tenuity that they could not attack the 
bodies experimented with. So he took much 
more sensitive substances, and repeated the ex- 
periments, using, as a very delicate test, iodine 
and chlorine. Although his results did not 
always agree vrith the exact limits of tempera- 
ture before obtained, yet they tended to the 
same general result^that at sufficiently low 
temperatures no trace of vaporization could be 
found. He noticed one interesting fact in his 
studies — that at a certain low temperature the 
vapor rose, say, an inch above the body experi- 
mented with, and above this height no vapor 
could be discovered. 

Most liquids evaporate, we said before, at all 
temperatures which we can obtain. But as we 
reduce the temperature, the amout of vapor 
given oti' decreases, and analogy (although 
analogy must be very carefully employed) 
would lead us to beUeve that none would be 
generated, if we could get a sufficient degree of 
cold. Thus, by vising mathematical formula, 
we can calculate that water will not evaporate 
at 344 degrees below zero ; but the lowest tem- 
perature we have ever obtained is 228 degrees 
below zero. 

Cause of Evaporation. 
Two wrong ideas of the cause of evaporation 
have been held. One was that this was caused 
by the water being dissolved in the superin- 
cumbent air. This idea, first suggested by 
Hamburger, in 1750, was adopted by eminent 
men, Halley, Le Roy, Dr. FrankUn, Dr. Ham- 
ilton, of Dublin, and others, and by it many 
phenomena can be explained apparently. Thus, 
the wind blowing, evaporation goes on faster, 
for fresh air is constantly being brought in con- 
tact with the water. Heat increases evapora- 
tion, for hot air would dissolve more water, 
etc. The second idea was, that the superin- 
cumbent air absorbs moisture from the water 
like a sponge, and this too would appear to ex- 
plain many facts. 

But after a while, a blow was given to these 
ideas by the discovery that evaporation will go 
on icithout air. The true theory of evaporation 
was published in 1"02, by John Dalton, of Eng- 
land, and his experiments to prove it can be 
here repeated. 

Simple Experiment. 
We have here a number of long glass tubes, 
closed at one end. One of these tubes we fill 
completely with mercury, invert, closing the 
open end tightly with the finger that the mer- 
cury cannot run out nor air enter, and insert 
the end closed -with the finger in a bath of 
quicksilver. Now, on withdrawing the finger, 
the mercury falls a little distance, until the 
pressure of the column of quicksilver in the 
tube balances the pressure of the air on the 
bath. This apparatus is then a barometer, and 
the space over the mercury in the tube is of 
course a vacuum, for no air can be there. If 
we apply heat at this point, the level of the 
mercury will not be changed. In the accom- 
panying cut, this tube is denoted as tube 1. 

Now we take a similar tube, nearly full of 
mercury, and add water until it is quite full. 
Closiug the open end, inverting and placing in 
the bath as before, the water rises to the top, 
but the space above the mercury, instead of 
being smaller (for "water weighs only about one- 
fourteenth as much as quicksilver) is much 
larger, as denoted in the cut by tube 2. Now 
this cannot be caused by the (inferior) weight 



of water. It must be that the water has 
changed, in part at least, to vapor, the elastic 
force of which presses down the mercury. No 
air can be there, and this proves that the 
presence of air is not necessary for vaporiza- 
tion. If we heat the upper part, the mercury 
is forced down still lower, giving additional 
proof of the presence of vapor. 

Repeating this experiment in tube 3 with a 
little alcohol in the place of the water used in 
tjbe 2, the mercury is depressed still lower; 
and in tube 4, with" ether, it rises only a short 
distance in the tube. Now if we should heat 
the spaces in tubes 2, 3 and 4, to the boiling 
points of the liquids used, what would be the 
result? In each case the mercury column 




would be lowered until its top was on a level 
with the mercury in the bath. 

These simple experiments, then, disprove 
whoUj' the two theories just spoken of, for they 
show not only that the presence of air is not 
necessary for vaporization, but that its absence 
- — a vacuum — aids vaporization. 
The True Cause 
of vaporization is the rejiulsive force of heat 
overcoming the feeble attraction of the parti- 
cles of substances. 

These experiments of Dalton's, moreover, 
enable us to measure the elastic force of the 
vapors at different temperatures. If we use a 
graduated tube and place it in a larger tube, 
having the space between the two tilled with a 
liquid heated to different degrees, we can thus 
measure the elastic force up to the boiling 
point. We can also measure the weight of 
each cubic foot of water for different tempera- 
tures. This we can also find for other sub- 
stances. For the weight, we have the propor- 
tion, — the elastic force at 212 degrees (found 
by experiment) is to the elastic force at the 
temperature desired, as the weight of steam is 
to the required weight. In these ways indicat- 
ed, we find the values given in the following 
table for water vapor. 

Temp. Ela.stic Force. Difference. Wt. of cu. ft. of 
Fah. In. Mercury. In.Merouy. vapor in grs. 

30° 0.167 1.969 

40 0.-248 O.OSl 2.862 

50 0.361 0.113 4.089 

60 0.518 0.157 5.7.56 

70 0.7.33 0.215 7.992 

80 1.023 0.290 10.949 

90 1.410 0.387 14.810 

100 1.918 C.508 19.790 



Law of Elastic Force of Vapor. 

Many foiinula have been given for reckoning 
the increase of this elastic force at increased 
temperatures. Dalton suggested an increase by 
geometrical progi-ession, which is perhaps near 
enough for the small ranges, but not for the 
larger ranges, as can be seen by making calcu- 
lations and compai-ing the results with the dif- 
ference* given in the third column of the above 
table. The lectiu-er spoke at considerable 
length on the topic, and showed how di'a\\'ing 
curves on paper to a given scale, and comparing 
those found by experiment with those according 
to any given formula or ratio, would aid in get- 
ting accuracy in this matter. 

The study of vaporization at low tempera- 
tures shows two things : — that all volatile liquids 
vaporize instantaneously when put in a vacuum; 
and that, at the same temperature, the vapors 
of different Uquids have different elastic forces. 
Dalton proposed another law which is pretty 
nearly true : — that different vapors, at tempera- 
tures equally removed from thejboiling points 
of the generating liquids, have nearly the same 
elastic force. 



Wonder what has been her history ince ? 

At this distance of time, I clearly ru- 

ber many pleasant incidents of that trip. 
The luxuriant growth of wild flowers, oats 
and peas; the vivacity aad gallantry with 
which the younger gentlemen vied with 
each other in plucking the first of some new 
specimen of wild flowers, as a present to 
the fair lady accompanying. 

Then the herds and herds of deer, seen 
in the course of that morning ride, and the 
three grizzly bears which our guides brought 
down, within an hour's ride of Mr. McDon- 
ald's, will serve as samples. A spare rib 
from a half-grown bear, and a saddle of 
venison, taken a little farther on, gave 
proof that we should not lack food in the 
wilderness through which we werej)assing. 
We spent the night at theGysers; camjjing 
under a magnificent buckeye on Professor 
Shepard's claim. We hoed his patch of 
corn and rex^aired his fence. 

We were delighted with our trip and 
unanimously resolved to come again next 
year, and stay at least a week on the grounds; 
but I have not been there since. At that 
early day a few pioneers had made experi- 
ments in tilling the soil. Mr. Younts had 
made a beginning; Mr. Hopper had a few 
acres of wheat which gave good promise of 
an abundant yield; Mr. Richie, whose two 
daughters were in our company, and Mr. 
Kellogg, with his thousands of vines, are 
among the names which still linger in mem 
ory. 

What a change has been wrought in 
twenty years ! Now I propose to go through 
this valley again, and make note of the 
prominent industries and to gather facts 
for jjublication in the " Peess." You 
need not head these letters " All about 
Napa," for it may not be best to give you 
all, even if I were able to do it. Neither 
am I quite sure that all of what I may 
write will be so strictly confined to my 
text, as to merit that title. Well, so much 
for a preface and by way of getting my 
hand in again. In my next I shall proceed 
straight to business and give you " Some- 
thing about Napa." J. E. 

A Needle in a Woman's Heaet. — In 
the i50.st mortem examination of Mrs. 
Margaret A. Jones, of New York, who was 
recently killed by her husband, Dr. Beach 
found a needle imbedded in the fleshy 
l^art of her heart. 

Poisoned by Eating Buckwheat Cakes. 
— Fifteen men were poisoned nigh unto 
death, recently, by eating buckwheat cakes 
—the cause, as examination proved, being 
that deadly night-shade berries had been 
unintentionally ground up with the buck- 
wheat. 



NAPA TWENTY YEARS AGO. 

Napa City, Jan. 2d, 1871. 
Editors Press : — Nearly twenty years 
have now passed away since I first vis- 
ited this beautiful valley. In May, 1851, 
in comj^any with some friends, I started 
for a visit to the Gysers. We gathered ad- 
ditions to our number on our route through 
the valley, and the second morning after 
we left McDonald's Ave were fourteen in 
number, all well mounted, — a genial sot of 
ministers, teachers and doctors, with two 
old hunters acting as guides. The sexes 
were equally represented — there being 
seven couples, if the writer is mated with 
the infant Ann McDonald, then in arms. 



Concord Coaches for Africa. — A Con- 
cord, (N. H.) coach-maker is building six 
coaches for use in the diamond region of 
South Africa. 



The Tomato is supposed to be a modern 
fruit, but it is mentioned in a book printed 
in London in 1,600 as having been long 
known. 



Notable Beginnings. — California re- 
cords for 1870 will include three memorable 
industrial events — the shipment of the first 
bale of home-raised silk; the raising of the 
first successful crop of cotton, leading to the 
planting of several large tracts of that sta- 
ple; and the first success in the manufacture 
of beet sugar. — Bulletin. 



Who Owns the Real Estate. — It has 
been estimated that there are nearly six 
million owners of "Real Estate"in the wliole 
Union — and of this number more than 
two-thirch are the Farmers of the Union who 
are the free-holders of the soil of our 
Country. 

A Smart Girl.— The Antioch Ledger 
says, Agnes Lewis, a girl of sixteen sum- 
mers, has plowed over 100 acres of her 
father's ranch near Antioch, driving six 
horses attached to a three-gang plow. 

Martin Train, the champion hunter of 
Siskiyou county, Cal., has killed during 
the in-esent season 67 deer and 9 bears. 



40 



-<>ei^^s 



w^ 



[January 21,1871. 




PUBLISHED BY 
A. T. DKWKT. W B. liWEB. 0. H, hTBONO. J.L.BOONE. 

Pkincipal EmTon W. 15. EWER, A. M 

I. N. HO.i^G, (Sacramento,) Associate Epitok. 

Office, No. 414 CIhv street, where friends and patrons 
lire Invited tn our SriENxiFic Pukss Patent Agency, En- 
graving and Printing establisliment. 

SuuscRtPTioNs payable in advance — For one year $4; 
« months. fi:2!i: three months, S1.25. Clubs of ten 
names or more f3 each per annum. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January 21, 1871. 



OUR WEEKLY CROP. 

A handsomor collection of Fancy Ponltn- 
than that bIiowu by us this week cannot be 
found on our coast, and the improvement of the 
breeds, arising from transportation to our 
Pacific Slope, can only be hinted at now. Our 
library of Progress in Mechanics and Science 
has been increased and enlarged. The letter 
from one Bound East is continued, as are the 
Notes of Travel in San Joaquin County. 

Prof. Carr contributes another very iutcrest- 
iuR article on the Needs of Ap;ricultural Com- 
munities, showing what is being done to fur- 
ther farming interests in Europe. The example 
given of Unsuccessful Farming will prove valu- 
able to many, as also those of Farming Excite- 
ments. To balance them, we are shown A 
Model Garden. From the hints on Kaising 
Sheep, much is to be learned. Our grounds 
have been beautified by the introduction of 
Mulberries as Shade Trees, and we hope that 
our example may be widely followed. Sitting 
in the pleasant grove, wo have a pleasant view 
of our Pacific Coast Industries. 

We see the interior Deserts Cultivated and 
made to blossom. We see the home picture of 
the farmer Shelling Corn amid pleasant sur- 
roundings. We pass in review notable cases of 
California and Eastern Agriculture. Then 
Prof. Le Conte reads lis a lecture, illustrated 
with interesting experiments, about Boiling and 
Evaporation; and then we are told a little his- 
tory of Napa Twenty Years Ago. 

Wandering through our Mulberry grove 
again, wo see what is being done in the Silk 
Interest. Close by our grove we are busy Re- 
claiming Alkaline Soil with good results; and 
right hero our Farmers' Gardens are doing 
well, the grass being kept nice and smooth 
around the house by the use of the "Land- 
scape" Lawn Mower, which is to be seen. The 
Beet Sugar Interest receives attention at this 
point. 

Coming into the farm house, sitting in our 
Home Circle, we are told the tale of the Donner 
Tragedy, ^vith several new incidents never be- 
fore related. The bachelors and benedicts may 
here learn how they may have a Loving Wife. 
We converse socially with the housekeeper 
concerning the properties of Dried Beef, Soups, 
Pumpkins and Cloves; we learn How to Act in 
Case of Poison, how to remedy Biliousness; 
and we are given many a valuable Household 
Receipt, Mechanical Hint, and the like. 

We N-isit several Large and Small Sugaries 
and compare their workings. We wander, in 
imagination, through San Mateo and Along the 
Coast, when the evening comes on, as we sit in 
the pleasant Ught of the Inijjroved Lamp. We 
talk of Hotel Life in '40, look over the City 
Market Reports, run through the Advertise- 
ments, and go to bed. 



To ConRESPONDENTS. — Our Los Angeles 
correspondent "F. W. S." will find some 
valuable hints with regard to small boot 
sugaries, in another column. "We shall en- 
deavor to make some further reference to 
bis letters in oiir next issue. 

"J. B." sends us some agi-ieultural and 
mechanical "hints" which we shall use. 

"J. B." from Najia will appear next 
week. 

"Observations by the way" received. 

"S. H. H." sends us an interesting ac- 
count of "A Cabinet of Natural History in 
Alameda County." 



SILK CULTURE. 

Varieties of Mulberry Trees. 
There are but two varieties of mulberry 
used in European Countries for feeding 
worms — or for silk culture. These are 
known as the MorvsAlba and Morus Moretti. 
The former takes its name from the color 
of its berry — which when ripe is a blui.sh 
white. The Moras Moretti is supposed to be 
a seedling of the Alba, and differs from it 
princijially in the color of the berry, which 
is of a dark purple color. The seeds from 
either will produce both kinds of trees. 
Indeed seedlings from the mulberry are 
like seedlings of all otlier kinds of cultivat- 
ed fruit trees. They are all mulberry trees, 
Init of an indefinite number of shades of 
varieties. Hence in European countries it 
is as much the custom to bud or graft the 
mulberry as it is with us to graft or bud the 
apple or peach or other kinds of fruittrees. 
The object of budding the mulberry how- 
ever is not to secure a particular kind of 
berry or fruit- — but to secure a large sized 
and good textured leaf. They want the 
large leaf to facilitate piching and the pro- 
per texture to ensure a good quality of food 
for the worms. Experienced silk growers 
also claim that they can determine from the 
leaf, to some extent, the quality of the silk 
to be produced. 

Hence their seedling trees are all grafted 
or budded when young, with cions or .buds 
selected from those trees that l)ear the loaf 
most valued for its size and peculiar glos.sy 
and fine appearance. 

There is no doubt but that some advan- 
tages are gained by this system of cultiva- 
tion of the mulberry tree. Particularly in 
the rapidity with which the larger leaves 
can bo picked and handled. As to the dif- 
ference in the quality of silk made from the 
different appearing leaves we are not certain. 

The Europeans reject the Multicaulis or 
Chinese mulberry for silk culture. They 
claim that the leaf is not so healthy food for 
the worm, and that the silk produced from 
it is of a coarser quality and not so strong 
and glossy. 

Indeed, the French and Italians call the 
Multicaulis the poison miilberry. They say 
that the leaf of the Multicaulis contains too 
much Avater in its comjiosition, and induces 
disease among the worms. "We are inclined 
to believe that in France and Italy and other 
countries having a moist atmosphere and 
when rain 'showers are of frequent occur- 
rence during the spring and summer months, 
these objections to the multicaulis are true 
to some extent. But when we remember 
that Chinaisnot only the oldest but one of the 
most successful silk growing countries in the 
world and that the Chinese use none but the 
Multicaulis leaves, it would seem* that the ' 
trouble experienced by the French and Ital- 
ians in the use of thiskind of leaf is attribu- 
table more to the climate in which the leaf 
is grown than to the leaf itself. Again it is 
well known that with all the care and science 
of the French and Italians brought to bear 
upon this industry, still those countries 
suffer more from the various diseases of the 
worm than any other country where this 
industry is prosecuted. 

It is a fact too that while the Japanese are 
among the most successful silk growers in 
the world they use altogether, leaves from 
seedling trees wliich seem to be almost, if 
not quite identical with the seedling Alba 
and Moretti grown and used in this State. 
In fact wo lia-\e comparatively compared the 
leaves of tlie variety known as ih&Japonica, 
imported by Mr. Schness from Japan, w ith 
those of some of our seedlings, and we must 
confess that we cannot discover any differ- 
ence, though some writers (are they silk 
culturists ?) have professed to know that 
there is a material distinction between them. 
From the above facts, and from our own ob- 
servations in an experience of a number of 
years in the business of feeding worms, we 
have come to the conclusion that the cli- 
mate has more to do with the success of silk 



culture in any country than the variety of 
mulberry u.scd. "VN'o believe also that the 
leaf of the Multicaulis is more susceptible 
of change in quality, owing to climatic 
changes, than that of the other vai'ieties. 
We are confirmed in these opinions from 
the fact that Italians and Frenchmen who 
come here strongly prejudiced against the 
use of the Multicaulis have, after one year's 
experience in its use, almost uniformly dis- 
missed that prejudice. In this State there- 
fore where the atmosphere is dry and pure 
we do not think so much depends on the 
particular variety of mulberry used in feed- 
ing worms; and if we were, to-day, going 
to set out a plantation of trees to go into 
silk culture we would select about an equal 
number of the Multicaulis and the Albaor 
Moretti. 

Preparation of the IVIuIberry. 

The mulberry is propagated from cuttings 
and from seed. The best way to propagate 
the Multicaulis is undoubtedly from cut- 
tings, as there is no variety of tree that will 
grow more surely in this manner than this 
kind of mulberry. The cuttings may be 
taken from the tree at any time from De- 
cember to March. They should be selected 
from well matured wood and if intended to 
be planted or set out in well prepared and 
pulverized soil that will retain plenty of 
moisture through the season, the cuttings 
need not contain more than one bud each 
and need not Ite more than two or three 
inches long. The ground should be well 
plowed and pulverized and then deep 
furrows run for the rows say four or six 
feet apart. It would be well to run a sub- 
soil plow through these furrows, thus loos- 
ening the soil from ten to fourteen inches 
deep when the cuttings are to be planted. 
This being done the cuttings may be droj)ped 
in the furrows the same as you would drop 
potiitoes, at a distance of six inches ajjart 
cover them with a hoe with loose fine soil 
about three inches, leaving a little hollow 
or depression when they are planted so that 
the eye can easily follow the rows before 
they come up. This will enable the opera- 
tor to hoe the weeds down before the young 
sjirouts push through the surface if neces- 
sary. And then to the weeds may also be 
cultivated between the rows before the cut- 
tings come lip sufficiently to enable the eye 
to follow them. 

If the ground to bo used is not so damp 
and not in as good a condition the cuttings 
should be made longer, say from six to 
eight inches and insteiul of droi>ping them 
as above they should be set in the furrow 
at an angle of say forty-five degrees— the 
ui)per end always being below the level of 
the general surface of the soil. Cover them 
as before with the hoe so that the upper 
end will bo at least one inch below the sur" 
face. All cuttings will do much better in 
this country thus entirely covered from the 
drying effects of the hot sun. If one bud 
is left out as is the custom with many hor- 
ticulturists, it will be found that the se- 
cond bud is almost invariably the one that 
grows while the cutting dries and dies 
down as far as'it is exposed. But one sprout 
should be allowed to grow from each cut- 
ting — and to ensure good growth the first 
season, should be well cultivated and the 
weeds kept down the season through. 

Vandalism in SACitAMENTC— Mr. T. K. 
Stewart, of Sacramento, planted an orange 
tree, seventeen years ago, which in due 
time bore fruit, and has since remained a 
li^-ing proof that this luscious fruit can be 
raised in and about Sacramento. On New 
Years" Day the tree showed upwards of 200 
oranges; but the day after, during the 
absence of the proprietor, some miscreant 
shot a valuable dog left to guard it, and 
carried away about 150 choice oranges. 

That's So. — The Placer Herald says it i^ 
useless to talk of feeding sheep where men 
have thousands ui)on thousands of head, 
and no previous arrangements made for 
such an emergency. 



RECLAIMING ALKALINE SOILS. 

There are few agricultural districts in 
this State, or on this coast, where there 
cannot be found tra<-ts of alkaline soils. In 
some places it will show itself in the salt- 
grass and weeds jjeculiar to such soils; in 
others it may be seen glistening like frost 
upon the surface, or lilackening the water 
that settles upon it. In no one thing does 
the soil of this coast differ from that of the 
Eastern States, more than in itsBuper.ibund- 
ance of these salts. There the soils are gener- 
ally too acid, while here too much alkaline 
matter is frequently found. Our alkali 
would be good manure for many eastern 
fai-mors; while if we could get their sour, 
swamp soil, rich in vegetable mould, it 
would bo just the thing to mix with our 
saline soils. 

The various cheap compositions of lime, 
soda, and potash, make the best manures 
for the sour Eastern soils; while on our 
soils, already too full of such salts, they 
would be an injury, in.stead of a benefit to 
growing crops. 

The x>lowing under, and jdowing in. of 
straw, strawy manure and gi-ain crops, will 
tend to correct the surplus alkaline matter 
in our soils, by absorbing, and through 
chemical decomposition, neutralizing the 
active principles that are injurious to 
growing crops; as also in making light and 
porous such soils as have become compact, 
by settling in low places. 

In such places as can be flooded with 
water; where the water, after disolving the 
alkaline salts, will readily drain off, such 
washing, is one of the best means that can 
be taken to get the surplus salts out of the 
soil. 

"Where the strata of alluvium containing 
the surphis salts is shallow or thin, this 
method will succeed fulmirably; while the 
plowing in of manure and green croiis, 
A\ith a cultivation of beets or some crop 
which absorbs the salts, will reclaim the 
land. 

But where the strata of alkaline alluvium 
is deep, and the alkali is constantly rising 
to the surface, and being depositeil, 
through capilary action and evaporation, 
there is something else necessary to be 
done to avoid it. 

A thorough system of deep underdrain- 
age \y\\\ accomplish much towai'ds such an 
end. The alkali from l>eneath will rise 
only as high as the underdrainage, and 
flow away with the water which holds it in 
solution. By such action the surface soil 
will soon lose its alkali, and, with proper 
tillage, become very valuable. 

Our alkaline soils — now comparatively 
valueless — when once'fairly reclaimed, make 
the richest and most productive tracts 
when rightly handled. The "mystery of 
farming"' ceases to be a mystery when in- 
telligently comprehended and understood. 
If the "power of mind over matter" was as 
fully realized in agriculture as it is in me- 
chanics, — and the time is coming when it 
will be, — successful cultivation would be 
no stranger than successful engineering. 



A Good Move. — A movement is on foot 
among a number of leatling farmers of 
Suisun, looking to the establishment of a 
County Agricultural and Horticultural 
Society for the diffusion of useful knowl- 
edge, the thorough testing of new fruits, 
seeds, grain, etc., and the importation of 
new breeds of stock. 



"VV'iNE-MAKiNO. — The Orleans Hills Vini- 
cultural Association, organized in IKH'.l, 
liave jircssod, this sea.son, over (XK) terns of 
grajies, yielding 80,000 gallons of wine. 
The grapes, to the amount of one-half tlie 
quantity used, were the growth of their 
own vineyards; the balance were produced 
along the foothills of Placer, El Dorado, 
Amador and Sacramento. La.st season they 
mmlo only 20,000 gallons of wine, which 
were reiulily sold. Tlie demand for their 
brands is i)roportionate to the increase of 
tlieir stock. All this wine was made in 
this city. — Sac. Dee. 



January 21, 1871.] 



-^>8j 



g?^ 



41 



FARMERS' GARDENS. 

Preparation of Soil. 

While on this subject, last week, we re- 
marked that the soils alorfg the banks of 
the creeks and rivers of this state are gen- 
erally well adapted to the production of 
garden vegetables. These soils are called 
"made land," and are principally compos- 
ed of clay, fine sand or sediment and de- 
cayed vegetation. They are of recent 
formation, and have been made by the 
operations of Nature. The annual deposit 
of the leaves of the forests, and the annual 
growth of the grasses and weeds have been 
covered by the occasional overflow of the 
streams, bringing along and dejiositing 
fine clay and sand from the mountains. 
Since the commencement of mining in this 
country the making of land in this manner 
has been going on very rapidly. If the de- 
posit has been with too great a proportion 
of clay, then the soil thus made is heavy, 
stifi" and sticky, and though very rich and 
strong, and excellent, when properly and 
carefully worked, for some kinds of cro2)s, 
it is not well adapted to the production of 
garden vegetables. It settles too close and 
compactly together when wet, by heavy 
rain.s or overflows, and if allowed to dry 
without stirring it is so hard and stiff that 
it is almost imj'ossible to j'low or work it at 
all. If worked in this condition, it is unpro- 
ductive — the lumps and clods refuse to 
yield to the roots of vegetation the neces- 
sary nourishment and food for their 
growth. If plowed when too wet, its con- 
dition is still worse, it assumes the hard- 
ness of puddled soil or manufactured 
adobes. Such soil must be worked with 
the greatest ijossible care, and only when 
in a i^roper condition, and even then it is 
not good for garden jjurposes. You may 
with great care get yoiir seed into such soil 
in good condition, but if you have a spring 
shower, followed by warm, sunny days, 
before yoxir vegetables are out of the 
ground, there will form a crust over them, 
which it will be impossible for the tender 
shoots to i^enetrate, and you will be iinder 
the necessity of replanting. We have seen 
corn and jjeas and even beans, after sjirout- 
ing vigorously, thus prevented from com- 
ing out of the ground, by a crust formed 
on the surface. 

The proper proportion of sand and vege- 
table decomijosition mixed with the clay, 
temjiers the soil and renders it easily work- 
ed at all times. It renders it jDorous and 
susceptible of absorbing and retaining 
moisture, in the proi^er degree to dissolve 
the nutricious elements of the soil, and thus 
feed and nourish the plants. We have 
seen just such stiff adobe soils as we have 
described above completely renovated and 
converted into the very best of garden land 
by a single overflow of a river, and a depos- 
it uiion it of two or three inches of fine 
sand. By plowing deep, and cultivating, 
and mixing the deposit of sand with the 
old clay, stifi' soil, we obtain a lively mel- 
low and porous soil, cajsable of being 
worked at almost any time in the year 
without injury. A soil that will allow the 
air to iienetrate to a great deijth, and which 
will extract from that air sufiicient moist- 
ure to suj)port the growth of plants in the 
driest of seasons. We have known large 
tracts of land bordering the Sacramento 
river to be thus changed, and more than 
quadrupled in value, by the deposits of a 
single overflow. Wo have known such 
renovated land to rent annually, for garden 
jmrposes, for more money than it could, in 
its original condition, have been sold for. 
Thus Natuie manipulates and makes land, 
and changes whole sections, in a single 
year, from stiff, heavy and intractabls soils 
to light, lively and sandy loams, thus 
doubling and quadrui)ling their value for 
many juirjioses. 

A Lesson from Nature. 

From such ojicrations of Nature, the 
farmers, on the stifi', clay soils of the 



prairies and oak openings of our state, in- 
cluding all our red soils, and in fact nearly 
all of what are generally recognized as the 
best grain districts, may learn an import- 
ant lesson. From these operations they 
may learn just what they may do with a 
small piece of land to give each of them as 
valuable a garden spot as Nature ever 
formed. The.se prairie soils are stiff and 
heavy, and want to be tempered with sand 
and vegetable matter. The vegetable mat- 
ter is always at hand in every barnyard. 
There are but few localities in this state 
where j)lenty of good sediment sand can 
also be obtained within a reasonable dist- 
ance. 

One hundred and sixty feet square — a 
sjmce sufficiently large — for a good vege- 
table garden for a large sized family, could 
be covered three inches deep by almost any 
farmer, within a year, and he would scarce- 
ly feel the expense. Having selected the 
place for the garden, he should in the first 
place plow and subsoil it, at least from six- 
teen to twenty inches deep — two feet or 
more would be still better. Then draw on 
the manure — well rotted barn maniire 
would be best — and sand in about equal 



LAWN MOWER. 

There comes to us the description of a 
very neat lawn mower, which seems to em- 
body the good points of many other ma- 
chines, without their objectionable fea- 
tures. This is the so-called "Landscape" 
mower, an illustration of which is here 
given, and of certain points of which men- 
tion may be made. 

For throwing the machine in or out of 
gear, in place of a rachet and spring, a 
jiatent friction pawl is iised, so that the 
mower is always in gear when going for- 
ward, and always out of gear, and noise- 
less, when going backwards. This pawl 
is entirely concealed, and, like the gearing, 
is protected from obstructions by grass, 
dirt and other substances. 

By means of an adjustable roller, in the 
rear of the knife bar, an easily -running ma- 
chine is pi-oduced, which, we are told, ac- 
commodates itself to any unevenness of the 
ground, mowing borders or lawn alike, 
complete without trouble of change, and 
thus dispensing with shoes or rollers in 
front of the cutter, which beat down the 
grass and make it impossible to cut evenly. 

The cutting surfaces are made of the 
l^est cast steel, hardened and temijered.and 
attached to a heavy fly in a very substantial 
manner. The whole machine is built with 
great care, and weighs 65 pounds. It cuts 
a 15-inch swath and can be operated by 
anybody. The price is $25. The manu- 
facturers claim long exiierience with lawn 







THE "LANDSCAPE 



proportions. Let the whole be thoroughly 
mixed with the soil, as lo^^ down as it has 
been subsoiled, but leaving a larger pro- 
portion of saud and manure mixed with 
the surface foot of earth. A deep ditch — 
say three or four feet deejj — around the 
entire j^lat, with two or three blind ditches, 
say two feet deep, and equal distances 
apart running from one side to the other 
and emf)tying into the border ditch, would 
add very much to the life and elasticity of 
the soil and to its productiveness. It may 
be doubted by some whether land on the 
dry plains of California would be benefit- 
ted by drainage. In answer to this doubt 
we would remark that the object of such 
drainage is to introduce air into the soil 
and thus render it more moist in dry 
weather, as well as lighter and drier in wet 
weather. It has been well and truly said, 
"that drainage makes cold land warmer, 
wet land drier, dry land wetter, and hevay 
land lighter." The principal object to be 
attained by the introduction of sand and 
manure, is to open the pores, as it were, of 
the soil and keep them open; and this ob- 
ject is still more perfectly attained by the 
proi^osed drainage. It enables the soil to 
breathe, and thus extract from the air the 
moisture as well as the fertilizing gases, 
and distribute them among the rootlets of 
of the growing plants, just as the lungs of 
the animal extracts the oxygen from the 
air and diffuses it through the animal sys- 
tem. Soil thus j)repared will thereafter 
require only an annual top dressing and 
good cultivation to render it almost incred- 
ibly isroductive. 

WiLii Raise their own Potatoes. 
Santa Barbara, which has heretofore im- 
ported her i^otatoes from this city, will 
hereafter raise her own. There are some 
other localities in the sta.tc which might 
profit by this example. 



' LAWN MOWER. 

mowers of every descrijjtion, and that they 
can recommend this with perfect confi- 
dence in its merits. They seem to have a 
very good article. For i^articulars, ajjjjly 
to Hovey&Co., No. 57 State street, Chicago, 
111. 



California Eaisins. — We meet with 
notices in nearly all our agricultural ex- 
changes, speaking of small lots of raisias 
which have been j^roduced, the past season, 
in their various localities. These facts are 
of considerable interest as showing that the 
attention of our grape gi-owers is being more 
than ever turned to this important product. 
This is no reason why we should not pre- 
pare at home all the raisins needed for the 
supply of this coast. Let our grape growers 
experiment in this direction— put uj) their 
own raisins, at least, and gradually educate 
themselves so that they may eventually pre- 
l^are them for the market. Grapes are worth 
only two, three, or four cents per pound, 
while I'aisins are worth from 15 to 25 cents 
— a large per centage to add to the raw pro- 
duct. 



A Comportable Property. — Alvinza 
Hayward of this city, while on the witness 
stand, a few days since, in the Fourth Dis- 
trict Court, was called upon to give a schedule 
of his assets and liabilities. The list of 
his assets footed up $2,701, .335, his liabili- 
ties .$939,000, leaving the very comfortable 
net balance of $1,762,335. Mr. Hayward 
was a poor man ten years ago. The chief 
part of his fortune has been derived from 
the famous mine in Amador county, which 
bears his name. 



Frauds in Wool. — McLennan, Whelan & 
Grissar's wool Circular urges upon flock mas- 
ters tlie necessity and policy of honi^st pack- 
ing. Corral dirt, sand, wet fleeces, ett;., arc still 
occasionally met with, and oijeratc to the 
disadvantage of the business generally. 



THE BEET SUGAR INTERES 

Whenever any new manufacturing luLcr- 
est is started in this city or vicinity, there 
is always a hard fight made by jobbers and 
importers to crush out the new industry. 
Of course the Beet Sugar enterprise has 
been no exception. The first attack upon 
that was in a material reduction of the 
price of the class of sugar manufactured 
at Alvarado; but the people were greatly 
benefitted by that move, and the Alvarado 
Company can well aflbrd to manufacture at 
the reduced 23rice. 

The next attempt was to frighten capital- 
ists from investing in the numerous proj- 
ects for other manufactories which were 
set on foot, as soon as the success at Alva- 
rado was made known. A statement in de- 
tail of the cost of manufacturing beet 
sugar was widely circulated in several of 
our leading papers; but its authors overdid 
their work by the extravagance of their 
figures, whicli were so ai-ranged as to .show 
an annual loss of al)out .$30,000 to an es- 
tablishment of the capacity of the Alvarado 
works. The fallacy of the unfriendly fig- 
ui-es has been fully shown; "and thus that 
matter rests for the present. 

The gentlemen who have initiated this 
business, in Alvarado, are perfectly con- 
versant, not only with the manufacturing 
details thereof ; but with its economical 
details and value as well. They have fully 
counted the cost, and are prepared to jiut 
their home grown article u^jon the market 
at as low, and, if necessary, at a lower' fig- 
ure than the same quality of sugar can be 
afforded by those Avho depend upon a 
foreign market for the raw i^roduct. 

The manufacture of sugar from beets is 
no new or untried business; but has be- 
come one of the leading and most jjrofit- 
able industries of Europe, where improve- 
ments are now being largely introduced 
which have greatly lessened the cost of 
machinery, and consequently the cost of 
manufacture. This reduction, we have 
good authority for saying, reaches to a 
large percentage of both the original out- 
lay required, and of the cost of manufac- 
ture. Moreover, as the chief improvement 
referred to relates to the direct treatment 
of the beets, in their pulj) or sliced con - 
dition, and is a^jplicable to "cane" only to 
a limited extent, if at all, it thereby gives 
the beet a still greater advantage than it 
has heretofore held over its tropical rival. 

The condition of political affairs in 
Europe, and upon the island of Cul)a 
assures us that the sugar market of the 
world must for a long time remain in a 
state to greatly stinmlate the produc- 
tion of sugar in the United States, toward 
which many countries, heretofore sujjplied 
wholly by Europe, are now beginning to 
look for this article of prime necessity. 
Sugar has already been shipped from New 
York to Valparaiso; and if New York can 
supply that market, surely the time is not 
far distant when San Francisco can do so 
to a better advantage. 

A more favorable opportunity foi- the 
initiation of this new industry, on the Pa- 
cific Coast, could not have been selected; 
and we are fully convinced that the pro- 
tection which is now incidentally secured 
to us, will be amjjly sufficient to float us 
over the oppositions, discouragements and 
mistakes which are always incident to new 
undertakings, and place us in the full tide 
of successfxil experiment. Such a i)oint 
reached, we ought thereafter to be able to 
supply our own wants, and manufacture 
largely in addition for both foreign and do- 
mestic export. This accomplished, we 
shall not only save the four or five millions 
now annually disbursed for foreign sugar; 
but shall also be in a condition to add still 
other millions to the vigorous emjiloyment 
and develoi)ment of the numerous other 
resources with which this c oast abounds. 

JpTiuRTY-FOTTE ships have loadcnl with 
wheat at Vallejo, the present season. 



42 



-^ 




BY OUR LADY EDITORS. 



The Donner Tragedy. 

A THRILLING CHAPTER IN OUR PIONEER 
HISTORY. 

[Written fi)r the Press.] 

Tlie stifferings of the Donner party, ■who 
■were snowed in, and detained ontlienionn- 
tnins more than three months, in the win- 
ter of 1840-7, ha.s Vu'on much talked about, 
•and some garl)hul stories have been i)nb- 
lislied; but from the very nature of the 
case, anything like a true history was diffi- 
cult to come at. My informant, who was 
one of the general company to which the 
Donner party originally belonged, says 
that she has never seen anything like a 
true or competent history of that most hor- 
rible jjcriod in the lives of those imfortu- 
nates. The following she is r(>ady to vouch 
for, as truth; and if anj'one desires further 
information, or confirmation of what is al- 
redy given, her name and address will be 
at their service. 

By retracing, though but in idea, the 
dillicult and dangerous steps of the early 
emigrants, we are enabled more fully to ap- 
))i('i'iiite the homes of coiufort, comijetence 
and beauty, to whi<'h tlicv have led us. 

In the year bSKJ, about tlie 1st of May, 
.'■>()(» emigrants, under thi^ guidance! of Wm. 
]''(iwler, l(!ft Independunce, Missouri, 
bound for (!alifoi:nia and Oregon. They 
all contin\i(>d in one company until they 
n'a<died Big Blue Kiver, when the decline 
of pasturage made it necessary to seiiarate 

into sni.dl c(>mpani(>s, that of Mrs. C 

being piloted l)v Wm. Fowler. They were 
all in advance of tlie Donner i)artv, but af- 
ter crossing the Salt Lake Desert the latter 
nearly caught \i\> with th(!m. 

On going over the mountains, the Read 
and Donner Company, when they came to 
the Devil's Canyon, known as Hasting's 
(;iit-oft", sent some men forAvard to exam- 
ine the route. On their return, they rep- 
resented the 2>ass imi>racticable; and leav- 
ing the ohl road, they attempted to cut 
their way around the high peak, felling, or 
removing such timber as iinijedi-d their 
2)rogress. In this toilsome work they s])ent 
eighteen days, thus exhausting their tim(!, 
strength and i!rovisic)ns. Tliis detention 
was one of the chief causes of their being 
caught in the snow, and of all their subse- 
quent sufferings, 

Kt^ad and McCntchins came to their 
camps nearly starved, having ma<le a meal 
of wlieoi-grease and mustard taken from 

Mr. V 's wagon, which he liad left on 

the mountain, intending to go back for it. 
A Niqht In the Snow. 
At night Mr. C finding that his cat- 
tle had gone off, set out in pursuit of them, 
leaving his wife alone iu that wild and hor- 
iblo pliu-e. But the brave heart of the he- 
roic woman was not easily to be dismay- 
Oi\. Patiently, liopeful, resolutely she 
watcheilthe night through, with a kind of 
latent faith that her husband would be j)re- 
served, though he was exposed and unshel- 
tered to the pitiless snow storm, which, 
soon after he left, began raging with great 
fury; and the dismal howling of their faith- 
ful dog, liightened the hcn-rors of the 
scene. But the brave heart fainted not; 
and every little precaution the occasion 
prompti'd or reeiuired, was i)atiently and 
(piietly taken. iSlie trimmed the tire; she 
watched and adjusted the warming and dry- 
ing garmoits; she heated and I'eplenished 
the evaporating tea; and several times dur- 
ing the night, slio went out with a long- 
hiindled iron scraper, to scra])e the snow 
from the tented roof, l(!st it should be bro- 
ki'U dowji by the weight, and leave her 
with<jut shelter. 

.Morning came; for the most protracted 
jieriod.-; of anxiety and .anguish mu.st some 
time have an end; and aidc^d by the earlii'st 
light, tlie straining eyes of the lonely 
watcher went out over the wild, for siglit 
or sign of the wanderer; but no truck aj)- 
peared on the mountiiin road, that lay, still 
and solemn as death, dra]>ed in a winding 
sheet of spotless snow-. Still she hoped — 
still she believed — that her husband would 
yet come; and once more, and again and 
again, she went to thejiliu-e of lookout; but 
over all tlie ghastly whiteness of the scene 
no form of life appeai'ud. 




[January ci, 1871. 



But look yonder, up the mountain road, 
to the remotest point of sight! Is that a 
man? a hoi-se? Do they move ? At first 
sight the motion was slow, so faint as to 
be nearly imperceptible. Ah, yes! her 
faith is rewarded at last. He is living! He 
comes! She flew to meet him, with what- 
ever sp(>ed she could make through the 
depths of snow, and found him greatly ex- 
haust(>d and nearly insensible. He' was 
soon put to bed, and by help of warm 
blankets, heated stones and hot drink, he 
])artially revived and was able to give a co- 
herent account of himself. 

He had followed the cattle about twelve 
miles, and brought them to the brow of 
the long hill that overlooked their encamji- 
ment; but in his weak and exhausted state 
he could not get them over the brink, from 
which they drew back in terror. Finally 
he became bewildered and lost in tlie 
I storm. He had stood all night, hugging 
his horse, to keep up animal life; and it 
was with the greatest diffculty that he was 
able to regain his scat in the saddle, and 
keep it until he reached the camp. 

Mrs. C, being informed where the cattle 
were, put on snow-shoes and a pair of 
pantaloons, and after a hard walk up the 
mountain side, found the cattle, and drove 
them down without any dilKculty. 
A Strange Proceeding. 

That afternoon, for fear of being snowed 
in, they killed an ox; and while they were 
pre))ariiig some of the nu^at for supper, 
Keed and INIcCMutchins came to the camp, 
with two Indians and HO horses, sent by 
Gen. Sutter for the relief of the sntlering 
party. During the night the Indians took 
two of the best hor.ses and decami)ed; and 
in the morning Mr. Beed, with his com- 
panion, set oH for the snow-bound com- 
pany, following the trail of the cattleabout 
12 miles. After traveling as far as the ox- 
trail reached, they concluded it was not 
safe to proc(>ed furth(!r, and returning to 
the camp of Mr. ('., staid all night. But 
instead of hastening forward to the relief 
of the suH'erers, who ■were but a short day's 
travf'l back, Mr. licked left his provisions in 
the wagon of Mr. C, and returned to Sut- 
ter's Fort, Mr. and Mrs. C. accompanying 
tliem. Here was another great and terrible 
mistake, to say the least. This was about 
the middle of November; and had Mr. Heed 
])uslied forward to the rescue of the siifTer- 
ers, including his own wife and children, 
more than MO persons might have been 
sjjared three months of suft'ering, so horri- 
ble as to defy description. We cannot 
cone(uvo of them. There were, doubtless, 
suflicient reasons for this strange behavior; 
but at the tiuK! the whole i>roceeding was 
drajied in iini>enetrable mystery. 

Snowed In. 
Do any of you imagine what these two 
simple words may mean '? Go with me, 
then, to the Donner camj); and we shall 
see. Is this,«i com[)any of ghastly sjiectres 
that haunt the snowy wilderness with the 
writhing memories of iuconcievable, in- 
scrutable suft'ering '? Their wan features, 
shrinking forms and the trembling limbs, 
all b(>token the deej) ccn-roding anguish of 
unai)]ieased hunger. Their wild eyes burn 
in the sockets: and the dilating pupil near- 
ly covers the iris. They are dying of star- 
vation; and even on the wan and wasted fea- 
tures of the dead, the biting expression of 
the horrible hunger still remains. 

They are now taking their morning meal; 
and yonder gentle matron — Mrs. lieed — 
over more thoughtful for others than her- 
self, is cutting off strips of raw hide, and 
dividing them into small })ieces; and the 
cliildren come around her with their little 
tin cups, to receive the precious morsel, 
that may sustain life a little longer. O, 
God ! tliat lillle longer will lay many of 
them to rest in the sheltering snows ! 

They had killed all their animals; and 
their skins had been providentially saved. 
Hence the supply of raw hides. But at 
length even this became scarce, and, com- 
jiared with what followed, was a luxury. 
Old boots and shoes, bits of siuldles or har- 
ness, and fragments of leather in every 
f<n-m, were now gathered and rigidly econ- 
omised. One of the company, who ■was a 
child at the time, but afterwards married 
iind lived at San Jose, gave quite an ac- 
count of the interior of the camp at this jie- 
riod. She said that sIk^ and a sister had a 
(|uarrel, and almost a figiit, for the jio.sses- 
sion of a little shoe? that one of them had 
found. She decdared, too, that slie, herself, 
had eaten a piece of her mother ! It is be- 
lieved that, driven to the last extremity, 
they devoured the liodies of their dead. 
But enough is kno^wii to show that their 
suff(5rings were drawn out to the most ter- 
rible strain that human anguish could suji- 
]iort, or human .strength endure. Let us, 
then, leave these awful secrets undisturbed, 
and ginitly draw a curtain over the revolt- 
ing scene. 



Mr. and Mrs. Brene, with their nine child- 
ren, had encamped eight or ten miles be- 
hind the Donner party; and between the 
two camps there was kept up such an inter- 
change of neighborly kindness, as the cir- 
cumstances would allow. By this me.ans 
the dremlful condition of theDonner camp 
became known to Mr. & Mrs. Brene. Bv 
a careful and wise economy, they had made 
their provisions hold out; and" thus they 
were able, not only to sustain themselves, 
but to assist others. They took Mrs. Reed 
with her four children, and one adopted 
child, home to their camp, and kejit them 
until relief arrived. Let no one say that 
economy is an ignoble virtue, remember- 
ing that by its help, six jirecious lives were 
saved. The woman who could look ujion 
her own nine children and give to others 
what would shorten their allowance— possi- 
bly bring them to starvation — mu^t have a 
great heart, indeed. It has been said that 
there is no greater love than this, that a 
ni.an should die for his friends but; this is 
by far a nobler action and a diviner love. 
Mrs. Brene was, indeed, a noble woman; 
and her name should be inscribed in golden 
lettering on the page of history. By such 
high exanqiles, the world is made liapjiicr 
and lietter; for she who could give to oth- 
ers what her own children might soon suf- 
fer for, deserves, and must soon receive, 
the croini af virtue. 

Relief Itself Horrible to Behold. 
About the middle of February, seven 
men and women, finding their condition 
intolerable, left the Donner Camp, hoping 
to reach the valley in safety; and out of 
the fourteen, only five women and two 
men, came into Mr. Johnson's ranch, then 
the first hou.se on this side of the moun- 
tains, one-half of the whole number hav- 
ing perished by the way. 

Mr. Johnson, on hearing the great dis- 
tress of the snow-bound comp.any, sent a 
messenger to Sutter's Fort, ■«-ith an account 
of their terrible suff'erings. When the 
news came in, the citizens voluntered for 
the rescue of the sufferers. Gen. Sutt<>r, 
with his well-known iiromjitness and libcr- 
erality, offiu-ed them horses and jirovisions; 
and without delay seven men were des- 
patched, Messrs. Glover, O'Brien, Mont- 
gomery, Courtis, and three others, ■vs-hose 
names are not remembered. 

These seven brave men set off on their 
diflicult and perilous undertaking, and 
pursued their journey as far as Bear valley, 
with their horses and packs. But finding 
their route thence impassible for hor.ses, 
tli(>y resolved to take as much as each man 
could carry and jirocci'd on foot. Leaving 
the horses and the remainder of the pro- 
visions with one of their number, the six 
men, each wifli a heavy load on his back, 
boldly set foot on the trackless mountain, 
and on the second day reached the Donner 
camji, when the desperate fate of the nn- 
fortun.ates was discovered. No descrijilion 
can give any conqietent idea of this hor- 
rible scene. Some were sno%v blind, others 
insane, others dying, others deatl; while 
the wasted forms and ghastly looks of all 
presented a most shocking sight. 

Language cannot describe the features 
of the living when they saw that relief had 
actually come. Some became nearly in- 
sensible or delirious from excess of joy; 
others were still as death in the intense 
strain of another moment's waiting: 
while many faces were distorted by a 
crazy, foolish, almost demoniac laugh, 
horrible to behold. They swallowed the 
small pittance allowed, almost without 
mastication, and held out their trembling 
hands for luore. Great caution w.as neces- 
sary in order to avoid the ill effects of a 
giving them too much at a time, but the 
madness of their hunger soon began to 
subside. 

Fortunately the news spread rapidly over 
all the then inabited parts of the state. At 
San Jose another expedition was fitted out; 
and, with Mr. Reed at their head, thej' set 
off with suflicient food to bring the sufl'er- 
ers in. By the time this new supply ar- 
rived their former stock of provisions was 
exhausted, and now comes the task of get- 
ting the sufferers, all weak and emaciated, 
into some .settlement. 

Three were left behind to their fate: a 
Dutchman by the name «if Reesburgh, (dd 
Mrs. J)onner, and a child that Mrs. Mc- 
Cntchins, one of the fourteen who went 
out, ha<l left btdiind. The child died the 
next day; and Mrs. Donner was jirobably 
murdered by the Dutchman. She hail 
aboutlua' several thousand doUarsin specie, 
and, not being i>ermitted to take it with 
her, she preferred to stay with it, and with 
a true miser-feeling, loving her money bet- 
ter than life, she surrendered herself, 
hugging her purse to the last. 

A party of men who afterwards visited 
the camp, found the old lady with lier 
throat cut, and a bucket near by which 
had been used to catch her blood. Part of 



her body was sliced into steaks to sustain 
the life of the murderer. Thise Resburgh 
was afterwards tried for the murder; but 
on the discovery of gold he came up from 
the Bay, where he had been sojourning 
since his acquittal, and opened an eating 
house at Fort Sutter, which was well 
known a.s Cannibal Tent. 

A touching little incident is related of 
these times. On the passage frcm the camp 
to Fort Sutter, Mr. Brene and one of his 
little daughters became very faint, and it 
was feared that they would die. It was 
proposed to Mr. Rc'atl that they should 
stop and light fires, and try to restore 
them. He treated the matter coolly, not 
to say gruffly, .saying he didn't think it 
worth while to take much trouble about it. 
On hearing this, his little girl took him by 
the hand, .saying in the sweet earnestness 
of a grateful c-hild, "Papa, if it hiuln't 
been for Mr. Read we should all have been 
dea<l!" The sight of the sweet jileader 
brought the lesson home to his heart. He 
instantly ordered a halt ; when they kindled 
tires on each side of them, a<lministere<l 
remedies, and the sufl'erers were saved. 



3-„^2v,^ 



How to Have a Loving Wife. 

If you would have a loving wife, be an 
gentle in your words after as before mar- 
riage ; treat her quite as tenderly \n Ik'Ii a 
matron as when a miss; don't mak(; her 
maid-of-all-work, and then a.sk her why 
she looks less tidy and neat than wheii 
" you first knew her;" don't buy cheap, 
tough beef, and scold her Ijecause it do<?s 
not come on the table " ])orter-hou8e;" 
don't grumble about stpialling babies, if 
you can't make U]i a " nursery,'' and you 
remember that " baby " may take ufter jia- 
pa in his disposition; don't smoke and 
chew toba<'co, thus shatter your nerves, 
spoil your temjier, and make your breath a 
nuisance, and then complain tliat your wife 
declines to kiss you. Go home joyous al^d 
cheerful to your wife, and tell her'thegood 
news you have heard, and not silently put 
on your hat and go off to the " club" or 
the "lodge," and afterwards let her learn 
that you spent the evening at the opera, or 
at a fancy ball with Mrs. i)a.sh. Love your 
wife, be patient; remember that you are not 
jierfect, but try to be; let whisky, tobacco 
and vnlgar company alone; sjiend your 
evenings with your wife, and live a decent 
Christian life, and your wife will be loving 
and true — if you did not marry a thought- 
less lieauty, without sense or real worth; if 
you did, who is to blame if you suffer the 
consequences. — Phrenolo'jical Journal. 



Modera Rules of Good Breeding. 

A work entitled "Good Society" says 
that the corner of a visiting card is turned 
down to indicate that the caller intends the 
compliment of her visit to include some 
other member of the familj' in the house. 
A lady should not rise from her seat •*-hen 
a gentleman is brought up and introduced 
to her, unless he is an elderly man, or, from 
peculiar circum.stances or family connec- 
tion, the latly wishes to pay him the marked 
attention of shaking hands at a first inter- 
view. When people meet at the house of 
a common friend, they may converse to- 
gether without an introduction, if they find 
themselves in proximity, and an occasion 
arises for speaking; but, without a special 
introduction, neither lady should recognize 
the other if they meet in public the next 

D.^NGER OF Reverie. — Do anything inno- 
cent rather than give yourself to reverie. 
I can speak on this point from exjierience. 
At one period of my life I was a dreamer 
and a castle builder. Visions of the distant 
future took place of jiresent duty and activ- 
ity. I spent hours in reverie. I supjiosed 
I was seduced in jiart by jihysical debility. 
But the body suffered as much as the mind. 
I found, too, that the imagination threat- 
ened to influence the passions, and that if 
I meant to be virtuous I must dismiss my 
musings. The conflict was a hard one; I 
resolved, jirayed, resisted, sought refuge in 
occupation, and at length triumjihed. I 
beg you to avail yourself of my exiierience. 
— Ghanning. 



A LADY and gentleman of Troy, N. Y., 
whose connubial bliss is perfect in every- 
thing, save the presence of children around 
the domestic fireside, were examining some 
illuminated mottos in a book store, the 
other day, when the wife picked out one 
bearing these words: "God bless our 
home." The husband thought that very 
good, but still not exactly what they want- 
ed. Looking a little farther, he picked up 
this one: "Suffer little children to come 
unto me." 



January 21, 1871.] 



-<>5I 



B^ 



43 



USEHOL 



D« 



EADI NG. 



Dried Beef. 

In our last issue we gave a very good re- 
ceipt for cooking dried beef. We here ap- 
pend some very pertinent remarks uijon 
tlie use of this very good and convenient 
article of diet, from the American Agricul- 
turisl: "The good qualities of dried beef 
as an article of food for the family, are 
not fully aijpreciated. In point of excel- 
lence, it is one of the nicest articles, when 
properly prepared, that we have in oiir 
storeroom. It is also one of the most 
economical articles of food; quite a small 
quantity of dried beef, shaved very fine, 
and cooked with a nice gravy, will serve 
for meat for a family at very .small expense. 
Then it is so convenient to have; always 
ready; always accepta])le. To peojjle who 
live convenient to market, it is not of so 
much imijortanee; but to us, who live at 
a distance from towns, dried beef is one of 
the necessary articles in our bill of fare. 
AVe frequently entertain guests at our ta- 
ble who never have seen dried beef served 
other than as a relish for bread and butter ; 
shaved and eaten without cooking. There 
are several methods of cooking it. Some 
l)refer it cooked with a gravy of water, 
seasoned with butter, tliickened with flour, 
and, jjerhaps, eggs broken in while cook- 
ing. Others cook it with crumbs of sau- 
sage, frying the sausage first, then adding 
the beef with water, and thickening with 
Hour. It is also very good cooked with a 
little sweet milk and swoet cream, the 
gravy being thickened with fiour; allow it 
to boil once; tliat is all the cooking it re- 
quires. A dish of dried beef, properly 
cooked, served with toast, baked potatoes, 
and boiled eggs, is a very nice provision 
for breakfast or a dinner prepared in haste. 
When too salt, it can be reuiodiod by soak- 
ing, after cutting and before, and cooking, 
and adding a little white sugar while cook- 
ing, to restore the sweetness lost by soak- 
ing. Kugar-eured beef is much nicer than 
tJiat cured with salt alone. I put mine 
into a sweet brine, such as is used for pork 
hams." 



Something about Soups. — It is the 
general impression that a soup which, 
wlien cold, sets into a strong jelly must be 
the most nutrieious; but such is not the 
fact. The soup "sets" because it contains 
the gelatine or glue of the sinews, flesh and 
bones; but on this imagined richness alone, 
it has, by recent experiments, been proved 
that no animal can live. The jelly of bones 
boiled into souji can furnish only jelly fc r 
our bones; the jelly of sinews or calf's feet 
can form only sinew; neitlier flesh nor its 
juices set into a jelly. 

It is only by long boiling we obtain a 
.soup that sets, but in a much less time we 
get all the nouiishing properties that meat 
yields in soups that are no doubt useful in 
cases of recovery from illness, when the 
portions of the system in which it occurs 
have been Avasted; but in other cases, 
though easily enough digested, jelly is un- 
wholesome, for it loads the blood with not 
only useless but disturbing products. Nor 
does jelly stand alone in that pai-ticular. 
Neither can we live on meat which lias 
been cleared of fat, long boiled, and has all 
the juice pressed out of it; a dog, so fed, 
lost in forty-three days a fourth of his 
weight; in fifty-five days he bore all the 
appearance of staiwation, and yet such meat 
has all the muscular fiber in it. 



How TO Act in Case of Poison. — What- 
ever is done must l)e done cinickly. The 
instant a person is known to have swallow- 
ed poison by design or accident, give water 
to drink, cold or warm, as fast as possible, 
a gallon or more at a time, and as fast as 
vomited drink more; tepid water is best, 
as it opens the pores of the skin and pro- 
motes vomiting, and tlius gives the speedi- 
est cure to the poisonous article. If pains 
begin to be felt in the bowels, it shows that 
part at least of the poison has passed down- 
wards; then large and repeated injections 
of tepid water should be given, tlie object 
in l)oth cases being to dilute tlie poison as 
quickly and as largely as jjossible. Do not 
wait for warm water — take that which is 
nearest at hand, cold or warm, for every 
second of time saved is of immense im- 
portance; at the same time send instantly 
for a physician, and as soon as he comes 
turn the case into his hands, telling him 
what you have done. This simple fact can- 
not be too widely published; it is not 
meant to say that drinking a gallon or two 
of simple water will cure every case of 
poisoning; but it will cui'e many, and 
benefits all by its rapidly-diluting quality. 
—Journal of Health. 



About Biliousness. 

Biliousness is a common malady. A 
great many people are bilious. They 
have no dyspepsia, they never had a symp- 
tom of dyspepsia in their life ; they are only 
hiUntis. Now this word biliousness is a 
sort of respectable cover for jjiggishness. 
Peojile are not bilious when they eat as 
they should. 

Reader, are you bilious? [Rather a 
hard question after the above hard word. ] 
Let me prescribe for you. If you follow 
my ijrescription, and don't get well, write 
me, and in the next edition I will announce 
my error. 

First, on getting up and going to bed 
drink plenty of cold water. Eat for the 
morning meal, until the bilious attack 
passes, a little stale bread, say one slice, 
and a j)iece as large as your hand of boiled 
beef or mutton. If the weather is warm, 
take instead a little cracked wheat or oat- 
meal porridge. For dinner take about or 
near the same thing. Go without your 
supper. Exercise fi-eoly in the open air, 
producing perspiration, once or twice a 
day. In a few days your biliousness is all 
gone. This result will come, even though 
the biliousness is of the sjjring sort, and 
one with which you have from year to year, 
been much afflicted. 

Herb dishes, bitter drinks, lager beer, 
ale, whisky, and a dozen other spring med- 
icines are simply barbarous. — Eia. 

Medical Qualities of Pumpkins. — A 
prominent jjliysician of New York City, 
speaking of the properties of pum])kins, 
says that in his travels in Syria he found 
pumpkin seeds almost universally eaten by 
the people for their supposed medical (pial- 
ities. Not because they are diuretic; but 
as an antidote against animalcuhc, which 
infest the bowels. — They are sold in the 
streets as apples and nuts are here. 

It is said to be a inedic-al fact that i)er- 
sons have been cured of tape-worm by the 
use of pumpkin-seeds. The outer skin be- 
ing removed, the seeds are bruised in a 
morter into an oily, ])asty mass. It is 
swallowed by the patient after fasting some 
hours, and it takes the place of chyle in 
the stomach, and the tape-worm lets go its 
hold on the membrane and becomes gorged 
with this substance, and, in some measure, 
probalily torpid. Then a large dose of cas- 
tor oil is administered, and the worms are 
unable to renew their hold. 



What Cloves Abe. — Cloves are the un- 
opened flowers of a small evergreen tree 
that resembles in appearance the laurel or 
the bay. It is a native of the Molucca or 
Spice Islands, but has been carried to all 
the warmer parts of the world, and is now 
cultivated in the tropical parts of America. 
The flowers are small in size, and grow in 
large numbers, in clusters, to the very ends 
of the branches. The cloves we use are 
flowers gathered before they are opened 
and while they are green. After being 
gathered, they ai'e smoked by a wood fire, 
and then dried in the sun. Each clove 
consists of two parts, a round head, which 
is the four petals or leaves of the flower 
rolled up, enclosing a number of small 
stalks, or filaments; the other i)art of the 
clove is terminated with four jioints, and is 
in fact, the flower cup and the unripe seed 
vessel. All these parts may be distinctly 
seen if a few cloves are wet for a short time 
in hot water, when the leaves of the flower 
soften, and reatlily unroll. Both the taste 
and smell of cloves depend on the quantity 
of oil they contain. Sometimes the oil is 
separated from the cloves before they are 
sold, and the odor and taste in consequence 
much weakened by such unfair proceed- 
ings. 

Pure Aie in all buildings is of primaiy 
importance, whether it be a family dwell- 
ing, or the abode of those animals in the 
healthfulness, and consequent usefulness, 
of which the owner has so deep an interest. 
Success, in any pursuit, depends very 
much upon the amount of intelligence 
which is employed in its prosecution. 

Foul air is probably, directly or indirect- 
ly, the cause of nine-tenths of the diseases 
of the land, especially of fevers. Dipthe- 
ria, typhoid and scarlet fever and many 
other most serious illnesses have their 
origin in cellars, both in city and country; 
and we can do our readers no greater ser- 
vice than to urge them to see that, at all 
times, they are in a dry, sweet, wholesome 
condition. Even foul air enougli to seri- 
ously taint a whole house rises from the 
drains of stationary wash-stands left oi)en 
over night. 

Peanut Oil for , Butter. — Peanut oil, 
used in the South during the war, as a 
substitute for butter, is again coming into 
use in view of the high price of the latter. 



Household Receipts. 

Muffin Pudding — Something Nice. — 
For a muffin pudding, cut six stale muf- 
fins in very thin slices, lay them in a deep 
dish, pour over them half a pint of brandy, 
in which you will let them soak. Simmer 
half a pint of cream with a stick of cin- 
namon, the grated peel of a large lemon, 
and four ounces of lump sugar. Let it 
remain simmering over the fire for ten 
minutes, then take off and keep stirring 
until cold, then mix it by degrees with the 
yolks of eight eggs, well beaten, butter a 
plain mold and line it with muffins, the 
crusty side being outwards. Fill w]} the 
mold with alternate layers of dried cher- 
ries or other fruit, and the crumbs of the 
muffin. Flavor the custard with orange- 
flower water, and pour it into the mold. 
Keep the mould upright, by sitting it in 
bran until the custard has soaked in. Then 
bake it half an hour. 

To Soften Kid Boots. — Melt a quarter 
of a pound of tallow, then pour it into a 
jar, and add to it the same weight of veg- 
etable oil, stir and let it stand till cold; 
apply a small quantity, occasionally, with 
a piece of flannel. This will soften and 
will not injure the kid. 

To Cure Dyspepsia. — Take raw clams 
and broth or, the uncooked broth alone, 
from a gill to a half pint, on an empty 
stomach, before breakfast, for a month, if 
necessary, or even longer. This is in re- 
ply to SaraJi'.t inquiry, and in my case, I 
have found it of great hcneti.t. ^Aiiyitsl Cor. 
Rural New Yorker. 

Apple Fritters. — Pare and core some 
large ajjjiles, cut them into round slices. 
Soak them in wine, sugar and nutmeg for 
two or three hours. Make a batter of four 
eggs, a tablespoonful of milk; thicken with 
enough flour, stirred in by degrees, to 
make a batter ; mix it two or three hours be- 
fore it is wanted, that it may lie light. Heat 
some butter in a frying pan ; dip each slice 
of apple separately in a batter, and fry 
them brown ; sift powdered sugar and grate 
nutmeg over them. 

Fricassed Chicken.— Cut up chicken, 
and boil with slice or two of pork in suffi- 
cient water to cover till quite tender. Fry 
some pork and when cooked a little, drain 
the chicken and fry with the pork till quite 
brown. Then take out, and \Hn\r the broth 
into the frying pan, with the ])ork fat, and 
make a gravy with browned flour, season 
well with butter, jjut the chicken into the 
gravy; be sure and have the fat (juite hot 
when the chicken is put in, so it will 
brown readily. 

Mechanical Hints. 



Rural Picture Frames. — Rustic wood 
for this and other purposes is in great fa- 
vor nowadays. With a little care in selec- 
tion of material, and skill in handling 
tools, we may frame our engravings and 
paintings at slight cost. Oak wook, de- 
nuded of the bark, presents a beautifully 
corrugated siirface, out of which the knife 
easily removes the few fibres which ad- 
here, and it is ready for varnishing as soon 
as it is seasoned. The "season cracks," 
should they occur, may be tilled with 
dark-brown i>utty, and will even highten 
the general eff'ect. 

Take a thin board, of the i-ight size and 
shape, for the foundation of "mat," saw 
out the inner oval or rectangular form to 
suit the jiicture. Nail on the edge a rustic 
frame made of the branches of hard sea- 
soned wood, and garnish the corners with 
some pretty device, such, for instance, as 
a cluster of acorns. Ivy may be trained 
to grow around these frames with beauti- 
ful eSect. — Svieii/IJic American. 

Bronzing fob Leather. — Dissolve a 
a small amount of so-called insoluble ani- 
line violet in water, and brush the solution 
over the article to be bronzed ; it will dry 
quickly and may have to be repeated. 
Shoes treated in this manner have a beau- 
tifully bronzed ajjpearance. 

Elastic and Sweet Starch. — Good com- 
mon glue is dissolved in water, on the wa- 
ter bath, and the water evajiorated down to 
a mass of thick consistence, to which a 
quantity of glycerine, equal in weight to 
the glue, is added, after which the heating 
is continued until all the water has been 
driven ofi", when the mass is poured out in- 
to molds, or on a marble slab. This mix- 
ture answers for stamps, printers' rollers, 
galvano-ijlastic cojncs, (-tc. The sweet 
glue, for ready use liy moistening with the 
tongue, is made in the same way, substitu- 
ting, however, the same quantity of pow- 
dered sugar for the glycerine. 

Varnish for Oil Paintings. — Take dex- 
trine 2 parts, alcohol 1 i)art and water G 
Ijarts. 



Life Thoughts. 

There comes a time when one s-\\t. i 
child-face is more to us than all the world 
beside. 

He is our friend who helps us to one 
new thought or who insjiires us to one no- 
ble action. 

The soul without passion is like unripe 
fruit; not until the sunshine of a real love 
touches it, does it develop sweetness and 
perfection. 

The best sometimes err, but still remain 
the best; while the worst is well at times, 
yet still remain the worst. 

A Beautiful Thought was that in the 
mind of a little girl, who, on beholding a 
faded rose, round which three little buds 
were unfolded, exclaimed to her brother : 
" See, Willie, these little buds have awak- 
ened in time to kiss their mother before she 
dies." 

How TO Secure Pleasant Dreams.— A 
French writer lias said that to dream glori- 
ously, you must act gloriou.sly when 
awake; and to bring angels down" to hold 
converse with you in your sleep, you must 
labor in the cause of' virtue during the 
day. 

How TO Destroy Enemies. — "Why do 
you show favor to your enemies instead of 
destroying them V" said a chieftain to tlie 
Emiieror Sigisniund. " Do I not destroy 
my enemies by making them my friends?" 
was the Emperor's noble reply.' Kindness 
is the best weapon with which to boat an 
adversary. 



Testing a Man. 

No man is a man till lie is tried; till lie 
has i)assed through the ordeal; through 
deep water and scorching fires. A man 
surrounded with comforts, friends and re- 
lations, food and raiment; whose barns are 
filled with plenty, and whose jiresses gush 
out with new wines; Avho eats his fill; sits 
and reads, doles about, taking his ease and 
pleasure; smoking his pipe and chewing his 
cud; is he a man? Far from it. A man is 
not a man until he is proved — has passed 
the oid;>al — drank the bitter cuji; risen 
above life's contUcts; mounted the billows 
of the wave. 



Was .Joseph a man in deed, till he was 
cast into the i)it; torn away from the be- 
witching tempter, leavinghis gaimentsbe- 
hind; till he groaned in the prison house? 
Was Moses a man till he had passed the 
fiery ordeal? Was Paul truly a man till ho 
suffered perils by sea and land, and finally 
received forty strijies save one. 

Let a man be forsaken of all, as was .Job 
— then if becomes out, rising triumphantly 
over all obstacles, he is a man. 



LmxG TO One's Self. — The cure of a 
little village near Bellizona. to whom a 
traveler exjires.sed wonder that the peasants 
allowed the Ticini to flood their fields, ro- 
l)lied that they would not join to build an 
effectual embankment, high up the valley, 
because everybody said, "that would help 
his neighbors as much as himself." So 
every proprietor built a bit of low embank- 
ment about his own field, and the Ticini, 
as soon as it had a mind, swe^it away and 
swallowed uj) all together. 

Leisure Hours. — It was a beautiful ob- 
servation of the late William Hazlitt. that 
" There is room enough in human life to 
crowd almost every art and science into it. 
If we jiass no day without the company of 
books — we may with ease till librai-ies or 
empty them of their contents. The more 
we do, the more we can do; the nnu-e busy 
we are, the more leisure we have." 



Industry. — It is no man's business 
whether he lias genius or not; work he 
must, whatever he is,butquietlyand steadi- 
ly; and the natural and unforced results of 
such work will be .always^ the thing God 
meant him to do, and will be his b(>st. No 
agonies or heart rcndiugs will enable him 
to do any better. If he is a great man, 
they will be great things; but always, if 
thus peacefully done, good and right. — 
Muskin. 



Don't reLike a Lohster. — It is said that 
when the waves carry a lobste'- up into tlu^ 
rocks and leaves liim there, high and dry, 
th(M"(' he remains perfectly inactive, waiting; 
for tlie wav(>s to coin<> and wash him oil' 
again. And should the waves fail to reach 
hifn he miserably dies, when by a little 
exertion of his own he could have readied 
the water which was lying only a few feet 
from him. Ho it is with some men. When 
the waves of fortune leave them high and 
dry on the rocks of adversity, they wait to 
be borne off again witliont making any ef- 
fort of their own. Young man, don't be 
like a silly lobster. 



44 



■<^(r^ 



[January 21, 1871. 



LARGE AND SMALL BEET SUGARIES. 

Edixoks Tkess:— Four j-ears ago, when 
the late George Gordon gave to the pul)lic 
hia views on the introduction of the beet 
sugar industry to California, it became 
quite generally understood from his writ- 
ings, that the profitable working of what 
he termed "Rural Sugaries" was a matter of 
grave question. Whether the farmer hav- 
ing suitable soil, and say ^10,000 or $15,- 
OW ready cash, could engage profitably in 
beet sugar making, without recourse to 
association as the means of raising a much 
larger capital. 

It is quite true that when $;5()0,000, can 
be had for the erection of a sugarie capable 
of working daily 200 tons of beets, yielding 
IG tons of sugar, that the profit on the in- 
vestment is much larger in i)roportion 
than* when gi'iOO.OOO is employed in a 100 
tons-a-day sugarie, or 8100,000 in a 50 ton.s- 
a-day sugarie, or only §12,000 in a .sugarie 
capable of working but 10 tons in a day, 
and yielding but 2,500 pounds of sugar. 

But it does not follow from this, that the 
$12,000 sugarie cannot bo made to pay, 
even as high as twenty per cent. i)er an- 
num; for it certainly can. 

There are numerous sugaries in both 
France and Germany, that did not origi- 
nally cost more than $12,000, which have 
since grown into large estaV)lishments, em- 
ploying a capital of half a million. 

It is in this way that the largo establish- 
ments, which are said to be "swallowing 
up the lesser ones," are doing it. They 
are doing it out of the very profits derived 
from working the lesser establishments, 
wherever there is suitable soil and in suffi- 
cient quantity to warrant an extension of 
works. 

In putting up a 812,000 sugarie it will 
not do to erect works simply on a smaller 
scale, copying all the ela1)orate apparatus 
of the larger ones; but entirely different 
machinery, and even a different process 
for extracting the juice is resorted to. 
Quite as much diffcroutre in this regard, as 
in the extraction of gold from quartz, be- 
tween the primitive arastra and the ;50 
stamp mill. 

A large expense can be saved in the erec- 
tion of a sugarie, large or small, by placing 
it upon a hill-side instead of on level 
grouud, amounting sometimes to thousands 
of dollars. 

I have seen a sxigarie thus situated, in 
which the longest conducting pipe for 
juice or syrup, in the whole cstablisliment, 
was less than six feet. The entire building, 
though sixty feet long; was but sixteen 
feet wide, and but one story of twelve feet 
high with a continuous roof from the top 
of the hill to the bottom. The beets were 
received into the building at the toj); and 
the finished sugar delivered on the lower 
floor, in twenty-two hours from the raw 
beet; and yet so small was the concern that 
but fifteen tons were worked jjer day ; and 
this sugarie paid annually from twenty- 
eight to thirty-two jier cent. u])on its cost. 

In proof of my position that small su- 
garies will pay, I produce in evidence- of 
their success in France, where the average 
l)roduct of Ijeets per acre is hardly fifteen 
tons, and the cost of labor forty cents a 
day, the following from the Journal of 
Prnclical Ayrimilturc, edited by M. Barral: 

"The profitable annexation' of the sn- 
crerie- — sugarii^ — to the farm establishment 
is no longer a question admitting of doubt. 
That to the sugarie sliould be annexed the 
distillery; not that the distillery is second 
in importance as a profitable! industry, but 
that sugar as a farm jtroduct, is at-corded a 
merited preference. 

1st. Because it is easier to make sugar 
than alcohol from beets. 

2d. Hugar is a product of certain and 
ready sale, an article of the first necessity; 
whilst alcohol, notwithstanding its impor- 
tance, does not present entirely the same 
conditions. 

3d. The producticm of sugar is a social 
good, and though alcohol is of great im- 
portance, in many of the arts, it does not 
2)ossess eejual alimentary priiicijdes. 

"But the introduction of the sugarie 
upon the farm is very far from being anew 
idea; that idea being inherent in sugaries 



themselves, and it is impossible not to see 
in it a return to sane traditions. All that 
is requred to insure siicc^ess, is a rational 
method, an economical construction and 
management of the works." 

He cites the following in proof of his 
position: 

METHOD OF M. KESSLEK. 

"M. Kessler called on us to conduct us 
to the farm of M. Belin, agriculturist and 
distiller. We there found a sugarie in full 
operation, treating easily 15,000 kilo- 
gramms — sixteen and a half tons — of beets 
in 24 hours, and yielding a prduct of 740 
kilogramms — 1,053 j)ounds — of sugar, and 
this from the first washing of the pul]); 
the second and third washings and the 
molasses going to the distillery. 

"This sugarie did not cost more than 25,- 
000 francs~S5,000. The accounts which 
we have examined and studied in all their 
details, i)rove to us that the amount re- 
ceived from sugar from the first washing of 
the pulp, was a better return than though 
the whole juice had gone to the distillery. 

"The process is very simple and consists 
in washing the beets, their division by the 
rasp, washing the i)ulp, extracticm of the 
juice, its defection by lime and evapora- 
tion by boiling in the open air — the product 
being a sugar with a good dry grain and a 
perfectly merchantable article. Not one of 
the men employed had ever seen sugar 
matle l>efore commencing in this little su- 
garie of M. Belin, one month previous to 
our visit." 

He further says: 

"An apparatus that will work 14,000 kil- 
ogramms — 10^^ tons — of beets in 24 hours, 
need not cost more than 10,000 or 18,0(»0 
francs — .?3.000; so that it is quite ])ossible 
to manufacture .sia-re aii rillngf — village or 
home-made sugar, by the introduction of 
sugaries upon farms." w. w. 




LAMP ATTACHMENT FOR 
MACHINES. 



The importance of a good light directly 
on the work in hand, and not thrown into 
the eyes of the operator, cannot l)e over- 
estimated, esijccially for those persons who 
are obliged to subject their eyes to servere 
tests. Only too little attention is jiaid to 
this matter, and we consecj^ucntlj- see many 
with sight weakened and injured. 

In using sewing machines, there is con- 
siderable difficulty in securing such a light. 
A lamj) i)laced on the machine interferes 
greatly with the oijcrations, and is liable 
to be knocked over. Experience in this 
matter has led to the invention here illus- 
trated, which is a neat and simjjle bracket, 
easily adjusted so as to throw the whole 
light directly where it is needed. By this 
arrangement, the light can be directed to 
any desired i)oint, while the lamj) is se- 
curely held in a position which does not 
interfere with the working of the machine. 
The cut shows the device sufficiently well 
without need of descrii)tion. 

The lamj) used in connection with the 
bracket is a medium-sized hand lamp, 
which can be det;M;hed and used for other 
purposes if desired. An improved burner 
and a neat shade are used, and the whole 
can be made quite an ornamental addition 
to the machine. By the uses of such a 
device, not only is increased speed in work 
obtained, but the eyes of the sewer are 
protected from injury. 

A ijatent has been granted for this in- 
vention, through the Scientific Pkess 
patent agency, to Mr. Campbell, of this 
city. Messrs. Cohen and Campbell, 912 
Kearny street, are the general agents, and 
will furnish any further information de- 
sired. 



SAN MATEO CO.— ALONG THE COAST. 

[Written for the Pkk88.J 

Editobs PAfiFic RuRAii.— The position 
of San Mateo County, ranging along the 
west side of San Francisco Bay, is too well 
known to need a description; and yet, with 
its beautiful stretch of sloping lands, divid- 
ed by several mountain streams and as 
many mountain spurs, into pleasant val- 
leys, where homesteads and villas and 
villages and cultivation lijive added a mul- 
titudinous evidence of wealth and civiliza- 
tion; Avhere the lavish hand of Nature 
seems to open, as it were, into the lap of 
luxury, one sees much to note and specify. 
But we will now call attention to the 
country along the coast, over the moun- 
tains that seem to have been elevated as a 
s))ecial barrier against the bleak winds of 
the ocean. 

Along the Ocean Beach 
there is a chain of open valleys, inter- 
spersed with sloping hills and sheltered 
ravines, that reach well into the frowning 
mountains, and widen into fine fields and 
rolling hills, all rich in moist and friable 
soil, most prolific in its yield of produce, 
where\er the magic i)low has touched the 
land. 

A varying scenery meets the eye at every 
mile. The slceijiug vallej's lie hidden by 
circling hills of most romantic forms, with 
many sluuly nooks and winding streams. 
The slojjing plains that sweo)) toward the 
sandy beach, and the frowning bluft' or 
mountain spur which defies the rage of 
battling waves, and grand old ocean reach- 
ing out beyond the vision — each and every 
scene quite fills the imagination, as Nature 
rivals Nature, only to jilease anew, with 
unrivalled scenes, at ever varj^ng land- 
scape. 

The country around Half Moon Bay is 
quite rich in soil that lays easy to tillage 
being mostly level, or nearly so. The hill- 
sides, too, when cleared from brush, yield 
finely of vegetables and grain. The farm- 
ers are busy sowing grain and ])lanting 
potatoes for an early crop, which will ripen 
in May or June. 

Agricultural Advantages. 
The principal croiJ here is potatoes; al- 
though the soil is ca- 
jjable of ]iroducing 
anything. Oats take 
second rank, then bar- 
ley and beans. Wheat 
is liable to rust; and 
corn suffers in the 
cool, raw sea winds — 
so say the farmers 
here. Stock raising 
and dairying seems to 
be the favorite busi- 
ness for that class 
which monopolizes 
thousands of acres (and they are too many 
for the good of this region, as well as in 
otlier ])arts of the state) . 

The crude idea that wild lands in abund- 
ance are neccssarj' to the Ijusiness of stock 
raising seems to bo chronic in this state, 
in spite of the truth that we can jiroduce 
three times the amount of feed from an 
acre, with one half the amount of labor, 
on an average, than they can East, where 
they depend on %\hat they can raise to keep 
stock, and find it jjrofitable, too. 

Here, we arc told that 200 sacks of pota- 
toes have been harvested from an acre, and 
that 125 is an average croj) — each sack 
weighing 125 jjounds. From 50 to 100 tons 
of stock beets are realized from an acre, 
besides untold quantities of squashes, etc. ; 
while the slightest sort of cultivation will 
insure a good yield in the light, rich soils. 
But still, owing to the miserable improvi- 
dence practised by most of its inhabitants, 
many cattle are half starved upon the 
hills. 

The little Village ot Spanishtown, 
Situated in a rich district, so far as natural 
soil and iiroductivcness goes, is like a 
desert in its appearance and surroundings, 
without trees or other attractive evidences 
of civilization and refinement. A little 
Yankee enterprise and intelligence would 
make it a garden of fruit and ornamental 
trees, and infuse life and business and 
prosperity, where negligcm-e and indigence 
too much abound. The spirit of specula- 
tion, however, — idle speculation, — has in- 
flated the imaginations of land owners, su 
that honest worth is barred out as effectual- 
ly as high ])rices can do it. There are 
some really fine i)laces. be it understood, 
along the coast — well managed farms and 
neighborhoods — with flourishing orchards, 
homes and i)eople. 




At Pescadero 
There is an excellent settlement, and the 
place, in contrast with Half Moon Bay, is 
a paratliso; and any word but praise would 
be mis-spoken, when referring to Pescade- 
ro, although there is still chance for im- 
)irovement there, and they are improving. 
Tlie farms are fenced, tlie houses painted, 
the front yards ])lanteil with trees and 
shrubbery, the homes plesusant and busi- 
ness flourishing. A new wharf is in con- 
tcnqdation, when shipping will be facilita- 
ted and the rates of freight lowered. There 
is now a numojxdy that chax-ges exorbitimt 
rates to San Francisco. 

The mountains, back, ore filled with ex- 
cellent timber, and several saw mills are 
already at work; while the soil is ven- fer- 
tile and ]iroductive. The best hotel on the 
coast is here, kept by a gentleman who 
knows how to do it, and does it too — Mr. 
C. W. Swanston. I'eblile Beach, near 
here, is one of the attractions that draws a 
crowd in "the season." Between Half 
Moon Bay and Pescadero there are several 
stations where liusiness is, or may be, 
good, according to the disposition of the 
inhabitiints, which ai'e mixed. 

Taken all in all, this section of California 
is the most varied, the richest in .soil, en- 
tirely ind(4)endent of drouth, and the 
finest "in the rough" of any we have seen. 
S. H. Hekring. 



HOTEL LIFE IN '49. 

We have received from A. L. Bancroft Ar 
Co., 721 Market street, an interesting vol- 
ume, — the History of San Jose and Sur- 
roundings.* The book is j)leasantly writ- 
ten, and forms a valuable collection of facts 
concerning the city of San Jose and the 
valley of Santa Clara, one of the richest of 
vales, and one which contains the most 
ancient Pueblo in the State. A hasty pe- 
rusal of pages here and there calls to mind 
many facts forgotten and brings up many 
reminiscences of similar events. We give 
an extract concerning hotel life, which is 
not entirely unknown even now in some 
l^arts of our coast. 

The principal hotel of San Jose, the City 
Hotel, was a frame building, one and a half 
stories high. The tal)lo was remarkably 
good, — equal to many of the present day. 
Vegetables were the scarce articles. Al- 
though very good, the boarding was ex- 
pensive. The price was five dollars in gold 
per day; that is, board and lodging. The 
sleeping apartments were not e(jual to the 
eating; in fact, the house was not suffi- 
ciently large to accommodate one-half, nay, 
one-fourth of the boarders; the dining- 
room and bar-room floors were used to 
stretch out the weary eaters at night; not 
only occasionally, but regularly as the 
night canje, and no deduction of price was 
miule because a boarder was kind enough 
to get so low down. Whether a man hiul 
rested on the floor, or on the best bed in 
the house, he soon found that, although 
not caring much for a great deal of, or 
very elegant furniture, yet he did deem it 
absolutely necessary to have about him a 
pf)cket-comb; and when he was about to 
purcha.so that arti(de, he never for a mo- 
ment doubted whether to take a tine or 
coarse one. He found joint-tenants in that 
house, which claimed and took possession, 
though not registered; nor could they be 
ejected by the law, except the law of solf- 
preservation. If a man scratched his hesul, 
nobody for a moment supi)osed it was for 
an idea. If there ^vere no ideas running in 
his head, there were other subjects that at- 
tracted his attention. It was a hazardous 
undertaking to attemj)t to eat at the first 
table; the rush was so great, that crowding 
through the dining-room door put one in 
mind of trying to drive a four-horse team 
through a single door of a stable. 

A dinner cost tw o dollars, a good bed for 
a night's lodging the same; but one could 
obtain a cot, or bunk with blankets, one 
night, for one dollar. Eggs were worth 5(1 
cents each, vegetables of all kinds were 
scarce and high; potatoes were the ])rin<'i 
pal vegetables eaten, and the only class 
that appeared to be found at all times; a 
few onions at 25 or 50 cents each could I'c 
had. Beef and mutton were tlie onl^ 
meats, with the e.xcei)tion of, now and 
then, chickens, wild duck, rabbit and 
squirrels, at high rates. 

» With Biogrnphieal Sketches of Early Settlere. By 
Freclerick Hull. Illustrated. A. L. Bancroft & Co., S. 
F., 1871. 8U0 pp. 5a7. 



Butte Cocntt. — It is claimed that 
Bntte County grain lands will produce 
crojjs, when they can be raised in any i)or- 
tion of the state — drouths being less inju- 
rious there than almost anywhere else. 



January 21, 1871.] 



-^r^ 



45 



CiXY pj/i^^s^EY R^ip@^T. 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE AT WHOLESALE. 

San Francisco, Thurs., p. m., Jan. 19th. 

FLOUR — Is only in limited demand for ex- 
port; while the demand for local trade con- 
tinues fair. We note a slight advance in prices 
from last quotations. Standard Oregon brands 
are quotable at fG.00@C.75; local brands- 
superfine, $5.50@,5.75; extra $6.50@6.75. 
Transactions include 4,000 bbls. Cal. extra, and 
16,000 qr. sacks Cal. superfine, the latter for ex- 
port. 

WHEAT — During the early part of the week 
the ofi'erings were light and prices advanced. 
At the close, offerings are more free, downward 
tendency. Sales embrace 17,000 sacks. We 
quote the range of all kinds at f2.20@'2.35; 
good to choice shipping, f 2.20@2.27>^, choice 
niilhng $2.25@,2.32. Liverpool quotations are 
reported at lis. 7d. New York rates remain un- 
changed— $1.60@1. (55 per bushel. 

BARLEY — Is still in fair demand, and pi-ices 
remain about the same as last week. We 
quote $1.35@1..50, from fair to choice; $1.45 at 
close. 

OATS — We note a limited demand for oats. 
Fair to good maybe quoted at fl.40@l,60. 

CORN— May "be quoted at $1.50 for large 
yellow, small yellow and white $1.55. 

BUCKWHEAT— Nominal at $3@3.50 from 
the wharf. 

RYE— In limited demand. The latest sale is 
reported at $2.50. 

FEED— Remains with but little change. We 
quote: Straw, $8@9; Bran, $28@30; Mid- 
dlings, $ — for feed, and $35@40 per ton for 
fine; Oil Cake Meal has advanced to $30. 

Hay — The receipts have been free since our 
last, but with a good demand prices have ad- 
vanced. We quote ordinary wild oat to choice 
wheat at $13@17 50 "^ ton. 

HONEY — In good demand at the following 
rates: Los Angeles, 5-gall cans, $12((h,W, and 
Potter's, 2 lb do, at $4 % dozen. 

POTATOES Market firm, with advanced 

prices. We quote Carolinas at $100; other 
kinds $1 40@$170, from fair to choice. 

HOPS — This year's crop is still quotable at 
10(«)12i/c. 

HIDES — We quote Dry, slaughterer's stock, 
1C%@,18 c; Salted ; 8@8%c. Sales during the 
week 1,490 Cal. dry. 

WOOL — We quote good shipping, at 15@ 
n%c; very choice, 18%c; burry, 10@12%c; 
slightly do, 13@14e. There are being no 
stock on the market, the above quotations are 
merely nominal. 

TALLOW— Quotable at 7@7>^c, from ordi- 
nary to choice. 

SEEDS— California Mustard, none in the 
market; Flax 3@;3>^c., Canary, 7@8c. 

BEANS— Quiet at the following rates. Bayo 
at $2.25@2..50; butter, $2.25; small white pink 
andred$1.87@2.00; pea, $2.00 per 100 pounds, 
100 sacks bayo, from first hands, sold for $2 50 
per 100 pounds. 

FRESH MEAT— The market is firm and 
quotations unchanged. We quote prices from 
slaughterers to dealers: 

BEEF— American, 1st quality, 10@llc Ift lb. 
Do 2d do 9@10c i^ lb. 

Do 3d do 7@ 8c f^ fc. 

VEAL— From 8@ 12c. 

MUTTON— Steady at 9@10c. "^ ft). 

LAMB — None in market. 

PORK— Undressed at 5>^@G%c; dressed, 
has advanced to 9(aid%. 

POULTRY, ETC.— In small supply, and 
prices remain unchanged. Young Chickens $6@, 
7; Hens $7@8.50; Roosters, $7@8.00: Ducks, 
tame, $8@y Tp>, doz; do -ndld, f l(fli3.00 "i^ doz; 
geese, tame;$2.50@$3 f, pair; wild, $1.75@3 f. 
doz; tame Turkeys, 18@20c ^ fc; Hare, 1.50 
per doz; Doves, 50c do; Quail, $1.25@1.50. 

DAIRY PRODUCTS— California Butter, 
fresh, in rolls, 4.5@50c; Packed rolls, 35@40c. 
Oregon firkin, 20@225.^c; Eastern do, 25(«! 
35c. The receipts of choice butter have been 
fair. 

Cheese — In fair supply, at unchanged rates. 
California, new, 13@15c., Eastern, 16@,17c. 

Eoos— California fresh, 37.;/^@40c; Oregon, 
30c; CaUfornia Lard, 11-lb tins, 12@13%c; 
Oregon, 13%@14%c, according to package. 

FRUITS — We submit the following prices, 
for which we are indebted to A. Lusk & Co. : 
Cal. Apples, per box, $1.00(n),$2.00; Oregon, 
$1@$2.00; Pears, per box, $1.50@$4.00; Or- 
anges, per 1,000, $40@f 50; Lemons, per box, 
$16; Pears, scarce. 

CASE GOODS— In 2 lb cans, per doz.. Apri- 
cots, $4; Apples, $2.50; Blackberries, $4 ; Ger- 
man Prunes, $4; Grapes, $4; Peach, table, $4; 
Peach, pie, $3; Pie, assorted, $3; Plum, table, 
$3,50; Plum, pie, $3; Pears, $3.75; Quince, 
$3.50; Tomatoes, $2; Table, assorted, $3.75. 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS —Busi- 
ness in this department still contains good; and 
dealers are looking forward to a busy season. 

BAGS AND BAGGING— Are in moderate 
request only, and will so be until the approach 
of the coming season. We quote wool bags at 
50@52%c. Oat Sacks 23x40, r2;^c; 28x35, 18c; 
Potato Sacks, ny^c; imitation Dundees, 18@ 
11) c. Standard burlaps, 22x36, 12%c. 
BUILDING AND FENCING MATERIALS— 
In good demand, and prices are reported firm. 
We (juote wholesale rates to dealers : Redwood 
Rough at $18; do Siding, $22.50; do Surfaced, 
$30; Fancy Pickets, $30; Oregon Rough, $17; 
do Flooring, $27; do Fencing, $18; Laths, 
$3@3.25, and Redwood Shingles, $2.75 ^ M. 



DRIED FRUITS— In moderate request. We 
quote the market as follows : Cal. Dried Apples, 
5%c; Oregon do, 6%c; Languedoc Almonds; 
25c; Figs, Smyrna, 15@20c; Prunes, Hungarian, 
16@17c, for old and new respectively, '^ lb; 
Raisins, layer, $4.25@5.00; Currants, Zante, 
ny®.12y^c.; Citron, 50c. 

PROVISIONS— The stock of all kinds of 
Cured Meats are in fair supply, and a good de- 
mand continues to exist. We quote jobbing 
rates as follows; Hams, California, atl3@13i/^c; 
Oregon do, 16%(«il7c; Bacon, California, 15@ 
15^c; Oregon do, 16@16%c; Lard, California, 
12%@13%c; Oregon do, in kegs, 13@14%c 
1^!b. 



Leather Market Report. 

[Corrected weekly by DoUiver & Bro.. No. 109. Post st.] 
San Francisco, Thursday, Jan. 12. 
Sole Leather. — The demand is good and 
the stock on hand light, on account of heavy 
shipments to the east. Prices rule firm. We 
quote : 

City Tanned 26 ®29 

Santa Cruz 26 (a):il 

Country 26 @28 

Calf and Kip Skins. — French stocks con- 
tinue scarce and high on account of the lack 
of exportation from French ports which has al- 
most entirely ceased. We quote: 

Best French C'alf SkhiR, ^ doz 75 00@100 00 

Common French Calf Skins, ;f> doz 36 00@ 76 00 

French Kips, if»ft 1 ootg) 1 30 

California Kip, ^ doz 60 00® 80 00 

California Calf, ^ Itj 100(g) 125 

Eastern Wheel Stuffed Calf, ^ ft 80® 1 00 

Eastern Bench StuU'ed Calf, if» ft 1 10® 1 2.5 

Eastern Calf for Backs, i)er ft 1 15® 1 25 

Sheep Roans for topping, all colors, Tjl doz 8 50® 1.3 00 

Sheep Roans for linings, Tfi doz. . . - 6 50® 10 .50 

California Russet Sheep Linings 175® 6 50 

HARNESS LEATHER, "ji ft 30® 37 

Fair Bridle, |t ft 3:i@ 40 

Skirting, if» doz 4 50® 4 75 

Welt Leather,^ doz 30 00® 50 00 

Buff Leather, ?> foot 22® 2B 



San Francisco Metal Market. 

PRICES FOR hWGICES 

fobbing prices rulefrovi ten to fifteen per cent, higher than the 
foUoiciitq qiwtutiims. 

Friday, .Tan. 20. 1871. 
InoN.-Duty : Pig, $7 per ton ; Railroad, 60c TH 100 fts.; 
Bar, l®l)iic ^ ft: Sheet, polished, 3c tI ft; common, 
l)«®l?4c^ ft; Plate, 1)40 Tfi ft; Piiie, l)4c TH ft; 
Galvanized, 2)40 lt> ft. 
Scotch and Eug. Pig Iron, ^ ton. . .$34 @$35 50 

White Pig, ^ ton ® 35 00 

Refined Bar, bad assortment, ^ ft. . — 03 ® 

Refined Bar, good assortment, ^ ft. — 04 @ 

Boiler, No. 1 to 4 — 04 Ji® 

Plate, No. 5 to 9 ® — OtH 

Sheet, No. 10 to 13 — 04)^® — 05 

Sheet, No. 14 to 20 — 05 ® — 05)4 

Sheet, No. 24 to 2T —05 @ — 06>i 

Copper.— Duty : Sheathing, 3 J^c ^ ft; Pig and Bar, 
2!«ic Ti» ft. 

Sheathing, ?l ft @ — 26 

Sheathing, Yellow — 20 ® — 21 

Sheathing, Old Yellow — 10 ® — 11 

Composition Nails — 21 @ — 22 

Composition Bolts — 21 ® — 22 

Tiv Plates.— Duty : 25 ^ cent, ad valorem. 

Plates, Charcoal, IX, ^j* box 12 00 ® 

Plates, I C Charcoal 10 00 ® 10 50 

Roofing Plates 10 00 @ 10 60 

Banca Tin, Slabs, ■)(( ft ® — 42 

Steel.— English Cast Steel, Tf» ft ® — 15 

QniCKsrLVER.— Tf» ft (g) — 90 

Lead.— Pig, ^ ft — G ®— 7 

Sheet — 9 ® 

Pipe — 10 ® 11 — 

Bar _ 8 ®— 9 

Zinc— Sheets, ^ ft — 10!<S® — 11 

Bokax — 35 @ — 2ii 



San Francisco Market Rates. 

'Wholesule Prices. 

Friday, Januarj 20. 1871. 

flour, Extra, ^bbl ti u(i •aje 75 

Do. Superfine 5cu @ s 50 

(Virn Meal, f« lUO lbs 2 '.^S @ 2 M 

Wheat, ^ luu lbs 2 90 @ 2 3i) 

i)at8, ^ lOU tt)3 1 40 @ 1 ,50 

Barley, ^ji 100 lbs i 35 @ 1 45 

Beans, %t luu lbs 1 HIH o 2 .50 

Potatoes, ^ lUU lbs I IHJ a 1 .'lO 

Hay,l*toM 10 uo (315 ut) 

Live Oak Wood,^ cord lu 00 @li UU 

Beef, extra, dressed, ^ lb 8 @ 12 

Sheep, on foot 2 00 @ 2 50 

HoKs, on foot, ^ lb ■ 6 la 6}^ 

Hogs, dressed, #^ lb 7>^ ® 8 

GROCERIES, ETC. 

Sugar, crushed, %* lb @ 15 

Do. Hawaiian 9 (^ 12 

Coffee, Costa Kica, i» B) — @ 2I>^ 

Do. Rio @ is>. 

Pea, Japan, ^ lb 65 @ 1 UU 

Do. Green 60 @ 1 00 

Hawaiian Rice, ^ lb 9 @ 10 

China Rice, f* lb 10 @ II 

Coal Oil, ^ gallon 50 @ 65 

i:andles, ^ lb 14 3 18 

Overland Butter 30 @ ;-5 

Ranch Butter, ^8 lb 45 ® 55 

Isthmus Butter, 5f< lb 25 @ 35 

Cheese, Calilornia, ^ lb 9 @ 15 

Et'gs.^dozen 40 @ 45 

Lard.^lb 11^ @ Uy, 

Ham and Bacon, ^ lb 31 @ 17 

Shoulders, TH lb 9 @ 10 

Ketall Prices. 

Butter, California, fresh, ^ lb 60 @ 65 

do. pickled, ^Ib 40 ® 60 

do. OrcKon, %(» ® 1^5 

Cheese, ^Ib 20 O 25 

Honey, W lb 25 @ 30 

Ebk's, « dozen 60 @ 70 

Lard, ij* lb 18 ® X 

Hams and Bacon, W lb 22 3 25 

Cranberries,^ gallon 7." @ 1 UO 

Potatoes, ^ lb 2 ® 3 

Potatoes, Sweet, ^ lb..-. — 9 2 

rouiatoes,^ lb 293 

Onfous,|*Ib . 2 @ 3 

Apples, No. 1, ^ lb 4 9 6 

Pears, Table. « lb ]..'... 6 @ 

Plums, dried, « lb 10 @ IJ 

Peaches, dried, V B) .. 10 ® 16 

Oranges, H dozen 50 9 75 

Lemons, "^ dozen fiO 9 75 

Chickens, apiece 76 @ 1 00 

Turkeys, It* ft _L @ 2s 

Soap, Pale and C. 10 9 15 

Soap, Castile. 1ft lb 18 a 20 

A New Agricultural Paper. — We were call- 
ed upon this week by Mr. C. T. Jennings, who 
is canvassing this county on behalf of the new 
agricultural jjaper to be published by Messrs. 
Dewey & Co., the publishers of the San Fran- 
cisco Scientijic Press. 



[ADVERTISEMENT.] 

A NEW PAPER FOE 1871. 



A First Class Pacific States Agri- 
cultural and Home Journal. 

Will be issued weekly on Saturdays, com- 
mencing Jan. 7th, 1871, containing sixteen pag- 
es devoted to 

Ag'rlcultxiro, 'Ilortieultur©, Stools 

X&Eiising;, T>oiiie«tic Eooiiomy, 

tXonne lVIa,ii\xia.ctux'©s IVt©- 

cIia,Tilcs, Industries, etc. 

With an able and ample corps of editors, spe- 
cial contributors and coiTespondents, we shall 
pubUsh a liberal variety of articles, entertain- 
ing as well as instructive, which will not only 
make the Rural Press an able assistant to its 
patrons, but an attractive and welcome visitor 
to every reader in every intelligent 

Home Circle, 

in the Pacific States. And more than this, we 
shall freight its columns with fresh thoughts, 
and new ideas, which hastened across the con- 
tinent by rail, shall awaken and quicken the 
zeal of the more staid and gradual moving cul- 
turists of the eastern and European States, to 
their 

Pleasure and Profit. 

We shall not only make a good paper for all hus- 
bandmen and homestead owners, (who now, more 
than ever require a knowledge of new discover- 
ies in science and mechanical improvements, ) 
but shall also render the journal a desideratum 
for those who contemplate becoming freehold- 
ers, and a large class of 

Meclianics, Teachers, Students, Business, 
Professional and Trades Men, 

whose interests are more or less identical with 
successful fanning, and the active develop- 
ment of our vast and rich resources. Few there 
are — male or female — who will not find pleasure 
and jnuoblement in the study of progressive 
farming and gardening. 

Honest, intelligent and coiTcct infonnation 
will be faithfully given, in behalf of, and urging 

An improved Cultivation of tlie Soil ; 
A greater Diversity of Products; 
Better Breeds of Stock; 
Better Varieties of Pruits; 
The Culture of New Products; 
Creation of New Home Industries; 
Adoption of Improved Implements; 
Higher ami Happier Aims in Life, etc. 

Valuable and Timely Hints, 

will be given weekly to lessen the labors of the 
farm, the household and the shop, and add to 
the health, the wealth and the wisdom of evei-y 
patron of industry. 

How to Farm in the Pacific 
States. 

As the conditions and circumstances of soil 
and climate and seasons on this coast are so pe- 
cuhar that many of the approved methods of 
eastern agriculture are not at all applicable on 
our side of the Continent, — special attention 
will be given to considering the need, extent and 
character of the modifications necessary. This 
will alone render the paper of great practical 
value to our home readers and more essential to 
them than all the distant publications obtaina- 
ble, without such auxilliary and modifying in- 
structions. 

The following are among the specialties upon 
which the Pacific Rural Press will treat: 

Silk, Cotton and Sugar Beet Culture; Nurseries, 
Orchards, Tropical and small Fruits; Steam- 
plowing, seeding and harvesting for large 
tracts; Reclamation of swamp and un- 
productive lands; Hill and mountain farm- 
ing; Grape growing; Fig, Rasin and Fruit 
drjang; Irrigation; Lessons and Lectures on 
the chemistry of gi-owing crops and on fer- 
tilizing lands ; Practical Farming vs. Specu- 
lation; Taxation of unimproved lands; 
Railroads and improved transportation for 
crops and the better class of immigrants; 
Farmer's Chibs, lectures and associations; 
Co-operation in farming, me<'hanism, man- 
ufacturing and otlicr industries; Govern- 
ment lands for settlers whether sold by R. 
R. operators or the U. S. ; lleUable whole- 
sale and retail market reports; Brief notices 
of Mechanical and Scientific Progress; 
Instructions for regular and farmer me- 
chanics; Household Reading; Health and 
domestic receipts; a sprinkling of sprightly 
reading; Life thoughts; Poetry, condensed 
stories, items of news, etc., will be given. 

A Plain and Simple Style 

Of writing will be our endeavor. Necessarily 
dealing largely in researches for facts we believe 
it desirable ,to present them in an inviting shape 
and in so comprehensive language that our 
special journalism shall advance in popularity 
and common rehsh. 

No ediioriabi or sdedmis of unchaste or doubt- 
ful inthience; or lottery, quark or other (iisreputfihle 
advertisements, iciU be admUied into its colunins. 



Arrangement of Matter. 

Our reports of agiicultural, horticultural and 
other fairs, lectures, farmers' clubs and social 
literary meetings [the improvement and in- 
crease of which we shall especially advocate] 
will be carefully prepared in a valuable form for 
preservation; and the matter of our entire col- 
umns will be so classified as to be convenient to 
readers of various minds and individual tastes 
for ready perusal and future reference. 

Interesting Illustrations of Pacific States 

and Eastern Inventions and Machinery, 

Fine Arts, Science, Fruits, Rare 

Stock and Natural Scenery, 

Of special or peculiar interest to otir readers 

will be published weekly in liberal vaiiety. 

No pains or reasonable expense will be spared 

to furnish a 

Large and Eichly lilled Journal 
Nicely printed on fine paper, which will favora- 
bly compare with the long established class 
journals of more populous fields and older com- 
munities. Although the latter have less oppor- 
tunities than new communities to be benefitted 
by printed information of discoveries, 

And Neighborly Experiences, 

the reading of agricultural newspapers and 
books is lately increasing with a rapidity 
quite astonishing, and with the most profitable 
results. 

We enter the field after a carefiil consider.i- 
tion and consultation with many of our leading 
agriculturists, with the strong conviction that 
such a journal on this coast is greatly needed 
and earnestly desired by the most prospectively 
flourishing and rapidly progressing community 
in the Union if not in the world. Wo know 
the task before us, — two of the proprietors and 
editors having experienced respectively 18 and 
13 years of successful journalism in this state. 
SUBSCRIPTION IN ADVANCE. 

One copy one year $4 00 

One copy six months 2.50 

One copy three montha 1.25 

Single copies 10 

CLUB RATES. 

TencopieR or more, first year, each $3.00 

[A free copy or preminm sent to getter up of club.] 

A select variety of advertisements only will be insert- 
ed. Circulated widely anions; the most thrifty of our 
population, the P. R. P. will be the cheapest and 
most eflective medium for a large range of hrst class 
advertisements in the Pacific states. 

Correspondence is respectfully solicited from 
every worthy source. 

LoGAL Canvassers Wanted for every to\\'n, 
city and county. Special inducements ofi'ered. 

Parties di'siring to get up clubs or act as 
agents, will be furnished sample copies and pvoH- 
pectus free. 

DEW E Y At Co., 
Publishers Patent Agents and Engravers, No. 
414 Clay st., San Francisco. Nov. 21, 1870. 

[Being also publishers of the ScrexriFio Press, we 
would say here that no change will be made in that 
paper excejit to improve it in its present character. 
Each journal will be published entirely distinct from 
the other.— D. & Co.] 



The Pacific Rural Press. — We have receiv- 
ed a samjile copy of this new puljlication from 
the office of the San Francisco Scii-nliHc. Press 
of Dewey <fe Co. 

We are much pleased vntli it. It is a first 
class agi'icultural jiaper and is bound to have a 
good circulation in the state. 

It is in quarto form, and printed on good 
paper and tjqje. 

It is filled with good and appropriate matter, 
and not spoiled with personal pufis, published 
for personal considerations. 

The illustrations are ajjpropriate and in good 
taste. 

We look upon this journal as one which will 
fairly represent the industrial interests of Cali- 
fornia. — Sacramento Union, Dec. 2C. 



Pacific Rural Press. — Dewey & Co., of the 
Scieyttijic Press, have just issued a sixteen-page 
paper, quarto form, bearing the foregoing title. 
It is to be devoted to the interests of agi'icul- 
ture, and will be freely illustrated. The speci- 
men number is creditable. The publishers say, 
in a circular accompanying the paper: 

We herewith present to your notice a copy of 
the Pacific Eural Press, the publication of 
which we undertake after well testing the wants 
of the Pacific Coast farmers and ruralists by 
the publication of a Farming Edition of the 
Scientific Press. AVe have not only learned that 
there is a demand for a fir.st-class home agricnl- 
tiu-al paper, but a disi)Osition to sitpport a good 
one. We are not only well situated for the un- 
dertaking, but have also the means and disposi- 
tion to make it a success, and shall employ tho 
best writci'S in every department, and funiish 
superior engravings for illustrations and em- 
bellishments. 

We wish it success. — B. F. Call, Dec. 24. 



New Agricultural Paper. — We have received 
from Dewey & Co., publishers of the San Fran- 
cisco Scientific Press, the prospectus of tho 
Pacific Rural Press, a new agiicultural paper to 
be published weekly, commencing January 7th. 
It will treat of agi-iculture, horticulture, domes- 
tic manufactures and all matters pertaining to , 
the industrial interests of California. We un- 
derstand that I. N. Hoag, of Yolo County, and 
formerly Secretary of the State Agricviltmal 
Society, will be one of the editors and will do 
nuich to make it generally acceptable to the 
comnnmity. There is a great opening for a 
journal in this state of tho character mentioned 
and for talent and ability in the editorial depart- 
ment. — Sacramento Daily Union, Dec. IG. 



46 



•^^ 



[January ii, 1^71. 



Our Atrents. 

O0K Friekds can do much in aid of our paper and the 
rauae of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Asents iu tlulr labors of canvassing, by lending tbeir 
influence and eucouraHiug favorii. We intend to bend 
none but worthy men. 

Truvellnir Aicents. 

W. H. MuRBAY— Eastern States. 

8. H. HERKiNa— Califoniia. 

L. P .McCartv, California. 

W. B. .1. IIamui.kv— California. 

E. J. HoDi'F.it— California. 

Jamks Rocers — California. 

M. B. Parsons— California. 

K. P. Hicks — California. 

A. C. Knox, City Soliciting and Collecting Agent. 



SUBSCRIPTION RATES. 

Cash in Apvancf.:— One year, $4; six months, $2.50; 
single copies, 11) cents; Monthly Wcriis, J4.0O per an- 
num; Quarterly Series (stiff paper binding) $!<. [On 
Quarterly series, and papers sent to Foreign countries 
an additional sum must be added for advance postage.) 



ADVERTISING RATES. 



1 week. 
One-half Inch $ 1 IK) 



One inch 

Two inche; 

Three inches 

Four inches 

One-fourth column.. 

Half column 

One column 



2 (10 

3 15 

5 25 

6 7.5 
6 00 

12 00 
20 00 



1 month, 
i \S (10 

6 00 

7 00 
12 50 
Iti 00 
12 OO 
20 00 
40 00 



3 mnntJis. 

f (■< 00 

10 00 

IM 00 

27 00 
3« 00 

28 00 
54 00 

100 00 



1 year. 
$ 20 00 

30 (H) 
70 00 
105 00 
140 00 
100 00 
200 00 
400 00 



ALL POLICIES IN THE 






lI^ 






?s> 



.^. 






Crandall Patent Spring Bed, 

Received Premium for Iw'st Spring Bed at the State 
Fair and was on exhibition at all of the District Fairs 
u this State. 

IT KXCELS 



I.ilclttiieaH, rieiinllnean, 

EluDtlcUy itnd niirubllily. 

Any oilier Spring Bed Ever Invented. 

Being with(uit upholstiry in can be aired at pleasure; 
while the springs being in couplets are self-supporting, 
thus dispensing with cords, twine, etc., and from the 
l)ectiliar construction of the various parts it is imposbi- 
ble for the bed to get out of order. 

Manufactory — 123 Front street, near comer of M, 
Sacramento. 

COOI.F.Y <(E GREEV, PrnprlrtoK. 



CHOICE POULTRY. 

I.licht Bruhmaa und 1^'liite I.e|chni-n*s. 

A few trios for sale. Also 3 very choice young 

HOUDON COCKS. 

£0 OS 

for hatching from the 
loUowing Urceds: 

flight Brahmas, 

£>ark Brahmas, 

H<judan, Bearded, 

Huff Cochins, 

lil'k African Bantams, 

White Leghonis, 

Aylesbury Ducks. 

KICIIOI^S ^' WILI.ARU, 

Importers and Breeders of Choice Poultry. 
25v21-3m-lamiu8 Brooklyn, Alameda Co. 

Chicken Ranch for Sale. 

A Chicken Ranch within the city. 
Four Kufiiiied llou.e and tliilbllOlnffii 

and stock of Poultry, can be obtained for the sum of $t;00. 
tirouud rent low; extent about two acres; artbrdiug an 
exci'llent opportunity for commencing a profitable busi- 
ness. For i)artiinilarB apply on the premises on Potrero 
Av(.'nue between 15th & Uith St., or by letter addressed 
"K" at the ofHce of this paper. 




S. N. PUTNAM, 

622 Montgomery Street, San Francisco. 

Dealer in improved and unimproved Farms, Grazing 
and Timber lands. Particular attention given to pro- 
curing small Farms anil Homesteads for punhasers. 
claims for i>re-emptors «;c., in every part of the State. 
lvl-3mr 



KELSEY'S NURSERIES, 




OAKLAND. 

Established in 1852. 
Is now more fully stocked than ever before. 

Fruit Trees. Ornamental Trees, Deciduous 

Shade trees, Fvir^.-icns of all kinds; Fruit PlantK: to 
wit: Raspberries, Strawlxrrii'S, (iooscbcrries. Currants, 
(irapes. Rhubarb. .\sparaRus and all Flowering plants, 
for inside and outside culture. 

FOREST TREES 

of Australia. Europe. China and .Tapan, in fact we aim 
to have and to get all and ev( rjthing desirable. 

Parties planting can lind in this establishment what- 
ever may be wanted, fur use and iK-auty in furnishing a 
place without being obliged to go from one nursery to 
another. Ivlr W. F. KELSEY, Proprietor. 



HERING'S NURSERY, 

OAKLAND, 

Comer of Delger St. and Telegraph Av." 

A choice collection of the most I)eautiful 
trees, shrubs, plants etc., to Ire found in 
California, suitable fi>r general c\ilture. 
Evergreen Trees. Ix-st standard sorts and 
fancy varieties; Deciduous and Evergreen 
. Shrubery; (iolden and Crimson leafed, and 
' double flowering Geraniums. 

Elegant Fuschias. 

splindid assortment of Roses, and many 
most desirable (ireen House and out-of- 
""^^ph^ door leaf and flowering plants. 
^^N IS'OriierS carefully filled and fonimrded. 
fe.^ W The entire stock for sale, including hous- 
' es and business in a good locality at a bar- 

Address, r. A. HEKING, Nurseryman, 

2minr Oakland. 




KING'S NURSERY, * 

ELM Street, (between Telegraph Av. and Broadway sts.) 
OAM.I-iAPXI>. 

GREEN HOUSE PLANTS 
EVERGREEN TREES, 

SHRCBS, ROSES, ETC 

.\ superior stock of large 

sized Australian Gum trees, 

___,. , ._-_ including ;— EUCALYPTUS 

JSf -^yy^fVSP OLOBOLUS, (Blue Gum), 

^yfr .^HkJl. V^idiii^'''''™ fi"f^ street and shade 

,A ._ — ». w.jr-<WH»i|j.pp EUCALYPTI S VIM- 

ENALI8, a beautiful droop- 
shade tree, ttne leafed and 
fragrant; both sorts very 
popular. ACACIAS in vari- 
ety. Montery Pines, Mon- 
tery i;ypress, Lawson's Cy- 
press, etc., etc. Orders at- 
tended to. Address 
Ivl-tf M. KING, Nurseryman, Oakland. 

Trees for Silk and Trees for Shade. 





Tarn thiiiinng nut my Mi'Lhkuky Ii.kntations and 
will st'U my surplus tr4-('ri 

VERY CHEAP. 

1 year old Mutticaiileis .S'iO per thousand. 

2 and 3 yr, old do from §25 to 5^35 according 
to size. 

2 to 3 yr old Alba and Moretti from $30 to 
$40. 

Liberal discount on large orders or to the trade. 

Shade Trees! 

The largo ■\Vhitk AND Bi.AtK Mulberrj'*8 are the beht 
uhadi; trwB in tht* Stat<*. I will fit'll well grown troes of 
tlit-Ke kiudh from 1'^ tu 20 fet^t high » at 25 and 50 centH 
each. 

Silk Worm Eggs and Silk Manual Free 

to fUst4'nn-rH f<»r tncs. Slid y«nir (nlcrs to 
IvI-tfr I. N. HOAG, Sacramento. 

NEW SEEDS AND PLANTS. 

WK ' FFKH FOIt SAI.K 

CHOICESEEDS, BULBS AND PLANTS 

from Australia. Japan and Sandwich lslan<l8. Ramie, 
the celebrated ('hina Grass. Vegetable, Grass and Flow- 
er Seeds; new and rare Plants, Fruit Tre<'8 etc., at the 
oi.i> sTANU. »y"Seud forcatalogue.""Via 
E. £. BIOOR£, 425 WashinRton St., S. F. 
Ivl-lmr 





TREES AND PLANTS! 

By the 100, lO(X), or 
100,000, both at 

WBOLKSAUi OR BETAII,, i-l, Rl i 
AT LOWEST MARKET ^^' '^ ^^ 

KATES. 

Fruits guarantied tnic to name. My 
stock embraces all the leading fruits of 
the country from the Apple to the Straw- 
berry—including the 

OKAKOK, LEMU.X AND I.IME. 

Also all the leading and favorite 
FiirADK .i\l> OK.XAMENTAL TREKS. K^ ...» ^, 

sunniiiERy, vines a\i> PLA.yT.f, \j^''*^vi< 

Mfl.llEJiKY TREES A.\D CUTTI.\as, 
AND SILK yyORM EGGS, ALSO THE 
Osage Orange Hedge Plant for fencing farms. Patent 
Cirafting wax for top grafting, and the common Grafting 
Wax for top or mot grafting. 

Send for Circulars, Catalogues, Printed Directions and 
Price List. 
Send Jo cts for Hoag's Treatise on Silk Culture. 

Addrv» ICOBEKT 'W'll.I^IAMSOX. 
Capital Nurseries, U St., bet. l.ith k 16th 

Sacranienio Cal. 
I am also a partner in the Tree yard of Sayi.es k Wil- 
liamson on K St., bet. 8th & SIth streets, Sacramento. 
lvl-3mr 



LOS GATOS NURSERY, 

On the lyOB Gatos Creek 2 miles south of San Jose. 
This new nursery now contains as line an aesortmeut 

— OF— 

FRriT TREES, ORNAMENTAL TREES, FOREST 

TREES, NCT TREES, Sl/RCBS AND PLANTS, 

AMERICAN, EIROPEANAND AVSTRAL- 

IAN EVERGREENS, AND 

PALM TREES ! 

as any first class nursery in 
the State of California with 
this advantage, viz: we have 
no old scriibby stock to get 
rid of Every care has been 
taken to secure 

Reliable Standard Sorts, 



HEST VARIETIES; 

Proper Xrainlntr, nnd Vlfforou* Oroi%'th! 

We invite Nl'hsery.men, Dealers and Planters, to 
examine our 

STOCK AND PRICES. 

Our large and splendid collection of 

PS'UT TREES, 

we deem worthy of special mention. These include 
2000 Chestnuts, 1, 2 and 3 years old. 5000 Pecan Nut. 1 
2 and i years old; Wood very valuable for timber. But- 
ternut, 1 and 2 years old. States Bla''k Walnut, 1 and 2 
years old. California Ulack Walnut, 1, 2 and 3 years old. 
Hickory Nut. English Walnut, 1, and 2 years old. 
Sweet Almond. Soft Shell Almond. Paper Shell Al. 
mond, etc. 
Orderc promptly attended to. Address 

MYI.VE8TER XEWHAI.I., 

Proprietor Lob Outoa Xaracry, $4kn «Joae. 

Ivl-lin3m 





SHADE AND ORNAMENTAL 

T K, E E », 

Grape "Vines and Oiittlngs. 

we offer a large lot or the 

White Mulberry, (Morus Alba) 

Of suitable size for shade trees. 

The Mulberry is the most desirable 
tree to be had for shade or Ornament, 
and as rapid growers as the Locust. 
They arc long lived and will flourish .. 
on any soil where other trees will grow, and will live 
in overflowe<l land as well as the Cottonwood or Willow, 
and can be us<'d for Silk business if desired and are 
also valuable for timber. 

ALSO, 

THE ELM, ASH AND OSAGE ORANGE, 

All vcr>' desirable Trees for Hhadu and urnameut. 

ALSO, 




Grape Roots and Cuttings. 



Of all the choice varieties of Foreign and C»lifornia, or 
Mission. Mulberry trees can be supplied by the 100 or 
lliOO to the trade at low prices, 

Iff'WX orders must be accompanied with the cash.'^t 

Direct to A. P. SMITH, 

lTl-lin3mr Smith's Gardens, Sacramento. 



SAN LORENZO NURSERY! 

Established in 1853. 



We are pro. 
pared to fur- 



Dit^h ftfiRNEBAL /^ 
ASSOHTMKNT of ^T. 




Fruit and Sha<le 
Tret'8 at as u>w 
rates ae tlu-y 
can be sold at 
any reliable 
Nursery in Cal- 
ifornia. 

Or ers Bolic- 
|ted from all 
lars Bend for cataloj^iie ami prit*- list. 

J. LEWELLING & SON, 

lvl-3mr San Lorenzo, Alemeda Co., Cal. 



parts of the Pa- 
citir States. All 
tret'B carefully 
labeled and 
packed in the 
best poH«ible 
manner for 
transportation. 
A liberal dis 
count will be 
n>ade on Ur^e 
orders. For fur- 
tlier particu- 



AMERICAN SEED STORE ! 

W. R. STRONG, 

SACRAME.XTO, C.VI.IFORMA. 

A new and complete supply 



FRESH SEEDS OF ALL 
VARIETIES FOR THE 
FARM AND GARDEN, 
ADAPTED TO THE PA- 
CIFIC COAST. 

All our seeds are war- 
ranted good and true to 
niinu!, and are sold at low- 
est rates both at wuolesalr 
ANo KRTAIL. A lil>eral re. 
duction to the trade and 
those buying in large (juanties. We are determined to 

(ilVE SATISFACTION TO ALL OCR CUSTOMEKS. 
Among our stock will Ix? found all valuable kinds of 
Garden, Field, Flower. Herb and Tree- Seed. Also 30,000 
lbs. Alfalfa, of California growth. Redand White Clover. 
Timothy. Ked Top, Blue Grass direct from producers iu 
Kentucky. 4ic., 4:c. 

The celebrated Ramadell A'ornay Out* 

•S per Buahel. 

Early Rose and oiher choice varieties of Potatoes, kc. 

All orders filled with dispatch and all Seeds carefully 

packed and sent or shipped as directed. Catalogues or 

circulars sent on application free of charge. Address 

W.K. STKOKG, 

lvl-3mr Sacramento CaL 

PURPLE POPPY, 

[Ambersler of Clermont. 1 

JuHt received and for sale by 





L. KELLOGG. 



FIVE DOLLARS PER POCND. 



New York Seed Warehouse, 

Xo. 4S'7 Sunaome Mt,,8nn Frttnolaeo. 

Ivl" 



GEO. F. SILVESTER. 

Seedsman, 

Importer and Dealer in all kinds of Vege- 

talile. Flower, Field, Fruit & Tree Seeds, 

Garden Tools, Plants, Trees, &c.. 

No 317 Washington st., bet. Battery and Front, SAN 
FltANCISCO. 



Land 



Farmers, Ranchmen and 
Owners, 

TAKE IVOXICE ! 

Having a large quantity of fine large two year old 

MULBERRY TREES 

on hand more tban for my own use, T will hcII on satis 
factory terms as to price and time of payment. Th 
trees are of a 

Good Thrifty Growth, 

and well adapted for shade or ornamental purposes or 
for feeding worms. 

Address, 

'WM. M. HAYKIR, 
lTl-3rar Narriimevio. 




J. P. DA.LTON. 

DEALKR IN 

Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Ev- 
g-reen 



TREES, 



Shrubs and Flowering Plants, Seeils, Bulbs, etc. 
Depot cor. 13th and Broadway, Oakland. Ivl-m3 

SILK WORM EGGS. 

2 AAA CARTONS .JAPANESE ANNCALS, SII.K 
jUUO WORM EGGS, just arrived 

For Sale in Bond or Duty Paid. 

B. J. DORSEY, 

l-3mr i\ and 42 Merchants' Exchange, California st. 



McLURES PATENT CHURN. 

Patented May 17, 1870. 

Has taken the premium at all the State Fairs East of 
the Rocky Mountains. 

The Greatest Labor Saving Machine of the Age 

•^^^ Warranted to male Butler in from TJiree 
to Fire Mitiiites.-^t. 

It is Belf-cleaninp, requires no scrubbing. 



100 JUST EEOEIVED. 



For sale by 
lvl-2iuGuiT 



J. L. HUNT, 
Cor. Battery and Washinxton sin; 



1 

i 

i 



January 2i,*i87i.] 



47 



List of Societies and Officers. 



state Aericultural Society.-OFFicERS; Prcsi- 
dt-nt, Chas. F. Eeed, Grafton, Yolo County. Directors; 
H. M. Lurue, Sacramento; H. E. Covey, San Francisco; 
R. S. Carey, Yolo; C. T. Wheeler, Sacramento; Edgar 
Mills, Sacramento: Kobert Hamilton, Sacramento Wil- 
liam Blanding, San Francisco; E. J. Lewis, Tehama; 
William P. Coleman, Sacramento. OtHcers of the Board. 
Secretary, Robert Beck, Sacramento; Treasurer E. T. 
Brown, Sacramento. 

San Joaquin Valley Ag'l. Society. -Ofiicers; 
President, .J. K. lloak; Vice Presidents, Geo. S. I.add, 
John Tuohy; Secretary; H. T. Compton; Directors, James 
C. Gage, George West. 

Upper Sacramento Agricultural Society.-Oi'- 
FiCF,K.><-PreBident, Harman Bay; Secretary, E. Hallet. 

Bay District Horticultural Society, of Cal., 
S. F.- Officeks: H. N. Bolander, Prest.; E. L. Reimer, 
V. P.; F. A. Miller, Sec; E. TurubuU, C. Schuman and 
F. A. Bering, Trustees. 

Contra Costa Co. Agricultural Society.— Or- 
FiCERs: Geo. P. Loucks. Prest., I achico; Henry Shuey, 
V. P., Lafayette; R. R Brock, Sec. Martinez; S. W John- 
son, Treasurer, Pacheco; G. W.Bryant, R.G.Davis, 
Directors, Pacheco. 

Santa Clara Valley Ag. Society.— Officers; 
President, William C. Wilson; Vice Presidents, Gary Pee- 
bles, Chas. B. Polhemis; Directors, James P. Sargent, 
Wm. O. Donnell; Treasurer, M. Schallcnberger; Secreta- 
ry, Tyler Beach. 

Sonoma and Marin Dist. Ag. Society.— Offi- 
cers: President. E. Denman; Vice Presidents, Lte 
Ellsworth, H. Mecham; Treasurer, Wm. Hill; Secreta- 
ry, J. Grover; Directors, N. L. Allen. 



Send us Communicaticns.— They will be re 
Bpected. If you have not time or the experience to 
write finished articles, send us facts brief and plain. 
We will take care of them. Remember that writers im- 
prove themselves with others by use of the pen. Offi- 
cers of societies, clubs and meetings, please report. 



Our Printed Mail List notifies subscribers when 
their term expires, the last figures on the label signi.y- 
ing the year. We wish to be notified at once if any er- 
rors occur in names or dates. 



Thursday Noon our last forms go to press. Com- 
munications should be received a week in advance and 
advertisements as early in the week as possible. 



Oui* Oeneral Agrvnt at Sacramento. 

Mr. I. N. HOAG, at the office of the State Agriculturul 
Society, in the Pavilion, comer of Sixth and M streets, 
in the capital city, is our duly authorized agent for re- 
ceiving subscriptions, advertisements, and receipting; 
for the same. 
Mr. S. H. Herrlns, 

Our valuable agricultural correspondent during thi 
past year, will continue to travel, and will report lor the 
Pacific Rorai. Press. 
£jkHtern XraTelllnf; A Kent. 

Wm. H MuHRAY,|ouractiveand valuable agent and cor- 
respondent, is now I'n his way East, and will look after 
the interests of our papers in the Western and Eastern 
States. 
L.. P. McCurty, 

Is our live California travelling agent and corres- 
pondent. 



Tnovis A Warner. 41 First St.— Mill Stones, BeltinBClntli 
and general Mill FurnishinR's. Portable Mills all sizes from 
l(jto3li-in. Nosuperiormanufactory for farmers A ranchmen. 



SoccEss IN Business.— Success in the business world 
usually depend upon being thoroughly prepared for its 
duties. Yoimg menl if you would succeed in your biisi 
ness career, secure a good practical business education 
This question being settled, the next is where to go 
Why, go to the best, of course. Go to Heild's Bubi 
NESS College, located in the new College Building, 24, 
Post Street, San Francisco. This is the only school up 
on the Pacific Coast where young men can depend upon 
being thoroughly fitted for Bankers, Merchants, Clerks, 
and Book-keepers. This school is connected with the 
•'International Business College Association" or Bryant 
& Stratton chain. Its scholarships are good for tuition 
in any of the forty colleges, located in all the leading 
commercial cities of the United States and Canada. 
There are many interesting features about the school 
which can not be discussed here. Call at the Collegi 
and examine its workings. If unable, send for circu 
luar, and Heald's College Journal, which will bo sent 
free upon api)lication. Address, E. P. Heald, Presi- 
dent, business College, San Francisco, Cal. lvl-3msur 

GAS*. 

The Pacific Pneumatic Gas Company 

Begs to call the attention of the public to its gas works 
which are suitable alike for domestic, manufacturing, 
and general uses. Their apparatus is the only one wor- 
thy of the confidence of those who desire an economical 
and brilliant light, with perfect safety from accidents. 

These works are in successful use in the following 
private residences: Gov. Haight, the Encinal, Alameda: 
H. F. Williams, Esq., South San Francisco; J. R. Arguel- 
lo, Esq., Santa Clara; A. P. Brayton, Esq., Oakland; O. 
W. Childs, Esq., Los Angeles; Mrs. Brayton, Oakland; 
Capt. Wilcox, San Diego; J. P. Jones, Esq., Gold Iiill, 
Nevada; W. B. Isaacs, Esq., Post St., San Francisco; Jos. 
A. Donohoc, Esq., Menlo Park; M. Schallenbergir, Esq., 
San Jose; Capt Kidd, Stockton; .John Parrott, Esq., San 
Mateo; Col. J. C. Hays, Oakland; A. A. Cohen, Esq., Ala- 
meda; A. D. Bell, Taylor street, San Francisco; J. S. Em- 
ery Oakland, and Isaac Requa, Esq, Virginia City|Nevada. 

Also in the following public institutions: the City and 
County Almshouse, San Fi-ancis<-o; the County Hospital, 
Sacramento; the Industrial School, San Francisco; the 
State Institute tor the Deef, Dumb and Blind, Berkely. 

Also, the following private institutions: The College 
of Santa Clara, Santa Clara; the Alameda Insane Asylum; 
Alameda; and the New Hall and Theater, Pctaluma. 

Also in the following Mining and Manufacturing 
works. The Pacific Iron Works, San Francisco; the 
Cholhir-Potosi Hoisting Works, Virginia City; the Eu- 
reka Gold Mining Company's Hoisting Works and Mill, 
Grass Valley, California; the Crown Point Mining Co 's 
Mill (the Rhode Island^ Gold Hill, Nevada. 

Also, in the following stores; E. Cohn & Co., Marys- 
viUe, Gibson and Cross' (saloon). Gold HiJl, Nevada; P. 
Brown & Bro., Marysville; Wm. Klein, Marysville] .J. 
M. Browne, Gilroy; and N. Wagner ,t Bro., Marysville. 

Also, in the following hotels; Horton's New Hotel, 
South San Diego; the International Hotel, Virginia City) 
and the St. Charles Hotel, Carson City. 

Also, in large works adapted for town purposes; in 
the Workshops, Streets and Otficers' Residences, at the 
United States Navy Department, Mare Island. 

Pacific Pneumatic Gas Company; olhce 'iOU Sansome 
street, San Francisco. Send for Illustrated Pamphlet 
and Price List. A. D. BELL, Secretary 

J. W. STOW, President. Ivl-am-r 



Willamette Farmer, 

Salem, Oregon. 

The only AKricultural Paper published In 

Oreij^on. 

The Best Advertising Medium. 

Terms of Subscription:— One year, $2.00; six months, 
$1.60. Address 
8vM-tf FA. I^. STINSOW. FnblUher. 



WIESTER & CO., 

No. 17 New Montgomery Street, San Francisco. 

PATENTS BOUGHT AIVjD SOLI) OIST COIM^IISSIOTV. 




ILiOiig'sliovcs Combination Tool. 

This device is just what its name indicates. As a Kitchen 
Tool it is indispensible. It will fit and lift with perfect safe- 
ty, any Stove Lid, Frying Pan, Pie Pan, Pot, Kettle, orany oth- 
er vessel or dish used about a stove. It is a complete tool for 
stretching carpets, driving tacks, pulling tucks, &c., &c. It 
answers the ddible purpose ot hammer and pincers, and is al- 
so a good Nut Cracker. It is made of the best malleable iron, 
and the Hammer, Pincers and tack puller, are all hardened so 
as to stand the roughest usage. An Agent is wanted in every 
town on the Pacific Coast to sell this valuable little imiilement. Retail price fifty cents. 

I?. Davis' "Wire and Picket Fenee. 

Although about t wo hundred different styles of fences have been invented and patented in the United St.ites 
ithin the past ten years, yet this Fence, for GENERAL FARM USE, stands at the head of the list. This isaVir- 
inia invention, an d the actual cost of the Fence complete in that State is less than fifty cents per rod. Three 
men can put up six hundred yards per day. You men who are idle, why hang about the city talking hard times 
when you can make from five to eight dollars per day building this Fence ? We will make a present of ONE 
FARM RIGHT in each county on the Pacific coast to farmers who will erect one hundred rods ot the fence in good 
style within thirty days after the privilege is granted. We wish to employ several working men to travel in this 
State and Oregon. Price of territory, and circular with full description of fence sent on application. 

IVe>v Oas Liglit. 

This Light takes the place of the Candle, the Kerosene Lamp and Coal Gas. Each 
Lamp is a perfect Gas Factory, making its own gas as fast as it is required. It is a 
safe, cheap and beautiful ligh t. Circulars and full particulars sent on application. 

A iew good traveling agents wanted to sell this and other valuable Patents. 



Hay Pi'essiS. 

The best and cheapest hay press in the United States. Presses furnished at manufac- 
tory cost to parties buying County or State Rights. The profiits on a few Presses will 
pay for a county Right. 

-witthtt:!? «fe CO., 

17 Kew Montgomery Street, (firand Hotel), San Francisco. 




I87I. 



SUBSCRIBE FOR THE 



187I. 



Oyerland Monthly 

The only Literary Magazine 

PUBLISHED ON THE PACIFIC COAST, 



The Sixth Volume of this popu- 
lar California Magazine will com- 
mence with the January Number 
for 1871. We promise our read- — 
ers rich things during the cominfj 
year. 




Terms: — $4.00 per annum, 
payable in advance. 

Club Rates:— Two copies, S7.00; 
Five copies, $16.00; Ten copies, J30 00; 
and each additional copy, J 3. 00. For 
every Club of Twenty Subscribers, ao 
extra copy will be furnished gratis. 



J 



PUBLISHED BY 

OHN H. Carmany & Co., No. 409 Washington Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



Bound Volumes.— Six Numbers— from January to June, and July to December— consti- 
tute a volume. Bound volumes will be sent, post-paid, for $3.00, paid in advance. 



NOVELTY MILL AND GRAIN SEPARATOR. 

THE und irsigned hav- 
ing purchased of the Pa- 
tentees. WIRTS & SWIFT, 
of Hudson. Michigan, 
their right to this mill. 
Patented June 1'IA, 18««, 
for California, Oregon, 
Washington Territory, 
Montana, Utsh, New 
Mexico and Arizona, wish- 
es to call the attention of 

FaRMFKS, MiLLEIlS AND 

Grain Dealers to one of 
THE GREATEST IM- 
PROVEMENTS OF THE 
AGE lor cleaning and sep- 
arating grain. While it 
combines all the essential 
qualities of a first-class 
Fanning Mill, it also far 
excels anything that has 
ever been invented for 
the separation of grain. 
It has been thoroughly 
tested on all the difl'er- 
ent kinds of mixed grain, 
separating all the diflfer. 
ent seeds in almost a mag- 
ical raauu'^r, placing them 
in their different compart- 
mentsinthemill arranged 
for their reception, at the 
same time taking out all 
the Mustard, Grass Seed, 
Barley and Oats, and mak- 
ing two distinct quali- 
ties of wheat if desired, thereby selecting superior, large plump and perfect kernels for Seed Wheat, and all the 
small and cut kernals, such as merchantable wheat, is dejiosited in another compartment By the use ot this 
Mill a great quantity of wheat usually sown that has been cleaned in the common mills will be saved to the 
farmer, as the cut or shrunken kernals will never gern'ianate. 

The above mentioned Novelty Mill is the only mill known to possessail these superior qualifications, and was 
exhibited and tested at the last Michigan State Fair held at Jackson, Michigan, September 21, 'U, and 'iS, I81;!), and 
bore away the palm over some thirty other diflercnt mills from all parts of the United States, including the fa. 
mousDicky Mill of Racine, Wisconsin. All who have witnessed here tlie operations of the NOVELTY MILL, de- 
clare it perfection, and the most beneficial invention to the Farmers, Millers, and Grain Dealers ever introduced 
on the Pacific Coast. The farmers in Santa Clara County, are loud in its praise, and also in other parts of the 
State where it is being introduced. No. 1 Mill, complete, is capable of cleaning 2!> tons of grain per day; No. '2 
Mill, 15 tons; No. 3. Mill, 8 tons. A large number of recommendations and certificates of the practical working 
of the mill will be furnished. Circulars containing references sent free by mail. N. B. Town, County, or State 
Rights for saleon favorable terms. For further particulars apply to 
llv?l-3m 'it. NTUAI£. 4SS Battery 8ti-eet, Sun Francisco. 




BAKER &. HAMILTCN, 

IMrOETERS AND DEALERS IN 




I.MPI^EMEXTS AXD M ACHINFS, PORTA. 
BI.ESTKAM E.\«JiXF,S, lI.i^KllVFARK, 

Would call the atteiititm of Farmers and Dcalei-s in Ag- 
ricultural Implements to their very extensive stock for 
the trade of 187(1-1871, 

CONSISTING OF 

PIrtWB. H«i*r4»\%'«, Cultivators, Horse HoeH, 
Gail); l'low»,*ec<ISo\ver», Uii' ke.ve Oralii 
UrllK, Hill'K Ciil. »ioAVers, Hay Cut- 
terH, .Seed CleanerB, t^ri^t 1MI1I<I, 
Jliiilct MIIlN, Cider Milla, Fan 
MIIIm, ijt:ipe CrHsherw, Mow- 
ers, Reaper-i, Headers, Header Wagons, Threshers, 
Wh eled Rakes, Hay Presses. Rubber Belting, Leather 
Belting, Baling Wire, Baling Rope, Nails, Shovels, Bolts 
Rivets, etc., etc. Orders by mail or Express will re- 
ceive prompt attention. BAKER & HAMILTON, 
Nos- 9, 11, 13, and l.'j, J street, Sacmmento, 
lvl-3mr Nos. 17 & 19 Front St., San Francisco. 



T HE 

ASPHALTUM PRESSURE PIPE 
c o m: J? A Tsr ^sr , 

HAVixci ERECTF-n A MAXirPACTORT" 

of sufticient capacity to supply their Asphaltum Pipe in 
large quantities. 

Are now Prepared to Take Oraers 

AXU UAKE CO.VTRACTS. 

This Company will manufacture Pipe and guarantee 
it to stand any pressure required; itis lighter than iron 
pipe and more durable, it is not affected by chemical 
action, (^annot corrode, and being glazed imparts no dis- 
agreeable taste to water. To riiiuers and farmers it is 
invaluable; any body can put it down; it is twenty per 
cent cheaper ihan iron pijje and ten times more durable. 
For further particulars, apply at the office of the Com- 
pany, Room No. 2, (J45 Market street. 

(fc^ Circulars sent on application. lGv21-tf 



Swamp Land Reclaiiiati«ii. 

— THE— 

California Peat Company, 

OWNERS OF THE 

Roberts' Steam Ditching Machine, 

are now ready to take contracts. They are prepared to 
construct 

Ditelies antl I-<evees. 

of any desire d dimensions. Terms easy. Address, 
J. B. TOWNSEND, 636 Clay Street. 
P. O. Lock Box, 814. 
23v21-lm 



THE NEW TYPE 

ON WHICH 

THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 

is printed, is from the 

OADIFOKinA. TYPE POUNDRY, 

405 and 407 Sansome St. 
GEO. L. FAULKNER, Agent. 



1000 Farms in Los Angeles Co. 

For Cotton, Wheat, Corn, Grapes, Oranges etc. The 
"Abel Stearns Rancho," ^00 square miles in Sections, 
quarter sections, etc., on Government system of survey, 
forming blocks one mile square, with road on each side, 
fronting on the ocean: the Railroad to San Francisco to 
pass through them; the unsold portions subdivided, for 
sale on long credit, or rent. The famous Anaheim is on 
this tract. For Maps, Circulars, etc., apply to B. F. 
NORTHAM, 4.')'2 Montgomery St., San Francisco, or 
TIMO. LYNCH, at Anaheim and Los Angeles. Ivl-Snir 



TEAM WANTED TO PUROHASE. 

A four or six horse team is wanted by the advertiser 
with or withcjut wagon or gang plow. Required to he 
delivered at tiilroy, Watsoiiville, Salinas, or (lie vicinity 
of those places. A party wihliiiig tn wll ;i tram, etc., can 
hear of a purchaser by srnding a letter .■uldressed B Ru- 
H.\L Press, containing jjrice and other particulars. 



WM. M. LYON. 



CHAS. C. BARNES. 



LYON & BARNES, 

Successors to Lton & Son, dealers in Produce Vegeta- 
bles, Butter, Eggs, Green and Dried Fruits, Cheise, 
Poultry, Honey, Beans, etc., etc. 
lvl-:imr No. 21 J Street Sacramento. 



GILES H. OBAT. JVMSS M. BITKB. 

G-RAY & HAVEN, 

VTTORIVE VS AlVD COUNSELORS AT LAW, 

in Building of Pucillc IiKiiraiice Co. N. E. corner Call- 



J7vl6 



foi ni.i an Leidc>dorM .streets, 
SAN FRANCISCO. 



SciKNTiFic Prkss, feom San Francisco 
This Minin;;, Funning and Meclmriic Arts .Jour 
nal, after 11 most sin<;ular absence from our talilo, 
has a<.n>in made its aiipearaneo and id heartily wel- 
cotncd. It is tlie rero}.mizcd niinirifr orj^an of the 
Facitic coast, and rif;lilly so, siticu it is oondiicted 
ably and honestly in all respect.s. It scorns hum- 
liufr and avoids all merely .speculative commen- 
dations of sudden discoveries in the treatment of 
ore.i. The rclialiility of the Press in all matters 
perwininfj to mines and mining news, makes it .1 
most desirable paper for our people here. Ter 
annum, $4. — Colorado Herald, July 6lh. 



48 



^^^ ^MMm cS ^mm^^mi^^ ^ 



[January 21, 1871, 



Acknowledgment. — We have to return 
tlianks to oiu- brethren of tlie Tkess for 
tlieir extremely liberal and almost univers- 
al compliments to our new paper — a col- 
umn of which we shall insert next week. 
Subscriptions are still coming in freely 
from both city and country, and from 
distant states. 

TO CLUBS. 

Soiul in yonr subsci-iptions as fast as ob- 
tiiineJ. After the tirst ton names have 
buen paid for, others can ha added within 
Tny reasonalde time, thereafter ou the same 
terms. Clubs may be composed partly of 
names for Eural, and i)artly for Scten- 
aiFic Press Blanks and extra copies fiir- 
nished when desired. 

What our Neighbors say of the Pacific 
Rural Press. 

It is a beautiful and valuable sheet.— N't/i J't-f" lud. 

The first No. evinces marked editorial ability Fills up 

a vacancy that has been felt in our aKricuUural department. 

With its publi-shera there is no such word as fail.- 

^fi. iitMe.iifftr . 

We believe every subacriber will be satisfied with the in- 
vestment of tl»e price of subscription, %A.—[Stmora Dem. 

It is a work which nolfarmer should be .without.— [ IV'/." 
Union. 

An admir.ible specimen both as toexecutionandcontimtfi. 
... t.'ontains a lar^e uniouiit and Kreat variety 'of attractive 
reailing matter and several excellent ill ustrations,— [.S>>''A:- 
ton Ditily /ml. 

A larne H>.pas:e weekly. The Rural Press will be to the 
Pacific coast what Moore"s Rural New Yorker is to the Mid- 
dle and Northern States.— i£»WHn./ AfamMn. 

Any int^lligHnt farmer in the State will consider his 
money well invested by subscribing for the new paper, 
" Honest, intellisent and correct information will be faith- 
fully Kiven in brhalf of and ureing an improved cultivation 
of the soil, a greater diversity of products, better breeds of 
stock, better varieties of fruits, the culture of new products, 
the creation of new home industries, the adoption of im- 
proved implements, and happier and higher aims in life,*' 
—1 F.itriniiK 

They can. if they will, make it a creditable work. [We will 
that.! It opens well. 

Excellent paper and type- and a first-class agricultural 
journal. . .Its merits entitle it to a large circulation, which 
we apprehend it will speedily obtain.— i VaUfjo Heiordrr. 

We announce with pleasure the new paper by Dewey & 
Co., proprietors of that peerless paper, the Scientific 
Press.- [vlri;»»i« Miner. 

We think the rural people of the Pacific Coast will have 
an organ second to none in the country.—! I-I'tho SUitt-^mttn. 

Just the kind needed on this coast, and merits an extend- 
ed circulation. -{/?^/ /Hi// ln,Upriui/^nt. 

P.\i-iFic HuRAL PiiKss, published by'A. T.'Dewey, W. B 
Ewer, G. H. Strong and .1. L. Boone. The paper is a suc- 
cess, and will supply a want long needed. 

It has already attained to a large circulation 

Is running over with entertaining and instructive reading 
mat ter. and embellished with numerous engravings. 

The heading is beautiful and appropriate.— [P'ljaroniaH. 

We cordially welcome it. The publishers, believing that 
the agricultural enterprises of this coast weresufficient to 
support a publication wholly devoted to its interests, deter- 
mined to confine the Scientijie Pr^*/( to mining and mechan- 
ical arts, and have therefore started the Parijir. liuml Pr^xn. 

If the first number is to be tAken as an earnest of what 
will fuUow. each week, we can advisedly day to all interested 
in agricultural pursuits, .subscrilie.— 1 i'nU'jo f'fironi'lr. 

Dewey A < 'o.. puldishers, have unusual facilities for pub- 
lishing a superior pajier for ,the farming community, and 
they are men of energy to do \t.—[lCruntfrf, s. F. 

Such a pai»er has been in demand on this coast for some 
time, and we judge from the amount of agricultural in- 
formation which it contains, that it fills the bill. 

We notice that I, N. lloag, of Yolo county, has been se- 
lected as one of the contributors to its pages. 

It is the duty of the farmers to sustain it, and try and 
make it a success, which we believe will be done. - [ Yolo 
Miif. 



New Advertisements. 



No quack, indelicate or other disrepiitabk »io(ices 
tcill be accepted. All advei-ti.iemenL'i in this paper 
appear in our vionthly edition and hound vol- 
umes of the Pacific Rnral Press for Railroad 
Depots, Steamboats, llolels, and other free read- 
ing rooms. 



The Annual Meeting of the Stiite Agricultural Society 
for the election of officerR for the en!t\iing year and for 
the transaction of such 'other bu»negs as may be 
necessary will be held at the Society's rooms in the Pa- 
vilion, comer 6 and M Streets, Sacramento, on the 2"th 
of January 1871. at 10 o'clock A. M. A full attendance 
of members is desired. 

CHAS. F. BEED, Prcst. 

KoiiT. Beck, Secretary. 

Ivl-tdr 



ITALIAN BEES. 

Arc steadily K&ining in favor with bee- 
keepers in the Eastern idtates and in 
Europe. Their hardinesB, greater in- 
dustry, superior quantity and quality 
of honey produced by them, a8well as theirmore peace- 
able, disposition while being handled, make them doubly 
an valuable as the common Black Bee. Many thuusauds 
of Italian QueciiK are reared and sent by express and 
mail to all parts of the country annually by numerous 
breeders in the Eastern Statf^s, who are taxed to their 
utmost to supply the demand. 

I have as itre Italian sTofK ae any in the Tnited 
States, and will sell at Eastern prices. Bee Hives and 
Bee Books for sale. Also, Shade Trees, Mulberry Trees 
and Silk Worm Eggs, at lowest prices. Send for Circu- 
luars, Address J, S. HAS-BISON, 

3t1 Sacramento, Cal. 



rCstED warehouseT I 

yg^lM PORTERS fc OEALERe ^ 



B|gEDsJ 
57 STATE STREET, CHICAGO. 

— ALSO — 

the gpecial Weetcrn Agents for the celebrated 

LANDSCAPE HAND LAWN MOWEB. 

The best, must simple and effective mower in use. 

I»R.ICE — »a5. 

Send for catalogues of seeds, bulbs. Circulars of 
Lawn Mower free to all on application. 

HOVEY & CO., 57 State Street, 
3vl-3mr Chicago, 111. 



California Stock and Poultry 
ASSOCIATION. 

THOMAS E. FINLEY, Manager. 

Ortii'e UULeidesdorff st. Yards cor. Laguna A: Washington 

SPECIALTY. 

Lig-ht Brahmas, tbe largest and b<«t bred stock in 
America. 

— ALSO — 

Dark Braliiiia8, Houdans, La Fleche, Derby Game, 

Dominique, White Cochins, Buff Cochins, White 

Leghorns, White Crested Black I'olands, 

Wliite Faced Bla<'k Spanish, Golden 

Lacid 8eabriKirt Bantams, White 

Bantacs, Silver Gny Dorking, 

Grey Dorkins. 

Pigeons — Black Fantail's, Pouter's, Nuns, I'riest's. 
Pigs.- White Chester, White Suffolk. 
LOP EAUED BABBITS. 



Take Your Choice. — Since its first issue we have 
sent this paper to the subscribers of the farming edition 
of the SciENTiFio PiiEss. It we have th\is transferred 
the names of any who prefer the Scientific PttKss, we 
will return their names to the list for that paper, and 
»-nd back uumljers, if notihed in season. 



Plant's St. Louis Seed Store, 

IKhtaiii.ishei) 1k4"> hv Wm. M. 1'i.ant.I 

L. G. PRATT & CO., Proprietors, 



DEALERS IN 

'Garden, Grass & Field Seeds, 

ALSO, FAltM AND GAKDIIX IMI'LEMKNTS. 

Correspondence solicited, and quotations promptly 
given. Catalogue and Price List wailed free to all ap- 
plicants. 

•E^Special inducements offered to Market Gardeners. 



AddressAg 
3vl-3q83mr 



L. G. PRATT & CO., 

St. Louis, Mo. 



Ramie ! Ramie ! 

pf\ f\(\f\ lioots or cuttings of the above valuable 
^^U?'''-''-' Plant — raised in California — lor sale by the 
undersigned, where all nec4i8sary information in regard 
to its cultivation will be given. 

All orders promptly attended to by 

J. P. SWEENEY i CO.., 

Seed Warehouse, 409 and 411 Davis street, San Fran- 
cisco, or at the Nursery, by 

JOSEPH GRAHAM, 

3vl-3inr H ayward's Alameda County, Cal. 



18 Years in Business in California. 
A. D. PRYAL, 

Landscape Oardener and Nurseryman, 

Three miles North of Oakland on the Temascal Creek. 

5,000 Orange and Lemon Trees for sale this 
sinsoul FineJapaue8eTeaPlant;Eucolyptus, or 
.\ustralian Gum Trees of all the iK'St varieties. 

Native Evergreen trees and shrubs, superior 

.'oiiection. A large assortment of choice varieties of 



English Groosberries 



OUEEANTS OF ALL GOOD SOETS- 

KOSES AND CLIMBING PLANTS. 

Gardens and Grounds laid out, and planting sjiperin- 
tended. Address, A. D. PRVAL, 

3vl-2iutlr Oakland. 



Tbe now paper is designed to meet a want 
which is much felt by all intelligent agricultur- 
ists of this Coast, where the conditions of cli- 
mate and soil are so unlike those of the Eastern 
States and the old world, that but limited appli- 
cation of experience gained there is of value 
here; and we very much need a medium such 
as a reliable and judiciously conducted agricul- 
tural journal may aflford for exchanging and im- 
parling information of observations and experi- 
ences which pertain to our own circumstances. 

From personal knowledge of the character 
and resources of the publishers, and of the as- 
sistance to be employed, we believe the Pacific 
Rural Press, the first number of which is to be 
issued on the 7th of January, will prove an in- 
teresting and useful paper to those employed in 
the rural industries. — Contra Costa Gazette. 



Mariposa, Dec. 27th, 1870.— Messrs. Dewey i Co. Pat- 
ent Agents: — Ocnltemen: — Allow me herewith to tender 
you my sincere thanks for the efficient assistance you 
liave tendered me in securing my patent and other pa- 
pers, as well as the promptness and energy displayed by 
you in our business transactions. 

Very KespectfuUy Yours, Jat. E. Palmeb. 



We wish to Call 

The Esi'ECUL Attention of the owners of some of the 
best Patent Gang Plows in California, to the 

"BUTLER PLOW," 

now on exhibition at the Scientific Pbess office. 

As no arrangements have yet been made 
for their Manufacture or sale of territory 
effected. 

For description of the PLOW, see article in the second 
nimibi r of the KuitAL Pbess, 

"A Singular Looking Plow." 

Please Address, E. P. HICKS, S. F., Cal. 

2vl-ltr 



THE 



SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 



U. S. & FOREIGN 



FORWARD ! 



FORWARD 



PATENT AGENCY, 



EST.UJLISHED IN IKI'iO, 

Is now the principal office West ot the Mississippi River. 
By long and faithful attention 

Messrs. Dewey &. Co., 

Have built uj* an extensive business, and gaint^d a large 
and successful practice and experience, which enables 
them to render greatly superior service to 

Pacilic States Iiiventorw, 



who can dfpenil upon their advice regarding the patent- 
ability and worth of their inventions, tlie comMt draw- 
ing up of their specifications in order to secure their full 
rights imder firm patents which will stand the test of 
law in case of infringement by others. 

Inventors securing n'ally valuable claims through our 
Agency, will have our influence tree in making the mer- 
its of "their patents widely known through the columns 
of the pnF.ss— the Ixst authority an<l medium of recom- 
mendation in such matters on this coast. 

If you have a valuable invention place it only in the 
hands of first class, responsible agents, who do not, for 
the want of exi)erience or ability, assume false airs of su- 
periority and dignity, nor exact exhorbitant charges on 
account of transacting a limited business. 



Circulars of Advice Free. 



Our 4S page circular will be furnished free on appli- 
cation. It contains extracts of the Patent Law. 112 il- 
lustrated mechanical movements; hints to inventors, 
and much otlur desirable information concerning the 
obtaining of patents, etc.. for inventors and p»tentee8. 

OiiB Foiu-;ioN Patent Ciucilab (free! gives informa- 
tion concerning the requininents of Foreign (iovem- 
ments regarding the granting and working of patents. 

The Scientific PttEss and the Pacific Rural Prf.b8, 
both first class 16 page papers, are published at $4 per 
annum each, by 

DEWEY & CO., 

Patent Agents. Engravers and Publishers^ No. 414, Clay 
St., San Francisco. 

A. T. DF.WEY, OEO. H. STBONO. 

W. U. EWEB, JOHN L. BOONE. 



SCIENTIFIC PRESS. 

FOR 1M71. 

WILL BE SrECIALY DEVOTKD TO 

Mining, Mechanic Arts, Inventions, and 
Home Industries of the Pacific States. 

PRINTED ON NEW TYPE, 

AND rrs 

READING COLUMNS INCREASED. 

AM) 

Otherwise Improved in Value. 



The success of our improvements in 1870. and the re. 
duction of our subscription rates to $4 per annum, re- 
sulting in a large increase of subscriptions, has induced 
us to make the above announcement. 

OLUBS AT $3 PER ANNUM 

for each name, will be received when ten or mon^ per- 
sons co-operate in sending us their cash in advance. 
Don't hesitate. Forward your own individual subscrip- 
tion. No one knows the real value of the Press until 
they read it. Use your copy of the paper to induce 
otliers to subscribe, (it you like it yourself) , and in sub- 
se<iucnt remittance fttr a club, we will allow you the 
difference first paid above club rates. 

DEWEY <fe CO., PoblUheri. 



[ ADVERTISEMENT. ] 

Eamsdcirs Nonvay Oats. 

Beware of Spurious Seed. 

Nearly or qnite all the unfavorable reports 
which have come to the ear of the public 
with regard to these oats, have been duo 
directly to spurious seed; the high price 
that the Norway oat bears, operating as an 
inducement to swindlers. Buy no seed un- 
less genuine. See below from whom and 
how to get it inMhis city. 




THE C1IE.4PEHT 

Agricultural and Horticultural Journal 
In the United States. 



The Journal of the Farm, 

16 l.artre Octnvo Pn^es, 

HANDSOMEL V ILL US TRA TED, 
Px'loe one I>ollar a Yonr. 

CLUBS OF 20 -------- FIFTY CENTS. 

ADTERTISERS 

Are informed that its circulation is larger than that of 
any other paper of its class published in the state of 
Pennsylvania. 

Addrat JOURXAL OF THE FARM. 

20 S. Delaware Avenue, Philadelphia, or 

a4v21-tf 230 S Wat«r Struct, Chicago. 



PRICES. 

I?y mail, postage paid, 2 lb. jiackages, l^t 
cts. By express (not prepaid)-, IG Ib.s., 
$3.75 In large quantities at still greater 
reduction. 

Cluhs. — We advise parties desiring to 
buy small quantities only, to unite with 
their neighbors in a joint order, making 
the cost less for cash. 

Ot'R AoENTS will receive orders for these 
oats on the above terms. 

For these Oats, in large or 
small quantity, send direct to 
the Pacific Rural Press office, 414 
Clay St., San Francisco, DEWEY 
& CO., Agents. 



run DAI/ 1 UP DESIOMNO AND ENORAVINQ 
LMUiinVlliU on wood and for electrotype cuts 



ON WOOD 



of every description, done by supe- 
rior artists at the office of the 
SCIENTIFIC PREHS. Fine Cuts 
made for Book and Newspaper 
Illustrations, and for Fancy Lalwls for printing in 
various colors ; Monograms, Seals, tc, etc. Promp 
execution and reaaonable prices. 

DEWEY A CO., 
No. iU CU7 street, S.r. 



I 




Number 4.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JAN. 28, 1871. 



[Volume I. 



A CHEAP COUNTRY HOUSE. 

We present oixi- readers to-day with the 
plans of a neat country house, adapted for 
a dwelling of rather moderate cost, and 
well suited for a village or suburban resi- 
dence, or even for a farm 
house, although it lacks a 
wood-house, which, how- 
ever, can easily be added. 

In the interior, too little 
attention has been given to 
architecture. Our farmers' 
houses are too often very 
homely, ungainly struc- 
tui-es, not at all inviting to 
the eye. Now we believe 
in making one's home as 
attractive as possible, with- 
oiit going to great expense. 
That one can have a pretty 
residence, which he can 
Avell be i^roud of, and still 
without necessarily expend- 
ing large sums of money, 
is shown by the present 
illustration. We propose 
giving a number of such 
designs from time to time. 

It is very important to 
secure, in connection with 
a dwelling house, plenty of 
verandah room and large 
and airy apartments capable 
of easy and complete venti- 
lation. These api>endages, 
besides being ornamental 
and giving relief to plain 
walls, are jileasant as an 
out-door retreat in hot 
weather, serve to keep the 
interior cool, and will be 
found very convenient also 
in wet seasons. 



posts. The dining room projects from the 
main wall and is furnished with a bay win- 
dow, where views can be had to the south, 
east and west. The drawing room, which 
connects with the dining room by sliding 
doors, also projects, and is famished with 



furnished with a fireplace. In the rear of 
the stairs and opposite the dining room is 
the kitchen, connecting with main hall by a 
short passage, and on each side of this a 
jjantry^one opening out of the kitchen 
and one off the main hall. On the first 




PLANS OF A CHEAP COUNTRY HOUSE. 



down to the floor, a warm and durable 
house woiild be the result. 

It will be seen by referring to the eleva- 
tion, that it is the intention to build this 
house of timber, and frame in the usual 
manner, the sills of the frame resting on 
brick or stone foundations, 
whichever may be most 
conveniently procured in 
the locality. The outside 
will be sheeted with one 
and a quarter tongued and 
grooved and upright boards 
and the joints covered with 
inch by three-inch batten. 
The interior can be finished 
to suit the tastes of those 
who may build. 

There is no reason why 
oiy farmers should not have 
as nice and comfortable 
dwellings as anybody else. 
Of course we mean within 
reasonable bounds. Nor ;s 
there any reason why they 
should not develop a taste 
for the beautiful. These lit- 
tle attentions to ornamenta- 
tion do not necessarily re- 
quire large expenditures, as 
we have shown in the pres- 
ent article, and jiropose to 
show to a still further ex- 
tent. 

There is much room for 
improvement in the matter. 
A farmer's house now is apt 
to be a very unwelcome look- 
ing edifice, a sort of a box 
in which to stow himself and 
family away, without much 
regard to the looks of the 
box or the comfort of the 
occupants. 





CHAMBER FLOOR. 



GROUND PLAN. 



As the accompanying design was pre- 
pared for a country house, all these con- 
venient arrangements have received partic- 
tilar attention, at the same time that 
economy in construction has been kept in 
view. By referring to the drawings, itwill 
be seen that the house is entirely sur- 
rounded by a wide and airy verandah, the 
roof of which is sup2iorted by light lattice 



a bay window similar to that in the dining 
room, looking north, south and west. 
These rooms are each IG feet wide and 18 
feet long, and furnished with fire-places. 
To the right of these rooms is a sjiacious 
hall, nine feet wide, runhing right through 
the house from back to front, in which are 
placed stairs leading to the upper rooms. 
Opposite the drawing room is the library 



floor — the chamber floor — there are 
five bed rooms, and a dressing room 
connecting with the best bed room, 
and three wardrobes. The three prin- 
cijial bed rooms arc provided with 
fire places. Although the upper 
story is termed a half one, the bed 
room ceilings are ten feet high, and 
only a small part of the slope appears 
in the rooms. 
The exterior will have a very pretty 
appearance, broken up as it is with pro- 
jections, bay windows, verandah and steep- 
pitched roof. Such a house, though com- 
modious and ornamental, need not be an 
exi^ensive one. If i)ropcrly built with 
timber and placed on a brick foundation, 
it would last for many years, and if due re- 
gard were paid to the selection of seasoned 
lumber and the walls properly plastered 



MiBAGE AT Saceamento. — This morn- 
ng, on the 17th inst., the entire bay of Sui- 
sun was portrayed with the utmost distinct- 
ness against the heavens, and persons who 
came down by the Valley train from Fol- 
som were regaled with the beautiful sight. 
The shores of the bay were as visible as 
the objects at their feet, and a steamer and 
several sailing craft were depicted Avith a 
di.stinctness almost startling, the color of 
tlie soil and the indications along the shores 
of the bay being quite as distinguishable as 
though the beholder stood on the hills of 
Montezuma overlooking the whole scene. 
Mount Diablo, seemingly more grand than 
usual, formed a beautiful back-ground for 
the picture, and towered ujjward until its 
summit was lost from sight among the 
clouds. All speak of it as one of the 
grandest of sights. — Sac. Bee, 



50 



-^^(T^SEMMSMME 



[January 28, 1871. 



llECHANICAL PROGRESS. 

Boring Machines at Mount Cenis. — Prof. 
Austed says it is a curious sight to see a 
■tt-orkman connect an elaf tic tube of half an 
inch diameter with one of those machines, 
and watch the result when a tajj is turned. 
A piston-rod, ina short cylinder, immediate- 
ly Hies backwards and fonvards with won- 
derful rapidity, regulated by a small but 
rather heavy fly-wheel. Immediately a pon- 
derous chisel, (5 or 7 feet long and more than 
an inch'in diameter, is set in motion, and 
strikes a succession of heavy blows against 
the stone. Each time that the chisel strikes 
it is withdrawn a little way, slightly turned, 
and immediatelj' strikes again in the same 
hole. The stone experimented upon being 
of the hardest and toughest kind, the effect 
is not seen for several strokes; but witliiu 
two minutes, a steel chisel was completely- 
blunted, and there was a hole two inches 
deep in the mass of (juartzite. ' Holes are 
bored in this way in an hour that would 
formerly have taken a day. The machines 
occupy very little space, and can easily be 
moved where needed. As many as seven- 
teen are at work together in the end of the 
tunnel. As the i)ower is comjoressed air, 
they not only add no heat to the interior, 
but render it cooler by the absorption of 
heat during expansion. The air, when it es- 
capes, is available for ventilation. It would 
be quite impossible to carry steaniataliigh 
pressure through pipes fonr miles long, but 
little diminution of force is experienced in 
working with the air, although all the en- 
gines and condensers, as well as the cylin- 
ders for storing the air, are outside the 
mouth of the ttinnel. The lengtli of pipe 
at i)resent on the Piedmont side is four and 
and one fourth miles. The pressure of air 
commonly employed is six and a half at- 
mospheres, or nearly 100 ttjs. on thescjuare 
inch. — Sci. American. 



Locomotives fok Canada. — The Rhode 
Island Locomotive Works have a contract 
with the Great Western Railway of Canathi 
to supply that company with thirty-two 
locomotives. Sixteen have been already 
shipped, this week seven more were sent, 
and the remaining nine will follow this 
month. The engines have cylinders six- 
teen by twenty -four inches. The driving 
wheels are live and one-half feet in diame- 
ter. The fire boxes are built of steel, and 
everything about them is composed of the 
very best material. They have a railing a 
few inches high around tlie top of the 
tender, and the l>ell, which is on the for- 
ward platform, is kept incessantly ringing 
when the engine is in motion by its being 
connected with the eccentrics. — Chicago 
K. R. Gazelle. 



Wood-Sawing Mac:hine. — A machine re- 
cently designed in Minnesota, more i)artic- 
ularly for railroad work, is thus described 
by a local paper: "It consists of two saws 
so jjlaced that two cuts can be made at 
once. The wood is fed to these as grain is 
fed into a threshing machine, and after be- 
ing sawed is can-icd away by an elevator, 
like the threshed straw. The machinery 
is propelled by an eight-horse ])ower en- 
gine. The whole ajjparatus, engine, boiler, 
saws and elevator, is built upon aplatform, 
and enclosed like a box-car, in convenient 
compass to be loaded upon a flat-car, and 
shipped from station to' station. With a 
little change, trucks can be idaced under- 
neath like a pile-driving car, and then it 
can be moved upon the track as a separate 
car. In ten hours it can prejiare from 'JO 
to 100 cords easily. It requires nine men 
to work it, feed and take care of the wood." 



Gas PiEiFicATioN— St. John k Cakt- 
WKiGHT. — The above named parties j)reparo 
a composition for gas ijurification from the 
Staten Island iron ore, a natural product 
which is found to combine the essential 
conditions of a gas iiurLfler in a remarkable 
degree. It is a nearly pure limonite, highly 
porous and granular. Pvof. H. Wurtz sets 
forth the importance of the improvement 
in the Gas Lhjhl Journal, and adds: — "The 
patented device of these gentlemen, also, 
for increasing the permeability of the mass, 
irilhoitl iiilroiliicbiy atty inert mailer, by us- 
ing waste borings and turnings of iron for 
this purpose, (instead of sawdust, straw, 
etc., as in European practice,) is highly 
ingenious and valuable. The metallic iron 
thus introduced is useful from the start, 
and is gradual]/ converted into a highly 
acti^'e hydrated oxide, so that the imi)rove- 
ment of tlie new composition by use, is of 
the most marked character. Evei-y time it 
is u.sed, after revivification, until too 
lieavily charged with suljjhur, it iwjiroves 
ht 2ioa-cr 'MxiX e)idioa)icc. (We shall very 
shortly lay before the ])ublic some marvel- 
ous facts under this head. ) A more strik- 
ing example of the "killing of two birds 
with one stone," has rarely occurred in the 
history of human invention; and it is one 
of those apijlications which, from their 
simplicity, excite wonder that they " never 
were thought of before." 



"Feet" Machines, for Cutting Pat- 
terns. — The London Mechanics' Mayazine 
descriV)es specimens shown at the Work- 
men's Exhibition. "They are very simi)le 
in construction; they consist of a tjible 
ujion four legs, with a cross-bar to carry 
the treadle or foot-rest, and which has a 
strip of vulcanized rubber attached to it 
for connecting the lower end of the saw. 
This saw then passes through a hole in the 
table, and is fastened at its upper end to 
another <dastic strip, which is suspended 
from an arm springing over to the front 
from the back of the table. The motion is 
obtained from the movements of the treadle 
by the foot, with a small amount of labor, 
the upper elastic strip being strained to a 
pressure of about 30 pounds in first set- 
ting the saw; the rebound of tlic saw is 
easy, so that the fatigue of the foot is re- 
duced to a minimum." 



Connecticut Manufactures. — We se- 
lect the following from the January "Notes" 
of the Mannfaclurer and Builder: The 
shops of the Colt Firearms Co. at Hartford 
are now runniug on the Gatling gun, ujion 
which Mr. George Kinne has made inijMJr- 
tant improvements. One of these is the 
mounting it upon a turn table which gives 
it command of a range of 15"; and he has 
moreover added an automatic ari-angement 
which gives it at will a continual change of 
range by the simple turning of the crank 
used to discharge it. The Weed Sewing- 
Machine Works, adjacent to the above, em- 
ploy 200 hanils and turn out 170 finished 
machines daily. The buildings are soon to 
be enlarged. The various parts of this 
machine are made by special machinery. 
The Cheney Silk Works in Hartf<jrd, and 
in Manchester, eight miles distant, cover 
two and a half acres, and employ 1,000 
persons, mostly women. They consume 
200 pounds daily of raw material, and i)ro- 
duce silks of such excellence that A. T. 
Stewart, "the shrewdest merchant in Amer- 
ica," contracts for their entii-e product. 

Amerk.an Russia Iron. — We clip the 
following from the Philadelphia Cor. of 
the Iron Afje Jan. 5th: "As is well known 
to the trade, the secret of manufacturing 
an article of sheet iron possessing the 
qualities and finish of Russia iron has 
never been successfully attained here or in 
England. We have, it is true, imitations 
which, while to the eye nearly as good, do 
not possess the durability for which the 
Russia iron has been so celel)rated. A 
firm in this city claims to have discovered 
the method of manufacturing an article 
fully e(iual to the best Russia iron without 
the use of acids, and at a cost not exceed- 
ing that of our ordinary sheet. We are 
promised full information in regard to the 
process." 

Rubber Tires for Railway Wheels. 
An English patent has been taken out "f(jr 
the adaptation and ajiplication of vulcan- 
ized india-rubber bands to the tyres of lo- 
comotive and railway wheels generally. 
For this jjurpose is employed a strong 
endless band of rubber, of the width of the 
tyre of the wheel from the inner side of 
the flange to the outer face, and of such a 
thickness as will be regulatinl by the 
weight of the carriage, but in no case less 
than two inches thick when in jiosition. 
The diameter of the band should be so 
much Ic^ss than the diameter of the wheel 
as to recpiire considerable force to stretch 
it to the circumference. The inner side of 
the band is previously coated over with ce- 
ment, l)y which it is secured in its place. 
Segmental pieces of tough wood or metal 
aresecui-ed to the outer face of the tyre so 
as to confine the band laterally." 

New Mail Lock. — They are now mak- 
ing at Colt's factory a new patent lock for 
the United States mail bags. When fast- 
ened, a numbered plate of glass covers the 
keyhole, and tliis glass has to be broken 
before tlie bag can be unlocked or the lock 
tampered with. It is said to be the most 
conq)lete lock ever invented. Five thou- 
sand of Ihem have been ordered by the 
1 Post Oflice Department. —Iron Age. 



(CIENTIFIC ^BrOGRESS. 



Cause of the Motion of Glaciers. — J. 
Croll, of the Geological Survey of Scot- 
land, contributes an article upon this sub- 
ject in the Philosophical Magazine, in 
which, after noting the fact that the ice of 
a glacier, though solid, nevertheless be- 
haves in some respects like a i)lastic sub- 
stance, he shows that it shear.<i as it de- 
scends, in such a manner as to prove that 
some other force in addition to gravitation 
must be in action, that alone being insuffi- 
cient to account for the phenomena. What, 
then, is that force ? It is found that the 
rate of descent depends upon the amount 
of heat which the glacier receives. But in 
what way do(>s the heat aid gravitation? 
We quote: " There seems to be but one ex- 
jjlanation (and it is a very obvious one) , 
viz: that the motion of the glacier is molec- 
ular. The ice descends molecule by mole- 
cule. The ice of a glacier is in the hard 
crystalline state, but it does not descend in 
this state. Gravitation is a constantly act- 
ing force; if a isarticle of the ice lose its 
shearing-force, though V»ut for the moment, 
it will descend by its weight alone. But a 
particle of the ice will lose its shearing- 
force for a moment if the jjarticle loses its 
crystalline state for tlie moment. The 
passage of heat through ice, whether by 
conduction or by radiation, in all proba- 
bility is a molecular process; that is, the 
form of energy termed heat is transmittcnl 
fi-om molecule to molecule of the ice. A 
particle takes the energy from its neighbor, 
A, on the one side, and hands it over to its 
neighbor, B, on the opposite side. But 
the jiarticle must be in a diS'erent state at 
the moment it is in possession of the ener- 
gy from what it was before it received it 
from A, and from Avhat it will be after it 
has handed it over to B. Before it became 
possessed of the energy, it was in the ci-j-s- 
talline state — it was ice; and after it loses 
possession of the energy it will be ice; but 
at the moment that it is in possession of 
the passing energy is it in the crystalline 
or icy stiite? If we assume that it is not, 
but that in becoming possessed of th» energy 
it loses its crystalline form and for the mo- 
ment becomes water, all our difiiculties re- 
garding the cause of the motion of glaciers 
are removed." 



Platinum Fusible with the Cosimon 
Blowpipe. — W. Skey, of the New Zealand 
Geological Survey, finds that if the loss of 
heat by conduction be guarded against, 
jdatinum can be fused with an ordinary 
blow])ipe blast through a candle flame. He 
substitutes, for the metallic nozzle, a tube 
of clay or gla.ss. We (juote him from the 
Chi'-nical Neirx: — "By this means, fine ])lafi- 
num points were fused in m\ unmistakable 
manner to beads. The blast was that ordi- 
nai-ily used in the laboratory Ijy the use of 
the hydrostatic blowijijie, the flame being 
that of a stearine candle. As it might ho. 
urged that, i)erliai)s, the platinum I treat<>d 
might contain an admixture of more fusi- 
ble metal, and that its melting-point might 
tlius be reduced, I jiropared some of the 
platinum for special trial, which was abso- 
lutely free from such fusible metals. As 
the fusing j)oint of i)latinum has been as- 
certained to be i-VJIi F., we must, from the 
above experiment, conclude, that if proper 
I)recautions are taken to prevent loss of 
heat bj' conduction, this high temperature 
can be produced by the ordinai-y blowpi{)e 
operating upon flames of this descrijjtion." 



Different Alcohols.— In an article on 
the alcohol of wine bj' Dr. Rabateau, in 
the Union Medicale, we find the following: 
— "Two imi)ortant alcohols are to bo con- 
sidered in relation to the fortification of 
wine (vinage) — the amy lie, which is very 
toxic, and forms the major part of the 
residuum of brandy made from fecula and 
beet-root, and is found in that of brandy 
made from grapes, ajiples, etc. [eau de vie 
de marc) , but not at all, or in imponderable 
traces, in that ma<le from wine; and the 
bu'i/lic, less toxic than the former, but still 
slightly so, which was discovered by Wurtz 
in the residuum of the distillation of 
brandy from fruits {fan de rie de itiarc) , and 
produced in considerable quantity in the 
fermentation of the molasses of beet root. 
The partizans of alcoholization of wine 
jn-etend that that of potatoes and beet-root, 
which are now articles of commerce, are 
as ])ure as that of wine, and contain neith- 
er butylic nor amylic alcohol. This is a 
mistake; for it is extremely diflicult to 
purify tlie spirits of fecula and beet-root 
from these butylic and amylic alcohols." 



The Geographx of the Sea Bed.— This 
was the title of a paper read by Capt. S. 
Psborn, R. N., at a late meeting of the 
Royal Geograijhical Society. We quote 
from a notice in Nalure: "It has been 
definitely ascertained that the greatest 
depth of the ocean does not reach 3,000 
fathoms in any part where telegraphic linos 
have deen laid. The bed of the North At- 
lantic consists of two valleys, the eastern 
extending from 10' to 30 , the Western 
from '30 to '50 West longitude. The ex- 
treme dei)th of the eastern valley is under 
13,000 feet, which is less than the altitude 
of Monte Rosa. This valley has been 
traced southward to the etiuator. It is 
separated from the western valley by aridge 
in ' 30 West long. , in which the average 
depth is only 1,600 fathoms. This ridge 
terminates to the north in Iceland, and 
soutliward at the Azores, so that it is vol- 
canic in its character at both extremities. 
Its extreme breadth apjiears to be under 
500 miles, and the Atlantic deepens from 
it on both sides. Explorations carried on 
in the Mediterranean, the Red Sea, and the 
Indian Ocean, showed similar uniformity 
in the level of the 8ea-l)ottom; and the gen- 
eral conclusions arrived at by Capt. Osbom 
were that in the deep sea there is an ab- 
sence of bare rock, and that there are no 
rough ridges, canons, or abrupt chasms. 
Moreover, that the bed of the deep sea is 
not aflected by currents or streams, even by 
those of such magnitude as the Gulf Stream; 
but that it rather resembles the prairies or 
the pampas of the American continent, 
and is everywhere covered with a sort of 
ooze or mud, the debris of the lower forms 
of organic life." 

Glaciers, not Icebergs. — Prof. J. D. 
Dana has an article in Sillimaji's Journal on 
the question whether the glacial era in 
Central New England was an era of glaciers 
or of icebergs. American geologists are di- 
vided in opinion. We give the conclusion: 
"The fiu'ts show, beyond question, that in 
the Glacial era the transported blocks came 
from the comparativelj' low regions, in the 
very bottom of the supposed Iceberg sea, 
not far to the north of New Haven, instead 
of from distant and elevated heights to the 
northea-st and nortliwest; and this was true 
of all the drift material. The observations 
of others over New Enghmd, as well as 
those I have made over Connecticut, sus- 
tain the conclusion that the sand and gravel 
of the unstratified drift has not come from 
remote points, but has been shoved south- 
ward by some agent that could gather it uj) 
over the breadth of the land and bear it on- 
ward to drop It after a few miles, or scores 
of miles of transportation. All this is evi- 
dently entirely imjiossible work for ice- 
bergs. Since, then, icebergs cannot pick 
up mas.ses tons in weight from the bottom 
of a sea, or give a general movement south- 
ward to the leose material of the surface; 
neither can produce the abrasion observed 
over the rocks under its various conditions; 
and inasmuch as all direct evidence of the 
submergence of the land required for an 
iceberg sea over New England fails, the 
conclusion appears inevitable that icebergs 
had nothing to do with the drift of the New 
Haven region, in the Connecticut valley; 
and, therefore, that the Glacial era in C!eii- 
tral New England was a Glacier era." 

Geological Survey of California. — 
The fir.st volume of the Ornithologj', soon 
to be issued, is a royal octavo of 592 pages, 
containing 662 cuts. The American Journal 
of Science and Arl.i speaks thus of it: "This 
admirable report is far in advance of any 
similar work on Ornithology hitherto pub- 
lished in this country, if not in Europe, 
and does great honor both to the State of 
California and the otticers of the Geological 
Survey. The first volume contains de- 
scriptions of all the land birds hitherto 
found in the region north of Mexico and 
west of the Rocky Mountiins. Each genus 
is illustrated by a reduced full lengtli cut 
of one of the species, and by natural size 
cuts of the wing, tail, bill, and foot, which 
will render it very easy for any one to 
recognize each genus, while nearly all the 
species are illu.strated by full size cuts of 
the heiuls, often of Ijoth male and female. 
The cuts are nearly all original and have 
been drawn and engraved with great care 
and skill. The cuts are, in our estimation, 
superior both in accuracy and beauty to 
any hitherto published in any work on or- 
nithology, and are far more satisfactory 
than the highly colored, but often coarse 
and inaccurate, lithographs, so often em- 
ployed to illustrate ornithological works." 



January 28, 1871.] 



•-^ 



51 



I 



.ORRESPONDENCE. 



Bound East. 
Omaha to Chicago. 

Written for the Pbess. 

The traveler who intends going from 
Omaha to Chicago may find himself in- 
volved in a puzzling predicament, rather 
similar to that in which a famous English 
wit was once j^laced. No doubt you are all 
familiar with the story, but yet I'll risk re- 
locating it. The gentlemen referred to, 
while musing in a grave-yard, found the 
following inscription on a tomb-stone: 

stranger, reflect, while you pass by; 
As you are now, so once was I : 
As I am now, so you must be; 
Therefore prepare to follow me. 

'After reflecting, the wit added these lines: 

To follow you, I'm not content. 
Unless I know which way you went. 

In a similar manner, I was rather troubled 
haw to get to Chicago, for there are three 
roads, making the connection , to chose from, 
vfe: the Chicago and Northwestern, the 
Chicago, Eock Island and Pacific, and the 
Burlington and Missouri River. I pon- 
dered over the matter, questioned every 
one who had tried either route, and finally 
made uj) my mind. My experience then 
and since has confirmed mc in the belief 
that I went the best way. 
The Burlington Route 

Isthe one I selected. I found 
that the road was well built and 
passed through fine scenery and 
by points which one wishes 
to see, that the cars were of 
the most comfortable descrip- 
tion, the employees attentive and 
polite, and the time reduced to 
a mininnmi with due regard to 
safety. The road runs in quite 
a direct line, the road bed is 
excellent, the iron, the heaviest 
in use in America, weighing 65 
ft)s. to the yard, and there be- 
ing a double track part of the 
way. The passenger cars are 
sumptuous, — ^ Pullman Palace 
Drawing Eoom, Sleejjing and 
Hotel Cars, Saloon Smoking and 
Passenger Coaches, and Pullman 
baggage cars, — yet the prices 
are not higher than else 
where. The passenger cars are 
furnished with Miller's jjatent couple and 
buffer, are lighted with gas and heated with 
hot (dr. The sleeping cars have Baker's 
patent car warmer and other improvements. 
Even the second-class cars have cushioned 
seats and run through on exjiress trains. 

The country passed through is delight- 
ful. We first ride for 20 miles on 
the Missoiiri Bottom, formed by river de- 
posits. Then we rise up, riding over roll- 
ing prairies and crossing numerous streams 
skirted with ti-ees. Herds of cattle, from 
Texas, graze alongside of the track. At 
Glenwood we see the Soldiers' Orjohan Asy- 
lum, and in this vicinity hedges of Osage 
Orange are frequent. At Eed Oak we con- 
nect with the train from Nebraska City, 
from Kansas City and Denver, Colorado, 
even. Our road ascends gradually iip to 
Creston, about 80 miles from the Missouri 
lliver, and thence we have a descending 
grade to the Mississipin, at Burlington. As 
we continue on, better country is found, 
better villages are seen. Near Ottumwa 
we cross the Des Moines Eiver, and near 
Mount Pleasant, the Skunk, — euphonious 
stream. As we approach the Mississippi 
we view fine vineyards, and finally, after 
having crossed the whole width of fertile 
Iowa, we reach the Father of Waters at 
Burlington. 

Here we roll into Illinois over the great 
iron bi-idge, which sjoans the MississiiJi^i. 
This splendid structure rests on nine piers, 
is 2,200 feet long, and has a draw 3C0 feet 
long opened and shut by steam power. In 
two hours we come to Galesburg, a great 
railroad center and manufactiiring site. 
We now come into the-garden spot of Illi- 
nois, which extends along for a width of 
150 miles, is dotted with tine villages and 
handsome country seats, is covered in sum- 
mer with waving oceans of grains. Over 
the flat prairie, with the richest of soil 
and the best of cultivation, we rush along, 
seeing new beauties appearing and disap- 
pearing every moment. At Aurora we find 
a new town which is old in wisdom. Here 



is a schoolhouse which cost $80,000. Near 
Chicago we pass through the charming 
euburban town of Eiverside, and finally, 
with a splendid view of lake and city, we 
arrive at our destination. w. h. m. 



Notes of Travel in San Joaquin County. 
Fine Ranches. 

[Continued from page 35.] 

Mr. Dodge is also the projorietor of 550 
acres of fine land at the same place, all of 
which is under cultivation. He has a 
vineyard of 50 acres, and proposes to set 
50 acres more of vines this year. He har- 
vested 250 acres of wheat and 40 acres of 
barley last year. 

Mr. Shippee, of the firm of Shippee, 
McKee & Co., has one of the finest ranches 
in the country. It is situated five miles 
north from the city, on the Calaveras river, 
and comprises 600 acres. The river is on the 
east or upper side, and the Cherokee Lane 
Gravel Eoad runs through its center. The 
ranch consists entirely of bottom land and 
can be irrigated at any and all seasons. At 
the season of the drought, it was irrigated 
and produced 40 bushels of wheat per acre, 
and two tons per acre of the best of oat 
hay. Last year it was again irrigated and 
the grain sown in January and February, 
produced 35 to 40 biishels of wheat, 40 to 
50 bushels of barley, 50 to 75 bushels of 



burned out, starting agiiin withoiit a cent. 
Nearly all of the princij^al tanneries in this 
State are now owned and run by many who 
first learned the trade of Mr. W. 

Lane's grist-mill cost about $50,000, and 
is owned by E. B. Lane. It contains six 
run of burrs, is run by a steam engine 
with 18-in. cylinder and 36-in. stroke, has 
two boilers, 52 inches in diameter and 16 
feet long, containing 46 4-in. tubes. Its 
capacity is 240 barells per day. They run 
only 190 days on the average per annum, 
and made last year 14,000 barells of flour. 
They consume about 600 tons of coal per 
annum. 

The State Insane Asylum, (G. A. Shurt- 
left; M. D., Supt., A. Clark, M. D., and J. 
Titus, M. D., Assistant Physicians,) on 
the first of January, 1871, contained 1,060 
patients — 766 males and 294 females. 

Grapes and Wine. 

Among the licst varieties grown here for 
market are the Black Hamburg, Black 
Malvania, Black Prince, Black Ferara, 
Eeine de Nice, White Muscat of Alexa-n 
dria. Black Morocco, Madeline, and Chas- 
selas-Fontainbleau. For wine, the White 
Tokay, Chasselaa-Fontainbleau, White Fon- 
tignan. Moselle, Chassclas-Musque, Red 
Fontignan, Black Burgundy, Zinfindel and 
Black Malvason. 

For port and sherry, for which this 
county is peculiarly adapted, the California 
grape is used. All the premiums given by 
the Horticultural, Agricultural and Pomo- 
logical Society, of San Francisco, and by 
the State Agricultiiral Society, were for 
sherry made near Stockton. The climate 



pieces, 
when 
other, 
apart. 




oats and two and a half tons of hay per 
acre. He has this season about 350 acres 
in wheat, oats and barley, and about 150 acres 
in meadow for hay and the balance in pas- 
tures, orchards, etc. 

His stock consists of fine horn stock and 
Essex and Sulfolk hogs, while his horses 
are among the best of trotters. Among 
them may be mentioned the brood mares 
"Lady Fine" and "Lady Mc," and several 
of the Belmont and Blackhawk stock. He 
claims to have 20 of the best trotting colts 
in the coianty. He also owns the young 
horse "Tidal Wave," and the "American 
Boy." For one of his colts he has been of- 
fered .f 1,000; this colt has trotted in the 
forties. His motto is the best or none. He 
says it costs no more to raise a good horse 
than it does a poor one. 

Fine Poultey. — I had the pleasure of 
seeing the finest lot of poultry, a few days 
since, that I think there is in the State. 
They are of the "Light Brahma" breed, 
imi)orted from Massachusetts, and New 
York, by John Sedgwick, Esq., of Stockton. 
Stockton IVIanufactures. 

The Pacific Tannery, Kullman, Wagner 
& Co., makes a specialty of sole, harness 
and upper leather. Here twenty-five men 
are regularly emidoyed, and when working 
to their full capacity they turn out 2,000 
sides per month; now, however, only about 
1,200. The annual production is from 
20,000 to 24,000 sides. 

Wagner & Harrison's tannery, situated 
in the rear of the insane asylum, is doing 
a fair business in a small way, working at 
present five men. Of Mr. J. C. Wagner, 
one of the proprietors, especial mention is 
merited, he being the jiioneer on the coast 
in this business. He started here first in 
the year 1852, and has been several times 



is so warm that all the varieties ripen to 
perfection. The California, Black Prince 
and Zinfindel, will produce from eight to 
twelve tons to the acre, on vines eight and 
ten years old, and in some seasons even 
more have been raised. As high as $500 
for California, .$1,500 for Black Prince, i^er 
acre, has been realized here; the grapes be- 
ing shipi^ed to San Francisco. 

For raisins, the White Malaga and White 
Muscat of Alexandria, are used, and make 
raisins as good as the imported. The 
Filler Zagos is too soft, and rots in many 
localities. 

Ranches— Stock. 

William L. Overhiser's ranch, of 800 
acres, is situated four miles northeast from 
Stockton, on the Waterloo gi-avel road. It 
lies on both sides of the road, and its soil 
is in as fine condition at this writing as 
many I have visited in better seasons, i. e. 
for rain, less than three inches having fallen 
yet. He will farm about 400 acres in bar- 
ley this year — his 2)rincipal product in ce- 
reals. 

His fine stock consists of about 100 
head of horses and mules, about 30 head 
of fine cattle, and about 2,500 head of thor- 
oughbred sheej), and will have 600 head of 
Spanish Merino bucks for sale this season. 
This band of sheep is the largest on this 
coast, if not in the United States, of thor- 
oughbreds. C. C. Smith, however, is in- 
terested in this portion of his stock. His 
milch cows are as fine a lot of Durhams as 
I have ever seen, for size, build, and milk- 
giving qualities; all of the short horn and 
short-legged breed. His bull. Grand 
Turk, of O.ik Home, is a monster, measur- 
ing eight feet in length from his pate to 
his haunches, and stands five feet high. 
His breastcut hangs within eighteen inches 
of the ground. He weighs 2,000 ijouuds, 
and his pedigree is recorded in the Ameri- 
can Herd Book, on page 195, article 8,258; 
he will be five years old next May and is 
valued by Mr. O. to the extent that he 
would not swap him for any other of his 



kind in the State. He is not for sale. 
roadsters are from the Chieftain and Black 
Hawk stocks. At the State Fair in 1869, 
Mr. O. took the first jorcmium on two-year 
old bull ; first premium for best thorough- 
bred Durham milk cow; first premium on 
best calf; first premium for best three- 
year old heifer; also for best two-year old, 
and first for best yearling; also first in-e- 
mium for the best herd, which is a much 
better endorsement than I could possibly 
give you in an article of this length. 

Farm Implements. 

Mr. O. was the inventor of a Hay and 
Grain Elevator, the fame of which in this 
County is sufficient without a word from 
me. He also is interested in and has practi- 
cal use the Set/ Adjustable Harrow of Mr. 
David Gills. This harrow is 7x9 ft, and 
made to be couj)led together side-wise in 
gangs of three or less. With a gang of 
three, with ten mules, it will harrow a strij? 
21 ft wide and accomjilish 30 acres per day. 
Each section has eight adjustable cross 
with eight steel teeth in each, and 
in motion, no two teeth follow each 
Although the teeth are nine inches 
four of them are so arranged as to 
throughly harrow under the side piece, 
which is needed when used as gangs. This 
harrow never clogs, the cross-pieces each 
being connected by a lever in the rear so 
arranged as to throw the teeth at any angle 
from a simple movement of the lever, any 
ordinary obstacle is over come. Two small 
ten-inch wheels are used, one on either 
sitle, in front, which prevent its miring in 
soft ground, or clogging in rough ground. 
I consider it the best harrow 
in the State. Each section works 
independently, and can be used 
separately, like any others. 

An arrangement of the Head- 
er-Bed has been conceived by 
Mr. O. which I think will come 
into general use. Its peculiar- 
ity is that it can turn a square 
corner, al-though the bed is 20 ft 
long. The hind wheelsof an or- 
dinary wagon are jjlaced upon 
spindles arranged on the hind 
part, and the forward wheels so 
arranged as to come under to the 
center. Upon the whole this 
farm is as complete in working 
trim as any in theCounty. 
Sargent Brothers Ranch. 
Is situ.atcd about five and a 
half miles from Woodbridge 
and fifteen miles N. W.from 
Stockton. It consists of Tule, 
Over-flow, and Upland. The 
entire Tract conains about 10,- 
000 acres, about 0,. 500 acres of 
which is Tule, about 1,500 of 
Overflow, and 2,000 Upland. 
The former is boundedon the 
west partly by the Mokelumne 
Eiver, on the south by Treadway Slough, on 
the east by the Overflow and Upland, and 
on the north by Island Mouth and Sycamore 
Slough, a large portion of which is so far 
reclaimed as to prevent any overflow excejot 
during an extreme flood, which would cov- 
er the entire tract of tule and [overflow, 
The Sargent Bros, have been constantly 
engaged in ditching and building levees 
since 1864. For the si.x months just past 
from 10 to 40 men have been employed. 
Some 10 miles of levee and ditch have been 
constructed, costing from $15,000 to 20,000 
thus far. Now, in the driest season, the 
grass is from eighteen inches to three feet 
high, and the cattle are in as fine order 
here as any on the uplands in the best sea- 
son. They have a large number of horned 
stock, and eventually will have one of the 
best stock ranches in the State. The 
Sargent Brothers, four in number, each 
equally interested, own and run three ex- 
tensive stock ranches. Dr. J. L. and Eoss 
Sargent attend to the affairs of the one 
above mentioned ; J. P. Sargent attends to 
the one near Gilroy, consisting of one 
league of land; and 13. B. Sarge nt attends 
to about three leagues of land at Monte- 
rey, all of which • are well stocked with 
cattle, etc. They will farm on the up- 
lands of the (San Jouquin Co.) ranch, 
this year about 700 acres of grain, wheat 
and barley. I had the pleasure of a ride 
over this entire ranch this week, and points 
passed over by us in a buggy, I was in- 
formed three or four years ago were only 
accessible by ,a boat. l. p. mc. 



White Pine Bullion. — From January 
1st, 1870, till December 31st, Wells, Fargo 
& Co. shipped from tlieir ofllco in this city, 
says the White Pine News, the following 
amount of bullion, which was produced on- 
ly by mills in this district: Shii)ped West 
647 bars— value, $7.38,802 78; shipped East, 
642 bars— value, .$851,852 88. Total, 1,289 
bars; value, $1,590,605,56. 



52 



[January 28, 1871. 



Hop^E J\HQ f\^J(^. 



HISTORY AND PROGRESS OF AGRI- 
CULTURE. 

[Written for the Press.] 

It cannot be said with truth that hus- 
bandry is the oldest of human industries, 
much less, that it was the first means of 
human subsistence ; but it is safe to assume 
that it was practiced during the primitive 
ages of the world, and it was, really, the 
first effort to stimulate the powers of Na- 
ture to a higher degree of productiveness, 
by artificial means and agencies. 

At first, men had recourse to the natural 
productions of the earth for the supi)ly of 
their material wants. At this period there 
was no systematic industrj-, no la))or be- 
yond that of gathering the wild fruits and 
of capturing the wild animals which grew 
8i)ontaneously in the forests and streams. 

Next, follows jjasturage, or the care of 
flocks and herds. This is, properly con- 
sidered, one of the branches of agi'iculture, 
whose two-fold object is to draw from the 
soil the largest amount of products, vege- 
table directly and animal remotely. Pas- 
turage was the first attemjit to augment 
the means of living by regular, systematic 
industry, not by field culture, but bj' car- 
ing for the flocks and herds which subsist- 
ed upon the spontaneous grasses of the 
earth. 

By-and-by the growth of population in 
those districts at first peopled by the 
human family suggested the necessity of 
tillage as an expedient for stimulating the 
soil to a more generous munificence, in 
order to meet the increasing demand for 
material supplies. These statements are 
correct in their ajjplicaticm to the standard 
means of subsistence that were resorted to 
by the human family. There were, how- 
ever, esamjiles of field culture long before 
necessity drove the masses of society to 
adopt farming as a livelihood. 

Sacred history carries farming, or field 
tillage, back to the first ancestral family 
of the race. According to this record, 
Cain was the first tiller of the soil as well 
as the first murderer — after that memorable 
exodus from Eden. Cain had a sad his- 
tory — not because he was a farmer, how- 
ever; but for reasons which belong rather 
to theology than to a treatise on agricult- 

uie. 

Civilization Promoted by Agriculture. 

The transition from a precarious reliance 
on the spontaneous fruits of the earth to 
the more regular supplies of pastoral jjur- 
suits, and afterwards, that from pasturage 
to the still more reliable producrts of till- 
age, mark distinct epochs in the progress 
of human civilization. Indeed it is safe to 
assume that the degree of a nation's pro- 
gress in civilization is nearly indicated by 
the status of agriculture among its peojtle. 
Their civilization may not be modelled 
after the highest type; but a highly per- 
fected state of agriculture among them 
will indicate for their civilization, a high 
point on the scale, according to the stand- 
ard to which it is to be referred. 

Chaldea, Egypt and China were the first 
to be distinguished for their skill in the 
art of agrictjilture in both of its branches, 
including tillage and stock-raising. 

During the early post<liluvian ages, the 
cultivation of the soil received consider- 
able attention. The sacred record informs 
us, that "Noah loved husbandry, and 
planted a vineyard." That vineyard, how- 
ever, was to be a snare to the good old 
man. Its fiery vintage brought him to be 
the victim of a most unnatural intrigue, 
and was the cause of odium to his familj-. 
Historians agree in the opinion that, after 
the flood, Noah went eastward, and found- 
ed the empire of China ; carrying with 
him his love of field culture, and inculca- 
ting upon his people the imijortance of this 
branch of industry. This jirobably may 
furnish a solution of the problem — why it 
is, that the Chinese 'should have been, at 
an early day, such experts in the art of 
cultivating the soil. Down to the present 
time this heathen nation has continued to 
take precedence of most others in bringing 
out of the soil its utmost resources by 
skillful tillage. 
The fertile, alluvial vallies of the Eu- 



phrates, the Tigris and the Nile would 
very naturally, at the time of their earliest 
settlement, invite the seed of the husband- 
man. We know, indeed, that far back in 
the historic period, Chaldea or Babj-louia, 
and Egypt were famous for their abundant 
supplies of breadstuffs. About 1900 years 
before the Christian Era, these ample 
supplies of corn tempted the patriarch 
Jacob to send his sons down into Egypt 
for bread, which finally led to his emi- 
gration and settlement among the fat past- 
ures of Goshen. 

Early Modes of Tillage. 

Modes of tillage, in the.se early age«, 
were generally rude in comjiarison with 
the improvements of modern times. There 
was not, indeed, so great a demand for 
skillful culture along the rich vallies of the 
great rivers where agriculture first flourish- 
ed. Periodical inundations of these rivers 
kejit the valley lauds up to tin; maximum 
of fertility, and jiromoted a high degree of 
fineness and mellowness in the soil, all of 
which are very important conditions in 
prejjaring a sfiil fijr the recei^tion of seed, 
in view of an abundant harvest. 

After one of these periodical overflows it 
was the custom, especially along the valley 
of the Nile, to scatter the wheat over the 
clean surface, and then to turn on large 
herds of swine, which, by trea<ling and 
rooting, covered the seed, thereby render- 
ing the labor of the jilow unnecessary. 
The harvests, from these sowings, were in- 
credibly large, and they wei-e realised at a 
minimum outlay of time and labor. These 
alluvial lands, and others like them, are 
the only lands in the world that will hold 
up to a large yield for many years without 
some process of fertilization. In a future 
section we jiropose to expand and elaborate 
this proposition. 

In the course of time, these vallies, rich 
as they were, and well sustained as they 
were, V)y the annual recurrence of alluvial 
dei)08its, were inadequate to sujiply the 
wants of their growing populations. 

When, by degrees, the area of habitation 
was extended to the foothills, and the 
population compacted to the last point of 
comfortable endurance, colonies began to 
radiate from these i^rimitive centers in 
various directions— some locating in moun- 
tain districts far away, as vine-growers and 
stock-raisers ; others going into distant 
plains and vallies, less fertile than those 
that were trrst peopled, lived for awhile by 
lumting and by pasturage, and, finally, as 
the population thickened, had recourse to 
agriculture, but under many disadvantages. 
After a few annual croi)s gathered from a 
soil, not the best naturally, there must 
have been such decline in its productive- 
ness as either to necessitate more careful 
tillage, with artificial modes of improving 
the soil, or else to drive them to the expe- 
dient of repeated emigration. 

Under a continual increase of popiilation, 
a point would eventually be reached in all 
these colonies at which the utmost resotirces 
of the soil, even under improved culture, 
could not supply the growing demand for 
bread. In this crisis the only alternative 
would be the emigration of a part of the 
population, and the foundation of new set- 
tlements in some vacant or more sparsely 
peopled regions. These in their turn again 
would, after a while, beg^n to feel the 
2)ressure of a necessity to make the earth 
respond more liberally to the toil bestowed 
in its cultivation. 

Progress in the Art of Tillage. 

In this way, as the wants of tlie race de- 
manded, from age to age, progress was 
made in the art of agriculture. Thus we 
percieve, that by an established law of the 
economy under which we are placed, in- 
crease of population, and progress in the 
arts of civilized life sustain to each other, 
mutually and recii^rocally, the relation of 
cause and effect. Increase of population 
on the one hand stimulates progress in the 
indxistrial arts, by creating increased de- 
mand for material supplies. On the other 
hand, these imjirovements, which render la- 
bor more remunerative, multiply the means 
of subsistence; making it easier to live, 
and to live in a greater degree of comfort, 
and in this way encourage marital ideas, 
tempt to the formation of new families, and 
thus promote the increase of population. 

We cannot help admiring the wisdom 
and benifisence of this law of action and re- 
action in the economy of nature. 

In European districts, which were settled 
and occiijiied by another branch of the 
Noachic family, one would suiJiJose that 
before manj' generations had passed away, 
there would arise a necessity for bestowing 
some care upon their methods of cultivating 
the soil. In central and southern Europe, 
which alone, of this gi-and division of the 
globe, have a genial climate, the compara- 
tively small area of jilow land could not 
long support a large population by farming, 



unless it were conducted upon improved 
and careful methods. 

We have not much data for an opinion as 
to the state of agriculture in Euroj)e, pre- 
viously to the rise of the Greek power, be- 
ginning with the capital centers — Athens 
and Sparta. 

According to Hesiod, the earliest of 
Greek ])oets, who was aliout 40 years older 
than Homer, and who lived about 1,000 
years before the Christian era, agriculture 
had attained some i^erfection aad was in a 
flourishing condition among the Greeks, 
even as early as his time. 

It is true that the earlj' Greek philoso- 
])hers, Aristotle and Plato, thought all in- 
dustri.al ])nrsuits viilgar. in so far as they 
looked only to physical supi)lies. They 
held that the pursuit of truth and the ac- 
quisition of knowledge were valuable only 
for their reflex action and influence uijon 
the soul itself. They entirely overlooked 
all considerations of usefulness to man in 
his physical relations, and, with them, 
ev(>ry argument was mean and groveling 
that lay on the material side of the ques- 
tion. We sui>])ose these ethereal individ- 
uals would have turned up their sublimat- 
ed noses, if the fumes of savory souj)s had 
salute>d their sensibilities while they were 
indulging in a dish of abstract truth, or 
discussing the merits of a delicious mess 
of metai)hysical subtleties. 

We propose to show, in a future paper, 
that there were many noble Greeks as well 
as Komans who were more like the world, 
now-a-days, especially the California side 
of it — a little more utilitarian — fully aware 
that there is a flesh and l)lood side to the 
question of humanity, that material wealth 
has a value, and that all of that which is 
iudispensible is the iiroduct of the earth. 
J. K. Thom.\s. 



How TO Make a Fakm Poob. — Cultivate 
wheat and oats largely. Sell all you raise. 
Have your grain thrashed in the field, and 
burn the straw when it is in your way. 
That is the way to make the farm poor! 
This is the way to make it rich; cultivate 
wheat, oats, and other crops, and feed to 
the stock. Take all care good manure; ma- 
nure your gi-ain fields and your fruit trees. 
Change crops by rotation — not forgetting 
the great value to land of clover. We are 
quite sure that more stock should be raised 
on farms than is now done. There is 
greater profit in raising hor.ses, cattle, 
hogs and sheep, than in growing wheat.— 
Western Farmer. 



Distinction Between Animals and 
Vegetables. — Professor Rollestono, of 
Oxford, in his late book on "Forms of 
Animal life," gives a new criterion by 
which to distinguish animals from vegeta- 
bles. He says that in the case of all ani- 
mals the embryo absorl)s its yolk from the 
inside, while in vegetables the germ of 
the seed is surrounded by its albumen. 
This is a foresha<lowing of the way in 
which the adult animal or plant absorbs its 
food; the former jilaces it within itself for 
digestion and assimilation, while the latter 
takes it from outside. 



The Change of Color in Leaves. — The 
Athenaeum says: "Experiment has con- 
firmed the conclusion that leaves turn red, 
at the end of the season, through the ac- 
tion of an acid, since one of the elements 
producing the green color must be a vege- 
table blue. Autumnal leaves, placed under 
a receiver, with the vapor of ammonia, in 
nearlj' every instance lost the red color, 
and renewed their green. In some, such 
as blackV)erry and maple, the change was 
rapid, and could be watched by the eye; 
while others, particularly certain oaks, 
turned gradually brown, without showing 
any apiiearance of green." 

The Amekican Press in Europe. — Dr. 
Lcickler, in a lecture recently delivered in 
Berlin on the "Influence of the Press," 
gives an interesting sketch of the history 
of the newspaper, and pays a special com- 
pliment to the progress of the American 
newspaper press. He regards the weekly 
edition of the New York Trihuue as the 
very climax of the newsjiaper enterprise of 
the age, and tells his public that this edi- 
tion of the Tribune weighs fifteen tons, and 
timt if the numbers were jilaced one upon 
the other they would make an immense 
pillar, having a base of six German feet 
ln-oa<l, and a shaft of one hundred and forty 
German feet high ! 

Opposed to Railroads. — Nathan Hall, 
of Durham, Conn., in 1833, thanked God 
that he lived "in a hilly country, where it 
was impossible to build railroads." To- 
day the cars of the Air Line Railroad run 
through the door-yard of his place, be- 
tween his house and barn, and within four 
feet of his side door. 



SILK AND FISH CULTURE IN NAPA. 

Editors Press:— Two or three miles 
from Napa, a little to the left of the Sono- 
ma road, and snugly nestling among the 
hills, is the country residence of Mr.W. H. 
Baxter. Mr. B. has quite a plantation of 
mulberry trees. He commenced with 
15,000 moretti and 20,000 multicaulis; 
since which time they have increa.sed 
20,000, making in all 5.5,000 trees. 

The cocoonery is 45x85 feet, two stories 
high, giving room to feed over 3,000,000 
silk worms. The time for feeding here be- 
gins about the first of May. Last year a 
late frost cut down the tender trees, leav- 
ing thousands of worms to perish for lack 
of proper food. This materially lessened 
the profits for the season. Profiting by all 
exi)eriences of the jiast, Mr. B. is still hope- 
ful of complete success in this business. 

It occurs to me that there are many 
other localities in this beautiful valley 
where silk culture would meet with better 
returns than in the place chosen by Mr. 
Baxter. A locality a little farther from the 
bay, and better sheltered from the coast 
winds, would be more likely to furnish 
that even temperature so neees.sary to the 
health of this tender worm. Other persons 
have a few trees, and it is demonstrated 
that the mulberry tree will flourish in this 
soil and climate. 

I hear many speak of trj-ing silk on a 
small scale, and I should not be surjirised 
on my next visit to find this valley as full 
of niTilberry trees and cocooneries as it is 
now of vineyards and wine cellars. 

Fish Culture. 

Four miles southeast from Napa City, 
hidden by low foothills, and at the mouth 
of the romantic canon of a small mountain 
stream, is the "fish ranch" of Mr. N. 
Coombs. On the banks of this stream, 
close under the northern si<le of a j)recipi- 
tous hill, there are three tanks constructed 
of concrete. In midwinter no sun falls 
upon these tanks, and in summer they are 
much shaded by the platform and roof of 
the hatching house and the luxuriant 
growth of shrubl)ery natural to the place. 

The water is brought in a flume, and can 
be led through the hatching boxes and 
thence to the tanks. At the time of our 
visit it was led directly to the tanks, falling 
in several small streams, so as to com- 
pletely aerate the water. These tanks are 
not on so large a scale as the ])onds made 
by the brothers Comer, on the Truckee. 

Mr. Coombs does not feel exactly satis- 
fied with his success. So far, he has spent 
more dollars than he has fishes to show for 
them. I understand that he did notsui)er- 
intcnd his arrangements in jierson, but 
trusted to another. He feeds livers or 
fresh meat, finely cut. The trout never 
cats what lies on the bottom. The tanks 
are cleansed every week. During the sum- 
mer some fish were kept in pools, in the 
bed of the stream, and removed after the 
first rains to tanks, for fear of their being 
washetl away by freshets. J. B. 

Napa, Jan. 16th, 1871. 

Intoxicating Crows. — The destruction 
which these wary birds do to the outstand- 
ing corn crop is too well known to need 
comment. We give a receipt which we 
are told will enable you to clear your farm 
of the 2Jest entirely, and it is simple and 
cheap. Take May-apple root and grind it 
fine, pour water on it and then add shelled 
corn. Let it set forty-eight hours and it is 
really for use. Then sprinkle it about. 
This' intoxicates them so that they are una- 
ble to fly, and you can dispatch them at 
leisure.' Oiir informant says that he has 
seen squirrels under the effect of it, which 
rendered them unable to climb, and at an 
early day they were dosed in this manner 
to prevent them from destroying the young 



Farm Capital. — A little land is much 
safer for a poor farmer, or, in other words, 
for a farmer who has but little capital, twenty 
acres is better than eighty or even twice 
eighty. Forty acres is to much land for a 
farmer of a small capital ; and by this we 
menu two thousand t^oUars or under of 
real money or money's worth. It may 
take less capital to own and work a forty 
acre farm in the West than it does in many 
parts of the East; but the same principles 
are involved in both ca.ses, and farm ma- 
chinery is just about as cheap at one point 
as at any other. — Eastern Ex. 



January 28, 1871.] 



&^ 



53 



NEW AND CHEAP FOOD FOR BEES. 

It is stated in tlie London Gardener n 
Chronicle, that a correspondent of that pa- 
per has long been in the habit of supi^lying 
the London shops with fresh honey in the 
comb all the year roixnd. In the hardest 
■winter his supjjly was equal to the finest 
stimmer. How he succeeded in this was 
a mystery. It finally came to light that he 
fed his bees, in the absence of flowers, on a 
solution of the oil cake made from the seeds 
of the Bene Plant [Sesmnum Onentale) . 
Indeed he would boast that he wanted no 
flowers for his bees. 

The Sesamum Orientale, or Bene, is cul- 
tivated in various parts of the world, both 
as food and for oil. The oil remains sweet 
for a long time, and is sometimes used as a 
substitute for sweet oil. In China and Co- 
chin China it is used as a substitute for but- 
ter in preparing various dishes. It is cul- 
tivated to a considerable extent in several 
of the Southern States. It is sown in 
drills about four feet apart, in the month 
of April, and the seeds are gathered in 
September; it yields a large proportion of 
oil, which is expressed in the same way as 
linseed oil. It grows much like cotton, 
from three to six feet high, and bears nu- 
merous pea p^ds, about an inch and a half 
long. The leaves of the plant have long 
been used as a remedy for the dysentery, 
and cholera infantum or summer comjjlaint 
of children. For this purpose the freshly 
gathered leaves are placed in a tumbler of 
cold water, which immediately becomes 
ropy without losing its transjjarency, or 
acquiring any uni)leasant taste, and is 
readily and even gratefully taken by the 
little sufferers, and in such cases is used as 
a substitute for other drinks. 

The Sesamum is indeed a valualjle plant 
if cultivated alone for its medicinal and 
domestic uses, if not for its oil; which last, 
however, under jjroper management, 
would prove a profitable prodiict where the 
climate favors its perfect maturity, which 
perhaps would not be north of the 38th or 
c!9th degrees of latitude. 

The editor of the Western Rural, in i-e- 
sponse to an inquiry says: "There is a 
manufactory of Bene oil in Providence, 
N. J. Most of the oil, used in this country, 
however, is imported from England and 
Prance ; but we can get no clue to imi^orted 
cake. Our experience with the plant and 
seed leads us to think it will succeed well 
here. We raised the plant for two years 
for other j)urposes, and think the crushed 
or ground seed would be valuable bee feed 
even with the oil not jiressed out. But, 
may the rape cake not answer the purpose 
■quite as well? and it is easily obtained." 

If the Sesamum is as valuable as rej)- 
Jresented, and it seems to be, might it not 
he to the advantage of California keejjers, 
'iX) obtain and feed it during the dry season 
here, when bee feed is always scarce ? Per- 
haps some of them have already tried it; if 
80 we should be pleased to hear with what 
result. 



BUCKWHEAT— ITS POISONOUS EF- 
FECTS—THE HONEY BEE. 

There is in buckwheat an essence or 
medicinal 2)rinciple upon which its irrita- 
ting qualities depend, and is called ajyis 
venenwm or " bee poison." This is one of 
the sources from whence the common 
iioaey bee obtains its poison; hence, the 
same disagreeable elfects follow the imme- 
diate use of honey when obtained from the 
buckwheat. 

The bee takes from the flower a portion 
of its medicinal virtues with the saccharine 
matter of the plant, which, by passing 
through the internal laboratory of the insect, 
becomes separated into its primary constit- 
uents of ajyis venenam and honey; the one 
being deposited in cells for the sustenance 
of the insect, and the other laid by within 
itself as a means of defence. 

Now, in making this separation in the 
'Chemical laboratory of the insect (or by ac- 
cident where dead bees arc in the honey 
while being rendered) , it often occurs that 
j)ortions of this poison are mixed with the 
honey, producing all the disagreeable ef- 
fects which would result from the use of 
buckwheat itself. 

There is, perhaps, no article containing 
as great a per centage of the poisonous 
principle used for food as buckwheat in its 
various forms; and the sameness of its 
aroma with that given ofl" by the common 
honey bee is a proof of its identity. 



All poisonous insects and rejitiles are 
healthy, active and virulent in proportion 
to the plentiful supply of the j^oison they 
are enabled to derive from their food; and 
while feeding on such articles as yield 
them this supply, their stings or bites are 
more virulent than at other times. This I 
saw fully demonstrated last winter, in 
transijorting the honey bee over the Isth- 
mus to California from the cold regions of 
the North. The sting from those bees, 
in the most unhealthy state, produced but 
little sensation or eft'ect ui)on the human 
flesh. 

The nervous, warlike habits of the honey 
bee during the period of the flowering of 
buckwheat fully corroborate the doctrine 
that this plant contains considerable quan- 
tities of poison, and it is on this principle 
that its irritating qualities depend. 

The best remedy to prevent the disagree- 
able burning and itching sensation of the 
skin caused by a free use of buckwheat 
cakes, is carbonate of soda (or an alkali of 
a similar nature) , used in their raising, or 
taken internally when the itching has 
taken place in consequence of having eaten 
too freely of the cakes. And here let me 
state that an alkali of the above chemical 
nature, immediately taken and applied to 
the skin after a bite or sting of the most 
poisonous insect or reptile, is a good anti- 
dote, and will, in most cases, save the un- 
fortunate victim from any serious harm. — 
Scientific American. 

THE OUACHITA GRAPE. 

Some few weeks since we made some ref- 
erence to the Ouachita grape, which was 
being cultivated in Arkansas, and which 
was said to possess a perfect immunity 
from the attacks of blight and mildew. 
Since making that mention we have re- 
ceived a copy of the Southern Standard, 
published at Arkadelphia, Ark., from 
which we learn that many years ago, while 
the French were still in j^ossession of that 
territory, they were greatly troubled to 
make any of the ordinary varieties of the 
grajje grow there, on account of the blight 
and rot. Their attention was finally called 
to a native wild grajje, a prolific bearer, 
and free from the attacks above mentioned. 

On transplanting it to their gardens, it 
was found to improve greatly in size and 
quality, even rivalling the most approved 
imported varieties in cultivation there. A 
few years since cuttings of this vine were 
sent to France, where it immediately be- 
come very popular, yielding wine of finer 
quality and better flavor than almost any 
other variety. 

Besides being prolific and free from dis- 
ease it is very hardy, and is as certain of a 
crop as corn or cotton. The paper from 
which we condense adds: — "We have had 
many applications for layers of this grape 
from all parts of the United States, within 
the past six months, but until recently we 
could not inform api^licants where they 
conld procure them. We are now author- 
ized to state that L. B. Clark, Esq. , of this 
place, has turned his attention to this grape, 
and is prepared to furnish layers to all who 
may desire them, at $10 per hundred." 

If this grape possesses the qualities 
above ascribed to it, we do not see why it 
would not be a very valuable variety to 
l^lant in those portions of this State where 
the blight and mildew has hitherto almost 
or quite precluded the cultivation of that 
fruit. Who will introduce it here ? 



Geape Gbowing at the East. — Grapes 
in the New England States, wherever they 
can be grown, are a profitable crop. An 
ordinary in-ofit for a good year is about $100 
per acre ; while $200 and $300 is not unf re- 
quently obtained. The rapid multiplica- 
tion of the vine, especially the Concord, 
during the last two or three years has de- 
pressed the i)rice nearly 50 per cent. The 
average annual profit of the vineyards of 
this State is not far from $60 per acre. 



MoEE SriiK Plantations. — H. Mills of 
Contra Costa has a plantation of 1,000 Mo- 
rns Alba trees, and is now preparing to 
plant 500 more of the Alba and Moretti, 
and 2,500 of the Multicaulis, and to go into 
the silk culture extensively. 



BEET SUGAR PROFITS. 

A correspondent of Wednesdays Bulletin 
who has been figuring against the Commer- 
cial Herald corrrespondent on the subject 
of Beet Sugar manufacture, makes a most 
gratifying as well as reasonable showing. 
He sets down the total expense of a 50-ton 
sugar mill, for one year, engaged seven 
months in working the beets and the other 
five in ijreparing the crude sugars jjro- 
duced — including interest on capital and 
commissions on sales, at $147,102. The 
value cf sugar produced, at present market 
rates, and allowing only 5 per cent, for the 
yield of the beets, is set down at $195,300; 
leaving a profit of $48,198. This, it will 
be observed, is over and above a reasona- 
ble interest on the investment. Moreover 
no account is made of the " waste" or 
syrup, which two items should not be set 
down at less than fifteen or eighteen thou- 
sand dollars. 

It is possible that the figures of the Bul- 
letin's correspondent may be somewhat ex- 
agerated, as it is quite evident was the case 
with the writer in the Herald. Probably 
the truth lies not far below the estimate of 
the former. At all events such is evi- 
dently the general verdict jironounced, if 
we are to judge from the alacrity with 
which capitalists are coming forward to in- 
vest in the business in San Jose and Sacra- 
mento. 

Incidental Benefits. 
The incidental benefits derivable from 
this manufacture are also quite important. 
It employs a large amount of land and la- 
bor; increases landed values; leads to im- 
Ijrovement in live stock; stimulates manu- 
facturing, mechanical and other agricul- 
tural labor generally. In reference to the 
" waste" on "pulj)," of which we have as yet 
only a very crude idea, James Howard, M. 
P. of England communicates the following 
interesting particulars to the Country Gen- 
tleman: — 

The refuse of the beet root after the su- 
gar has been extracted forms an important 
article of cattle feed and is held in high es- 
timation. About 18 or 20 -per cent, is the 
proportion of pulj) left; the worse the qual- 
ity of roots, the smaller the quantity of 
pulj). It is preserved in deep pits, 
generally bricked. Very often the expense 
of bricking is avoided, a covering of earth 
being merely laid upon the toj). The pulp 
is generally consumed within the year, but, 
if well covered iip, it can be kept sweet 
and good for two years, or, as I am assur- 
ed, even for three years. Much contro- 
versy has taken place both as to the rela- 
tive value of pulp as feeding stuff, and as 
to its real money worth. Many practical 
men maintain that a ton of pulp is equal in 
value to a ton of roots. I think the money 
worth is best settled by the price it fetches. 
The average price at the factories I visited 
will amount to about $3 25 per ton. Al- 
though horses do not like pulp, bullocks, 
which cannot be fattened on the roots alone, 
can be and are sometimes fattened for the 
English and foreign markets without any 
other food than the pulp. Pigs do well 
ui^on it when cooked. Sheei) will eat 
about twelve pounds per day of the raw 
pulj); it is unquestionably more easily di- 
gested than the root itself, but cows kept 
upon it are said not to produce much milk. 
* * * At Cologne beets are bought of 
the surrounding farmers at .$5 per ton, the 
pulp being given back free. * * * At 
an agricultural Fair held a few years ago 
at Valenciennes, France, a triumphal arch 
was erected, on which appeared the follow- 
ing inscription: "The growth of wheat in 
this district before the production of beet 
sugar was only 901,173 bushels; the num- 
ber of oxen 700; since the introduction of 
this manufacture the growth of wheat has 
increased to 1,158,2.50 bushels, and the 
number of oxen to 110,500. 

Similar facts are noted in connection 
with the beet-sugar factories of Germany, 
and will most assuredly follow here. Dur- 
ing late years this new product has nearly 
driven cane sugar from Continental Eu- 
rope, notwithstanding the former has been 
hampered with heavy taxes in the shape of 
internal revenue dues, and in des^nte of 
the fact that the yield of beets to the acre 
there, is only about one-half of what it is 



in California. Our refineries may , 11 

make up their minds to meet the new or- 
der of things, which is inevitable. By de- 
vising some plan by which our farmers 
may bo enabled to manufacture crude su- 
gars, in cheap mills, as suggested by our 
San Diego corresiDondent, in another col- 
umn, refiners will be able to continue their 
business as now established, and greatly 
benefit the agricultural interest at the same 
time. 



The State Univeesity. — The affairs of 
our State University are beginning to be 
commented upon and criticised by writers. 
This is of itself a matter of congratulation, 
for it shows that the public are becoming 
more alive to the interest of the institution, 
and promises that our University, the first 
free University, will in time take the posi- 
tion it ought to hold; for projaer criticism 
will keep the managers ever on the alert to 
imin-ove, and without criticism there is 
great danger of stultification. We there- 
fore are pleased with the reception, from 
the author, of a pamphlet on this matter, 
which we cordially recommend to the 
consideration of the public. It is entitled 
" a glance, from a German stand-point, at 
the State University of California, particu- 
larly, and the Educational Systems of 
America and Germany, comparatively." 
The author, Gustavus Schulte, of the Fe- 
male College of the Pacific, criticises in a 
kind manner some points of our University, 
and treats afterwards of German and Ameri- 
can Educational matters. The pamphlet 
contains much food for thought, and its 
perusal must have a beneficial effect. For 
sale at the principal book stores. 



The Rains have now placed the crop 
beyond doubt, and are sufficient to give 
the miners a fair prospect. The cold 
weather, although it has greatly injured, 
and put back the early grass, has materi- 
ally retarded evaporation, so that there has 
been a much larger proportion of the rain- 
fall absorbed by the eartlf than usual, and 
thus stored up for the use of the farmer. 

The amount of rain-fall, previous to 
this week, as reported in various localities, 
is as follows: Sacramento, 2.74 inches; 
Stockton, 3.23; San Jose, 6.77; Pacheco, 
3.17; San Francisco, 5%, andNevada 18.69. 
An unusTial quantity has fallen in Los An- 
gelos and San Diego. The rain of the past 
week, though not very copious, has been 
unusually general, moderate and warm; 
and falling upon soil j^reviously moist has 
been of incalculable service. The grass 
and cereals have been greatly benefitted 
thereby, and fair crops rendered almost or 
quite certain. 

Centeal Pacefic Eaenings. — The an- 
nual earnings of the Central Pacific rail- 
road, for five years, are set down as fol- 
lows, commencing with 1865: — $401,941; 
.$864,917; $1,421,525; $2,300,767; $5,670,- 
882, and closing with the earnings of 1870, 
at the enormous sum of $7,920,708. This 
is certainly a most favorable showing. If 
the business continues to increase in the 
same ratio, the earnings for 1871 will be 
not less than $10,000,000. One of the 
most important features connected with 
this exliibit is the fact that of the earnings 
for 1870, about 05 per cent, was for local 
traffic. 

The Peice of Cotton. — The average 
price per bale of cotton in 1869 was $99; 
the price for 1876 was only $60. The gross 
proceeds of the crop of 1869 was about 
$310,000,000; the proceeds of the crop of 
1870 is estimated at $210,000,000. The 
fall in price has been mainly due to the 
disturbed condition of Europe. 

CoLOEADO Gold Shipments.— The gold 
shipments from three banking houses in 
Central City, Colorado, during 1870, 
amounted to $1,210,625. The estimated 
product of Gilpin county for the same pe 
riod was $1,800,000. 



54 



?ME 



mi^M 



^ 



^M. ::mmMm ^ 



[January 28, 1871. 



m 



NDUSTRIALg[lSCELLANY. 



Colonization Movements. 

The idea of a rapid settling np of the 
large territorial area bordering upon and 
■within the great Rocky Mountain range, 
hy a system of colonization, is being quite 
actively discussed by writers and political 
economists on both sides of the Atlantic. 
The wonderful success which has attended 
the "Greeley Colony," where a large town, 
with substantial blocks of buildings, beau- 
tiful avenues, ornamented with trees, and 
foimtains, public edifices, etc., has grown 
up, as by magic, in a single season, is op- 
erating as a wonderful stimulus in this di- 
rection. 

The "lust for gold" which , for the last 



20 years, has been the stimulating medium 
for attracting settlers to the Rocky Moun- 
tain and Pacific Slopes, enters but verj' 
little, if at all, into this new movement. 
The aim is to build up permanent settle- 
ments upon an agricultural and manufac- 
turing basis. Farmers, who more than any 
other class of jjopulation, form the bone 
and sinew of a country, are ever slow to 
change the advantages of convenient mar- 
kets, schools, churches and home surround- 
ings, which they enjoy in old settled locali- 
ties, for a pioneer life in the midst of desert 
wastes, however beautiful and productive 
those wastes may be made by the hand of 
industry. 

But the success of the Greeley Colony has 
shown them that they can carry all these 
home advantages with them; if they will 
only go in large bodies, and settle upon 
contiguous lands. They can carry their 
markets with them, by taking along a due 
proportion of mechanics, who will estab- 
lish home manufactories for the chief 
necessaries of a mixed community. Will- 
ing and earnest hands can soon hew out 
the materials for dwellings, churches and 
school houses; and a town may be built up 
in a few months .which shall have all the 
essential elements of comfort and success 
which surround the most flourishing of 
pioneer towns anywhere. The city of a 
year which has thus grown up on the 
Cache la Poudre is a living proof of what 
we write. 

And there are hundreds, indeed we may 
say thousands of localities, e(iually eligible 
within the broad domain extending west- 
ward from Kansas, northward to Rritish 
America, and southward to Mexico — a ter- 
ritory embracing an area more than half as 
large as Europe, and capable of sustaining 
a population twice as great as the present 
total of the entire Union. 

The overcrowded centers of Europe are 
just beginning to realize the opportunities 
here presented; and, through the agency 
of properly organized colonization agencies, 
we may soon expect to witness an influx of 
population from that quarte, far in excess 
of anything yet witnessed in the annals of 
emigration. California should be np and 
doing in view of this gi-eat movement of 
labor and capital, and so direct a portion of 
the stream, that the Western Slope of the 
Sierras shall receive at least a moiety of 
the benefits so intimately connected with 
the public weal, and so fraught with mate- 
rial benefit to the people, individually and 
at large. 

Caijfobnia Fruits in Washikgton . — We 
clip the following from the Washington 
corresijondence of the Sacramento Union: 
— Senator Casserly has received, in good 
condition, olives and orangeson the branch, 
and fresh figs and almonds from Califor- 
nia. Bidwell, the son-in-law of Superin- 
tendent Kennedy, also supplied his family 
with luxuries from California. These ar- 
rivals of good things established a cordial 
relation on Christmas between the Pacific 
coast and the East and ma<le us feel at the 
seat of government that our future confec- 
tioneries will be derived from the Ameri- 
can Paris on the slojses of the Pacific. 



Hughes' Patent Lantern. 

Had Diogenes been provided Avith the 
lantern here illustrated he might possibly 
have had less difficulty in his seai-ch after 
a wise man ; for, in justice to those ancient 
times, we may be allowed to hope that the 
chief trouble in the discovery of siich a 
man arose not from the gi"eat scarcity of 
the article, biit rather from the want of 
sufficient length in the parfcof the searches. 

Mr. Hughes could have presented Mr. 
Diogenes with a good light-producer. We 
should like to have seen him recommend- 
ing it to the old philosopher, as "strong, 
durable, easily kept in perfect order, and 
much better than that thing in your hand 
or any other now in use. Will be great 
economy for yon to purchase, for it not 
onlv will o".two?.r a dozen of the kind vou 



"What, yoii can't afl'ord it. Well, take 
this one on tick, and when you're in funds 
send me on the money. Recommend the 
lantern to your friends and, at the earliest 
moment, address your letter to John 
Hughes, Box 90, Buchanan Post Office, Pa." 

Opium CuiiTUKE. — The San Jose Inde- 
pendent copies our articles on Opium Cult- 
ure, and calls the special attention of its 
readers to the value thereof, as one of the 
many new crojjs to which our farmers 
should resort in their endeavors to intro- 
duce greater variety into the products of 
their fields. 




Silk Culture and Home Manufacture 
IN NonTH Carolina. — A New York gentle- 
man who proposes to go into the silk busi- 
ness extensively in Buncombe County, N. 
C-, ■^'rites us for some special information 



Fi^Z 





HUGHES'S PATENT LANTERN. 



now have, but will give so strong a light 
that you'll find ten largo men of the sort 
you're after in less time than it now takes 
to find one small one. 

"You see how the wire frame carries and 
protects the rbo".. "•-> V.a'- it can't be bro- 



Fig.4 



as to labor, etc., and speaking of tlie indus- 
try there says: " I find, some of the people 
here are, in a small way, jDroducing cocoons 
(from 40,000 to 100,000 each) successfully, 
there being no disease among the worms. 
They reel the silk, spin it, knit it into hose, 




ken. This wire frame is hinged to the 
base, in this way (Fig. 4) . Now we can 
easily take out the glass, clean it, and then 
rei)lace it by reversing the movement of 
the frame until it rests upright on the base, 
and is held by the spring on the side of the 
base opi^osite the hinge, this spring being 
so arranged with a pawl, so that it cannot 
retract by accident. 

" The two eyes provided, one on each 
side of the cylindrical top of the lantern, 
to receive the hooked ends of the bail, are 
strengthened by the addition of a strip of 
metal (Figs. 2 and 3) , so that they can't be 
torn open. The strip is inserted through 
slits and its ends overlaj); and the hole is 
then drilled through the whole four thick- 
ness, so that the durability is very gi-eat. 

"The whole affair is solidly built, and 
ovrey precaution has been taken to make it 
a splendid thing. Y^ou can't find another 
in which the glass can be so easily removed 
and cleaned, where the ujiper part is so 
securely retained on the lower jiart, the af- 
fixing of the bail is so durable and efficient, 
the— 



and weave it in hand looms, into vest pat- 
terns, etc., but have no experience in pre- 
paring it for market." 

Yeoetable Precosity. — A gentleman 
who called at this office, a few days since, 
to place upon our subscription books the 
name of a friend, informed us that he 
planted in a flower pot, early last spring, 
an orange seed which in due time .sprouted 
and came up. During the summer, he took 
the young tree, still in the pot, to the ranch 
of a friend in Sonoma, where it has recent- 
ly put forth a well developed blossom — in 
less than one year from the seed ! 



Dried Fruit. — Mr. Victor Portroon, of 
the Esperanza Ranch, says the Calaveras 
Chronicle, has shipped to San Francisco, this 
fall, 1,500 pounds of di-ied figs of a supe- 
rior quality, which brought from 15 to 18 
cents per pound. Also two tons of dried 
plums, which sold readily for 20 cents — all 
raised by himself. This result shows what 
a little energy may do, in utilizing the sur- 
plus products of our orchards and small 
fruit nurseries. 



California Agricultural Notes. 

Shade Trres. — The Santa Clara Agri- 
cultural Society advertises for sealed i)ro- 
posals for furnishing 400 trees for its fair 
grounds— 100 each of locust, Monterey 
cy]jrus. South Carolina ijojilars and Aus- 
tralian blue gums. 

Blooded Stock. — The Solano Hepith- 
lican of Jan. 19th says: Five head of Dur- 
ham cows came up on the Amelia on Tues- 
day night. They belong to Lewis Peirce, 
and were recently imported from England. 

Salinas Valley is about eighty miles 
long, with an average of seven miles in 
width. The Standard estimates the area of 
agricultural land to be 550,000 acres. 
Some of it is very rich and wonderfully 
productive — 140 bushels of barley having 
been produced to the acre in some places. 
The greater jiortion of the valley is owned 
in large grants, but the proprietors are be- 
ginning to sell off" portions, as the best way 
to enhance the value of the balance. Prob- 
ably one-fourth of that valley is under 
cultivation. 

Barley in Chico. — Farmers near Chico 
are holding on to their barley, while the 
merchants of that place are receiving fifty 
or sixty tons daily from other points. 

SxRAWBERniES IN JANUARY. — Fine ripe 
strawberries are selling in Los Angeles 
market at 50 cents per pound. 

Cattle and Sheep. — It is said that cat- 
tle stand the dry season and short feed 
much better than sheep; that wliilo but 
very few cattle have died, the sheep sufl'er 
and perish in large numbers. 

Quails in Idaho. — The Quail Associa- 
tion of Roise City, Idalio, are importing 
large quantities of these birds from Mis- 
souri and California, and turning them 
loose in the hills and valleys of that sec- 
tion. 

Olive Trees in Placer County. — C. 
E. Carpenter is commencing to plant olive 
trees at Rattlesnake Bar — probably the first 
in the county. It is claimed that the 
climate and soil there is very favorable for 
the olive. The speculation will undoubt- 
edly be highly remunerative. 

Feeding Sheep. — The Marysville Stan- 
dard gives the situation of sheep in that 
vicinity as follows: Sheep herders are com- 
pelled to feed their flocks considerable 
quantities of hay, which, at §20 i^er ton, is 
expensive. We Jiave heard it stated that 
the loss from cold and lack of usuiil graz- 
ing will amount to 20 per cent., or equal 
the natural increase for the season. 



Eastern Agricultural Notes. 

Uttlizino Vine Pbunings. — Some of 
our Eastern grape-growers are utilizing the 
new wood primings of the ^-ine for wine 
and vinegar manufacture. After being cut 
small they are bruised and put into a vat 
or mashing tub, and boiling water poured 
on them, in the same way as done with 
malt. ()ne of the experimenters says that 
they produce liquor of a fine vinious qual- 
ity," which on being fermented, makes a 
very fine beverage, either mild or strong, 
as you please, and on being distilled, pro- 
duces an excellent spirit of the nature of 
brandy. In the course of his experiments 
he found that the fermented liquor from 
the pruning, particularly the tendrils, 
when allowed to pass the vinious and to 
run into the acetous fermentation makes 
uncommonly fine vinegar. 

A Lowell man has built a henery large 
enough to accommodate 3,000 hens. 

The refuse potato pomace from starch 
factories is now to be made into paper. 

Illinois and Iowa stand at the head of 
the wheat-growing States. 

A Profitakle Orch.u«d. — The Menden- 
hall orchard, of CG acres, in Richland 
Countv, 111., returned as the net proceeds 
of its last year's crop §8,312. 

The Cattle Supply.— Of the 355,277 
beef cattle sent into the New York market 
last year, the State of Illinois furnished 
204,131. Texas conies next in the list, be- 
ing credited with 40,557. 

Orders for Beet Sugar. — We see it 
stated that orders for large amounts of beet 
sugar have been sent to the agent of the 
Alvarado Company in this city, from Ore- 
gon, Nevada, Idaho and other distant lo- 
calities on this coast. Thus it appears that 
this new industry will be encouraged by 
the people, however much merchants and 
manufacturers may feel inclined to dispose 
of the foreign grown instead of the home 
grown as well as home made articles. 



January 28, 1871.] 



-c,f 



55 



®c 



Popular Lectures. 



Evaporation and Rain Fall. 

trrof. John LeConte before the Mechanic Arts Coi,- 
LEOE, Mechauics' Institute Hall, S. F. Eeported 
expressly for the Press.] 

The subject of rain is of so much impor- 
tance to the farmers on our coast, that we 
give a few extracts bearing on the matter 
from Prof. John Le Conte's last lecture be- 
fore the Mechanic Arts College, in this 
city: 

I stated, said the professor, that air was 
not the agent of evaporation, and that these 
two theories founded on the ideas that air 
was a solvent "and that it was an absorbent 
of vapor, were erroneous. I showed, 
moreover, that in vacuum evaporation takes 
place instantaneously; that the vapor has 
a certain elastic force which we measure 
by the distance through which it depresses 
the mercury in our tiibe; and that an in- 
crease of temperature causes an increase 
of this force, although not in the same 
ratio. 

Now there is a certain density or elastic 
force beyond which a vapor cannot pass. 
In a given space, only a certain amount of 
vapor can be formed, this amount, it may be 
said, being dependent on the temperature. 
If we decrease this space, the temperature 
remaining the same, part of the vajjor is 
condensed back to liquid. 

By the compression, then, of vapors, one 
comes to a limit beyond which their elastic 
force cannot increase, where any further 
comi)ression only results in a condensa- 
tion. Vapors at this limit are said to have 
their maxiimtm of ela.'iiic force, or maximum 
density/. This gives lis a characteristic and 
important difference between vapors and 
permanent gaxes. Vapors which have 
reached their maximum density are sa,id to 
be saturated. The maximum density is in- 
creased by an increase of temi^erature. 
Condensation by Cooling— Rain in Hot and Cold 
Countries. 
The amount of vapor condensed by cool- 
ing depends not only on the number of de- 
grees the temperature is reduced, but also 
on what part of the scale, whether high uj) 
or low down, this is done. For example, 
we find from our tables of figures (which 
the lecturer showed) that if we reduce the 
temperature from 90 degrees to 50 degrees, 
Fall., 10.721 gi-ains of vapor of water are 
condensed; while if we reduce it an equal 
amount, but from 70 to 30 degrees, only 
0.023 grains are condensed. 

This fact explains why it is that a fall in 
temperature is accompanied by more rain 
in tropical than in colder countries. The 
higher the degree at which tlie reduction is 
made, the more vajior is condensed. 

Atmospheric Vapor — Rale of Evaporation, 
All the aqueous phenomena of the atmos- 
phere, — rain, clouds, fog, frost, snow, etc. 
— depend on the aqueous vapor which is 
mingled with the air. Now if we had no 
atmosphere, what would be the result? 
The vapors would flash iip instantly, attain- 
ing their maximum density, and then all 
evaijoration would cease. But, as we have 
seen, air retards evaporation; audits move- 
ment, the air carrying off the vajjor mixed 
with it, gives chance for more evaporation. 

If the ocean were universal, covered all 
the globe, we would not have more rain, 
but probably less; for the land acts as a 
condensing apparatus, and thus causes the 
vapor to be constantly removed from the 
surface of the water, enabling more to 
form. If water were universal we should 
probably have only a gentle distillation, 
and constant fog in the polar regions. 

The causes which influence the rale of 
evaporation may be reduced ultimately to 
five: 

1. The extent of surface of the liquid. 
Tlie rate is proportional to this. 

2. The temperature of the liquid. 

3. The elastic force of the vapor at the 
surface of the liquid. If such vapor is at 
its maximaim density, no further evapo- 
ration can take place. 

4. The wind, which removes the vapor 
present. 

5. The pressure on the surface of the 
liquid. The rate is inversely proi^ortional 
to this. 

The rate of evaporation depends on all 
these points; and many mistakes have been 
made in trying to explain phenomena by 
one alone. Thus the fact that more rain 
falls in the northern than in the ' soxithern 
hemisiihere, while there is more water in 



the southern than in the northern, has 
forced those who have supposed evajjora- 
tion to depend only on the extent of sur- 
face, to get up many a wild theory, about 
the vai)or being generated in one hemi- 
sphere and then carried far away and de- 
posited in the other. But vapor doesn't 
wander many hundred miles from the place 
where it is generated. 

Dew-Point — Humidity of Air. 
If the vajjor is not at its maximum den- 
sity, it acts like air or other permanent gas, 
as stated above. If the aqueous vajjor in 
the atmosphere were at its maximum den- 
sity, a reduction of temperature would 
always condense it. But owing to the me- 
chanical impediment of air, it is not genei'- 
ally in this condition. Now the tempera- 
ture at which the condensation of the vajDor 
begins, that is, tlie temperature at which 
the amount of vapor in the atmosphere is 
sufficient to saturate the air, is called the 
dew-point. [For instance, suppose every 
cubic centimeter of air held 13.03 grammes 
of water vapor, while the temperature is 20 
degrees Celsius. The air is not saturated 
with this amount at this temperature, but 
it is saturated at 16 degrees. Therefore, 16 
deg. would be the dew-point for this case.] 
When we speak of the humidity of the 
air, we do not mean to give the actual 
amount of vapor in the air, but the pro- 
portion of this amount, and the amount 
which it can contain at the given tempera- 
ture, or the nearness of the actual tempera- 
ture to the dew-point. [Tlius the air is 
" dry" when it is far from its saturation- 
point or dew-i)oint, but " moist" when it is 
near to this. Thus, in a hot day, (as the 
higher the temperature, the more vapor 
then can exist) , the air can contain much 
vapor, and yet be " dry," while, on a cold 
day, it can be " moist," although contain- 
ing only a fraction of this amount. ] Hu- 
midity is then the ratio of the elastic force 
at the dew-point to that at the given tem- 
perature. We reckon it according to the 
formula: Humidity =100 -I- (e-;-E) where we 
multiply by 100 to get the result in i^er 
cent., and where e=elastic force at the dew 
point, and E, the elastic force at the given 
temijerature. For instance, supi)ose our 
dew-point to be 50 degrees, and our actiial 
temperature to be 70 degrees, Fah. As the 
elastic force at 50 deg. is 0.361 (in. mer- 
cury) , and the elastic force at 70 degrees is 
0.733, (these numbers have been found by 
experiment), the humidity is 49.2 per cent. 
For, according to the formula, 

e 0.361 

Humidity = 100 X — =- 100 X =49.2 

E 0.733 



As the elastic force increases more raji- 
idly than the temperature, if we mix 
vapors, which acquire their maximiim den- 
sity at diflferent temperatures, we get a 
l)recipitation. We can reckon this amount 
of precipitation. Thus, we mix a cubic 
foot of vapor of maximum density at 90\ 
with a cubic foot of vapor of maximum 
density at 60". We have then 2 cubic feet 
at the mean temperature of 70°. Our 
tables show the first to Aveigli 14,810 grs. ; 
the second, 4,089 grs. The two then weigh 
14.810 4,089 = 18.880 grs.; or one foot 
weighs one-half 6f this, or 9.449 grs. But 
at the temperature of 70°, the maximum 
density can be only 7.992 gi-s. ; therefore 
9.449-7.992 or 1.457 grs, are condensed. 

Rain Theories. 

Hutton evolved two theories of rain from 
these principles. When the air bearing 
vapors comes into hot regions, it is heated, 
carried up into the higher regions of con- 
gelation, and the vapors condense and are 
precipitated in heavy showers of rain. 2. 
When a mixture of warm air and warm 
vai>or with cold air and little vapor occurs, 
we have gentle rains. The first occurs in 
tropical regions; the second in the tem- 
perate zones. 

In certain places in the tropical region, 
particularly in the forest of Brazil, for in- 
stance, the rains occur at regular times 
even to the hour. Thus, the niglits and 
mornings are clear, but at noon and during 
the afternoon it rains. This may be thus 
explained. At the rainy season the sun is 
nearly vertical in such places. By noon it 
has heeded the land so that the winds bear- 
ing the vapors are carried directly \vp to 
the colder regions of space and the vajjors 
are condensed and fall as heavy rain. By 
night the heat has decreased, and the winds 
regain their horizontal direction, carrying 
away the vapor during tlie night and morn- 
ing, (which are therefore clear) until the 
next noon, when the same phenomenon oc- 
curs as before. This takes place for, say 
90 days, when the position of the sun has so 
changed that the necessary conditions are 
not presented, and the dry season occurs. 

The lecturer proceeded in his application 
of the matter to England and India, giving 
data, and exami^les. He then came to the 
case of San Francisco. Here, as the ocean 



is not warm, while the land is, we have no 
rains, except when the wind is from the 
south, when the vapors brought by it are 
warmer than the land and condensation, or 
rain, follows. Tlie next lecture will be on 
Boiling, and the Spheroidal State will be 
l^articularly considered. 

CABINET OF NATURAL HISTORY IN 
ALAMEDA COUNTY. 

[Written lor the Press.] 

Editoes Pbess — There are a few men in 
this world who find i^leasure in devoting 
their time and talents to science and natur- 
al history. Not always averse to society, 
they are never leaders in it, and generally 
move along in a quiet, unobtrusive and 
modest manner, neither attracting the ob- 
servations of the common j^eoide, nor being 
attracted by the ordinary or frivolous ex- 
citements of the day. 

Such men are generally linked together 
by congeniality of tastes into a sort of 
social union; but it seems to be a i^eculiar- 
ity with many of them to rather seclude 
themselves even from each other, so far as 
social communion is concerned. Their 
ambition is more to learn than to be seen. 
We venture the assersion that there is not 
a better, nobler or more useful class of 
men and women in this world than such as 
these, who find food for thought in the 
forms, ways and mysteries of Nature; who 
enjoy the book of knowledge that opens 
leaf by leaf to their searching; who own 
the riches of the world without caring for 
its glitter and gloss, and who are happy in 
a serene faith in Him whose love binds 
them with goodwill to their fellow-men. 

We are unwittingly led to these i^relim- 
inary remarks, which are, at least, true in 
themselves, while thinking upon a recent 
visit it was our good fortune to make to 
Centerville, Alameda County. It is not 
generally known — indeed but few peojde in 
Alameda County know of the choice cabi- 
net and collections of Dr. L. G. Yates. 

The doctor is an indefatigable worker 
and student in every brancli of natural 
science. His collections of geological, min- 
eral and archeologieal si^ecimens, etc., are 
wonderfully complete and interesting. He 
has a complete set of sijecimens from all 
the different formations of the silurian, 
deronian and cai'boniferous ages. His col- 
lection of reptiles, birds, insects, shells, 
etc., is most interesting. He aims especial- 
ly to preserve siiecimens of all the animate 
and inanimate things of Alameda County, 
and is writing the natural history of the 
county. He is quite an expert taxidermist 
and preserver as well as collector of 
natiiral curiosities. 

He has collected many .specimens of 
fossil animals; and also human remains 
and implements from the old Indian 
mounds in California, as also several 
strange samples fi-om the "stone age." 
Several of these, obtained with difficulty 
and expense, he has sent to the Smithson- 
ian Institute, with which he is in constant 
communication, reserving jilaster casts of 
the same for his own cabinet. "No one 
collection that has been received by us has 
proved of more interest than yours," wrote 
the Secretai'y of the Institute, on the re- 
ceipt of one collection out of many, sent to 
that National Museum by Dr. Yates. 

The doctor has many books of great 
value to him which he has received in re- 
turn for his many favors to the Institute, 
but like most of those who devote their 
time to the advancement of science he re- 
ceives very little assistance or encourage- 
ment from those who might and should 
second their efforts. Still, he has some 
friends, good and true, who appreciate his 
commendable labors, and give credit to 
whom credit is due. 

Should it be the good fortune of any of 
our readers to visit Centerville, they must 
not forget to call on the doctor, who is al- 
ways pleased to show his cviriosities and 
explain their meaning. s. h. h. 



THE STATE UNIVERSITY. 

The Board of Regents met on Monday, 
principally to settle indebtedness incurred 
lately. Bills, amounting to $4,616.34, 
were ordered paid, and others, amounting 
to .$13,185.61, were ordered paid when ap- 
proved by the proper committees. The 
Board adopted a resolution offering, in ef- 
fect, to pay ,120,000 cash for the Brayton 
Estate instead of .$22,000 in interest-bear- 
ing bonds payable in 10 years. Resolu- 
tions were also ado^jted, giving Mr. George 
Tait the title of Assistant Professor of An- 
cient Languages, empowering this gentle- 
man to employ siich assistants as have been 
authorized by the Board for the Fifth 
Class, during the present term; also pro- 
viding for permanent instructors in this 
class. 

The construction of the University 
building is to be stopped, as this has 
cost more than was estimated. A compro- 
mise was effected with the contractor who 
was to furnish the bricks, and from to-day 
on all work is to be suspended. 

We are to wait, then, an indefinite pe- 
riod of time, before we can have our Uni- 
versity building, of which so much has 
been said. The action of the Board is 
probably the right one in the present case, 
but this result does but little justice to the 
financial ability of the Regents, some of 
whom are noted as the sharpest business 
men on the coast. We are informed that 
.$250,000 has been expended on the Uni- 
versity during the past year, yet we have 
but a poor showing at the jiresent time. 
We once thought that we had a University 
ami)ly endowed and provided for in every 
resj^ect, one which should make the name 
of California noted throughout the educa- 
tional world. Yet here we are with a few 
students and a large deficiency of funds 
in the treasury. Shall we wait for the 
millennium for our University to acquire a 
resjiectable standing, or shall we be obliged 
to have another grand lottery ? 



The Afbican Diamond Fields. — After 
all the glowing stories of the heaps of dia- 
monds found in the South African fields, 
we see it stated that the gems prove, on 
scientific examination, to be merely "lumps 
of translucent quartz." How far this is 
true, we cannot say with authority, but it 
is easy enough to test the matter without 
room for question. If the assertion prove 
true, it will be a sorry story for many. 



The Canal Bill. — We have information 
from a reliable source, that the bill about 
to be presented to Congress asking for a 
land subsidy to aid in the construction 
of a canal through this country, will be so 
guarded as to reserve all mineral lands to 
the Government, and protect actual settlers 
to rights already acquired, and all other 
rights acquired by any one jirior to the 
passage of the Act. It will also ])rovide 
for the sale of water here and elsewhere 
along the line of the canal, wherever a de- 
mand may be made, to the extent of its ca- 
jjacity. It will also limit the price of wa- 
ter jier inch per day, at the usual measure- 
ment to miners, — Placurville Democrat. 



Anothee Peteified Foeest. — The Rus. 
sian River Flag of Jan. 12th, announces 
the discovery of a field of petrified trees: — 
It is situated near the ranch of Charles Al- 
exander, at the lower end of Alexander Val- 
ley, and about 12 miles from Healdsburg. 
He does not know over what extent of coun- 
try it exists, as he had not an opportunity 
of prospecting extensively at the time he 
was there. He saw a large number of trees 
and stumps, and a great amount of the 
limbs in broken fragments, all over the 
country. Many of tlyDse that remain stand- 
ing are on a hillside and stand perpendicu- 
lar to the surface of the ground. 



What Scope op Countey well Support 
A Raileoad. — Col. Hammond, an experi- 
enced railroad man, says that a territory 
ten miles wide, on each side of a railroad, 
in a county capable of sustaining an ordi- 
narily dense population, is capable of sup- 
porting it. Whenever railroads run out 
from any commercial center, through such 
a country, they will be sure to bring a suf- 
ficient population to support them, witliin 
a very few years after their construction, 
if it is not already there when the road is 
projected. This is for railroatls of the 
usual construction and equipment. It is 
but fair to infer that narrow gauge railroads, 
being cheajier of construction, can be sup- 
ported by a proportionally less area and 
population. 



56 



Pwng^ ??B»^iw^^-»> 



[January 28,1871. 




POBLISHED BY 
A. T. DEWEY. W. 11, E-ftKK. O. H. STKONG. J. L. IIOONE. 

Pk[NCIpal EdituB W. B. EWER, A. M. 

I. N. HOAG, (Sacramento,) Asbociate Editok. 

Office, No. 4U Clay street, where friends and patrons 
»re invited to our Scientific PiiEsa Patent Agency, En- 
graving and Printing establisbment. 

SUBSCBIPTIONB payable in advance— For one year $4 : 
t months, $2.2.5; three months, $1.25. Clubs of ten 
names or more $3 each per annum. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January 28, 1871. 



OUR WEEKLY CROP. 

We invite our readers to enter and inspect 
our new Country Residence, which we have 
just erected as a model of neatness, beauty and 
cheapness combined. We think they will be 
pleased with the arrangement. They can here 
look over our library, ever on the increa.se, of 
Mechanical and Scientidc Progress, and then 
read the travels of our correspondent from 
Omaha to Chicago, and those of him who 
writes of Agriculture and Manufactures in San 
Joaquin County. Dr. Thomas, formerly Presi- 
dent of the Vacaville College, treats us to a very- 
interesting discourse on the History and Pro- 
gress of Farming, and we are told of the Silk 
and Fish Interests in Napa. 

Visiting, then, the Apiary, we witness the 
proceedings of the "busy bee," and see some 
new food for these little insects. We see a New 
Grape near by, -which has just been imported 
into our vineyard. We converse on the Profits 
of Beet Sugar Manufacture, and are given some 
interesting statistics, and this subject naturally 
leads to talk concerning the New Silk Project at 
the Mission San Jose. 

Colonization Movements interest us all, and 
if any are in the dark on such matters, a New 
Lantern is at hand to throw light on the subject. 
By its light we can read the latest California 
and Eastern Agricultural Items. The rain, 
perchance, driving us under shelter. Prof Le 
Conte explains many facts connected with 
Evaporation and Kain Fall, and if we have 
still time, we -visit a Cabinet of Natural History, 
and gaze at the unfinished foundation of our 
State University, moralizing thereon. 

At the proper time, we visit the grain fields 
and witness the difierence between Spring and 
AVinter Wheat. We talk with the farmers and 
tell them that What We Want is their kind aid 
and co-operation, sho-ning that the Prosperity 
of the Farmer is our object and the greatest 
good of the community. 

The Report of the State Agricultural Society 
is of the greatest interest and we therefore read 
the first part of it, just before entering our 
Home Circle. Here we refresh oursolf -n-ith 
light talk and conversation, -with stories and 
I)oetrj' suitable for the family, and -with much 
valuable Household Reading. 

A San Diego friend tells us of cheap Begin- 
nings in Farming, of Beet Culture and 
Cheap Sugaries — an interesting matter for farm- 
ers. Our coachman shows us a Harnessing 
Machine, by which he can unharness a horse in 
30 seconds . Then we study the habits of the 
Young of Oysters — and with our Market Re- 
ports have finished -w-ith the weekly crop. 



Wanted. — Copies of No. 2 of the PAcmc 
RuRAii Press, dated Jan. 14, 1871. Per- 
sons having that No. to spare -will oblige 
by sending it to this office. We are not 
able to .supply all orders for it. The de- 
mand for our new paper has exceeded our 
most sanguine expectations. 



The Money Market. — The price of gold 
opened in New York, on Wednesday, at 
IIOJ^. Legal Tenders 91@91iic. 

Money in San Francisco is in good sup- 
ply for mercantile pnri^oses at l(fltl% per 
cent., and on long terms 10(«il2 i^er cent. 
The quantity of money now flowing into 
the public institutions for employment is 
increasing, and the prospects for the year 
in this respect are good. 



SPRING AND WINTER WHEAT— THE 
DIFFERENCE. 

All plants arc more or less influenced by 
climate, habits of growth, and the mode of 
treatment to -svhich they are subjected. 

The intelligent orchardist, in selecting 
his fruit trees -w^ill, as a general rule, 
choose from such as have been grown as 
nearly as possible under inthesamecireum- 
stances of soil and climate as those to 
which he expects to expose them in their 
future gro-wth. The only variation from 
this rule should be — that for trees whose 
n.atnral habitat is in a warmer latitude, he 
should seek his supply a little south, or 
where it is somewhat warmer than at his 
own location. If he desires trees that are 
natives of a colder region, he should go a 
little north, or where it is colder for his 
stock. The same rule holds good in 
roots, vegetables, etc. 

Our grains are also more or less influ- 
enced in the same -way, and it is to this pe- 
culiarity we owe the difference which ex- 
ists between Winter and Spring Grain. 
.\ny spring wheat, of healthy and vigorous 
growth^ may be made winter wheat b3' suc- 
cessive sowings in the fall, and su^ijecting 
it to the rigors of -winter. Much of it may 
fail the first or second year; but, with 
proper treatment, it will gradually accom- 
modate itself to exjiosure, until it becomes 
good "winter wheat." In the same manner 
winter wheat may become spring wheat. 
Spring wheat differs from winter wheat 
only in the fact that it has been sown in 
the spring, instead of the fall, for a succes- 
sion of years. The same remark applies to 
other grains. 

In this State and Oregon — in the valley 
portions especially — fall sown (winter) 
wheat is preferable to summer wheat. A 
late number of the Walla Walla Union 
gives the following item bearing upon this 
assertion: — 

DrFFERENCE BETWEEN WiNTER AND COM- 
MON Wheat. — In a conversation with one 
of our mill owners, he remarked that he 
would give from 10 to 15 cents more for a 
busliel of white Fall wheat than for the 
spring sown club wheat; the latter, he in- 
formed us, too, constituos four-fifths of all 
the grain raised in this valley. There is 
fully that much difference in the true value 
of the kinds uumed. 

What kind of Wheat Shall we Raise ? 

We should be pleased to hear from some 
of our practical wheat growers, and mill 
men upon the (luestion of the kinds or va- 
rieties of wheat which do best in this State. 
Possibly there are varieties which are pre- 
ferable in one part of the State, but not well 
calculated for others. It is hardly to be 
supposed that any given variety will flour- 
ish equally well on the hot, dry i)lains of 
the lower San Joaquin and Tulare valleys, 
and upon the higher, cooler and more moist 
lands of the extreme northern part of the 
State. It might also be reasonably sup- 
posed that the high, red lands of our moun- 
tains might do well with some varieties, 
that would from inferior in the black adobe 
soils which cover so large a portion of our 
great valley areas. Those are matters 
which it might be well for our people to 
consider. If it is profitable to raise wheat 
at all, it must pay better to raise the best 
all the time, or that which vnll command 
the highest price in any given locality, or 
for any given purjiose— as for ship2>ing or 
for home consumption. 

Utilize the Carcass. — When a farmer, 
loses a horse, or ox or any other animal, 
instead of leaving the carcass to be devour- 
ed by coyotes or crows, he should cover 
it with six or eight times its bulk of earth, 
and thus arrest the fertilizing gasses which 
will be thrown oflf in the process of decom- 
position. By so doing he would secure a 
quantity of manure which would pay him 
five times over for the trouble it would 
cost him; for there is very little land in 
the older portions of the state, which 
might not be greatly improved by the ajJ- 
plication of fertilizers. 



WHAT WE WANT. 

We -want our readers, and esijeeially our 
practical and progressive farming readers, 
to put themselves in communication Avith 
us, and send us reports of jsrogress, of ex- 
periments, etc. We would like to hear of 
the best crops of grain, of vegetables, of 
fruit, and leai-n how they were produced. 
We want to know how much such and such 
crops have cost, and how much profit has 
been realized from them. We want to hear 
what experiments have been made, and 
the results which have attended such ef- 
forts. Such inf<nmation spread before the 
people, through the columns of the Rural, 
will do much good, and greatly encourage 
and improve our agricultural interests gen- 
erally. 

We are especially desirous to hear from 
experiments in diversified farming — of ef- 
forts to turn our wheat lands, at least in 
part, to a more profitable culture. We 
would also like to hear of improvements in 
wheat culture. Who, by a change in his 
mode of culture, by drilling, iserhaps, in- 
stead of broadcast sowing; by deeper plow- 
ing; by the application of fertilizers; by any 
particular mode of fallowing; by a better 
selection of seeds, or who, by any other 
means, has succeeded in getting an increased 
yield from his fields, without a jiroportion- 
al increase of expense. Such facts are im- 
l)ortant and instructive, and take nothing 
from the giver, save the time of writing 
and a three cent stamp. We also want facts 
and experience in sheep and cattle raising; 
we want to hear from our dairy men, our 
poultrymen, our fruit growers, etc. 

We don't claim to know all about farm- 
ing — in fact we profess to know very little 
about it; but we do aspire to, and claim a 
reputation for industry and perseverence in 
search of information ; and a genuine inter- 
est in the -welfare and progress of the farm- 
ing interest on this Coast. To this end we 
invoke the aid and cooperation of the farm- 
ers themselves. We desire and expect to 
make the Pacitic Rural Press — not the 
editors or publishers — but the Press itself, 
the great '"Head-Center" of all kno-svledge, 
pertaining to agriculturo on this Coast. 
We expect to do this by filling its columns 
from week to week with the thoughts, the 
ideas and the experience of those who are 
practically engaged in this great industij\ 
We wish to make the Press the common 
medium of communication between the 
farmers of all the diverse and distant sec- 
tions of the Pacific Slope. 

We ore compelled to originate here a new 
school, or rather a new practice of agricul- 
ture, as the experiences and teachings of 
other countries fail in their applications 
here. To do this we must aid and council 
one another; and the work of the publishers 
of this i^aper is to furnish the medium for 
such intercommunication, and such ex- 
change of ideas. Our columns will be 
made more or less valuable according aa 
you use the facilities thus freely offered. 



Cheap Fares. — The Oakland Ti-anscript 
says it is the intention of the Central Pa- 
cific Railroad Co. to put down the rate of 
emigrant fare in the spring to §35 in cur- 
rency. Arrangements are at the same time 
being made to reduce the European rates 
to New York, so that a through ticket from 
Liverpool to San Francisco (steerage of 
course) will be only $90 in currency; from 
Antwerp^to this city it will be .^94. At this 
rate of passage California may expect large 
accessions to her population. When large 
colonies are transported, under the care 
and directions of a single agent, a still fur- 
ther deduction will be made. 



Cotton Overland. — Two car loads of 
cotton w-ere loaded in this city, last week, 
and started on their journey East, over- 
land. This was a sample shipment of 
some exceedingly fine quality of this tex- 
tile, raised at Tahiti. It is valued at sev- 
enty cents per i^ound. 



PROSPERITY TO THE FARMER. 

Everybody, in town, city and country, is 
just now rejoicing in the prosperity which 
the late rains are sure ,to bring to the 
fai-mer and to the miner. Prospeiity to 
these two classes implies and carries with 
it prosperity to all. Of no other vocations 
can this remark be made with equal truth 
and force. On the contrary, in regard to 
many others the opposite is true. Stock- 
jobbers and speculators make their wealth 
mostly out of the losses of others, and not 
unfrequently by means carefully devised to 
that end. There are many others, also, 
who make their fortunes from the misfor- 
tunes of their neighbors. But not so with 
the men who carve out their fortunes and 
win competence by the culture of the soil, 
or by delving still deeper into the earth, in 
search of theprocioua or useful metals and 
minerals. Nobody is ever made poorer by 
their prosperity; on the contrary the gi-eat 
massss are improved, enriched and sjiurred 
onward by the example and material re- 
sults of their industry and success. They 
are the great creators of value — the great 
exemplars of industry. 

There are in the United States not less 
than six millions of farmers — more than 
are to be found in any other class— and 
among them are recognized some of the 
highest and noblest typos of humanity. 
Since science has been brought to bear in 
the field of agricultural industry, the 
farmer's occupation has been va-stly im- 
proved, elevated and ennobled. He is no 
longer regarded as the plodding machine 
of routine labor — the commonest in which 
a man could engage. 

If the farmer of to-day would thrive Le 
must do something more than " hold the 
plow," — he must study and think as well 
as work. The intelligent farmer of to-day, 
as has well been said, can round, equally 
well, a hillock or a phrase; he can plow 
straight -without writing crooked; he can 
build a pictures(|ue fence, and so ai'range 
words as to make them pictorial; he has 
fully realized the happy ideal which makes 
thought healthful with labor, and labor 
dignified with thought. The representa- 
tive fai-mers of to-day are men of influence 
and position— men of ideas as well as men 
of work. When we make honorable men- 
tion of such, we are but rendering a just 
trilnite to the mo-it numerous, the most re- 
sjiectable and the most worthy class of men 
in the land; a class whose prosperity may 
be invoked as productive of good and good 
only to their neighbors, and to the whole 
country. 

Mills in the State. — There are 158 
grist mills in the State, with an aggregate 
of 358 run of stones. Seventy of these 
mills are driven by steam and 88 by water. 
Their aggregate cost was about §2,000,000 
and their capacity 16,000 barrels of flour. 

The number of saw mills is 417; of 
which 231 are driven by steam, and 196 by 
water. Their cost was about $3,620,000, 
and their daily cajmcity 4,300,000 feet of 
lumber. 

There are seven woolen mills in the state; 
but the statistics with regard to their ca 
pacity or production is very meagre. 

There is one knittieg mill, one bagging 
mill, and one rope manufactory, all run by 
steam. 

The quartz mills number 422; of which 
207 are operated by steam, 198 by water 
and 17 both steam and water, — using the 
former only when the latter fails. The ag- 
gregate number of stamps is 4,673. The 
aggregate cost of the quartz mills has been 
about 80,500,000. Nevada is the leading 
county for quai'tz mills, Tuolumne second 
and El Dorado next. 



Doo Races. — The residents of the San 
Joaquin valley are indulging in the new 
sensation of dog races. At one of these 
races, which lately came oflf, 15 canines 
were enterpd. 




January 28, 1871.] 



^^^^mmw^m ^ 



57 



A NEW SILK PROJECT. 

We have been sliown a letter wherein a 
tract of some 3,000 acres of land, at the 
Mission San Jose, is offered for sale at 
.'$400,000; the project being for the estab- 
lishment there of an extensive silk pro- 
ducing and silk manufacturing establish- 
ment. The mover in this matter is Joseph 
Newman, the jjioneer silk manufacturer of 
this state, who proposes to organize a com- 
pany to make the i^urchase, and start the 
operation, which will be conducted on the 
co-operative plan. 

Mr. Newman assures us that quite a 
number of capitalists have already ex- 
pressed their willingness to take hold of 
the enterprise, and he feels confident that 
he shall soon be able to secure the addi- 
tional amount required to place the scheme 
in a shape to commence operations. 

The capital stock joroposed is .$.500,000, 
in shares of $100 each, giving .ii;100,000 for 
a working cajjital. The plan is to purchase 
the above mentioned tract, to build tene- 
ments on the same for the benefit of the 
oxjeratives employed, and to charge such 
rents as will be convenient for both cajjital 
and labor. Members will be entitled to 
hold as many shares as they want, but with 
limited rights of voting, as follows: — The 
holder of one share, one vote, three shares, 
two votes, five shares, three votes, and 
each additional five shares, one vote. The 
stock will have to be i^aid in full, in small 
monthly or quarterly installments. 

Each operative at the factory, after found 
competent by the General Suiaerintendent, 
must become a shareholder of the company. 
Operatives who occujiy tenements for three 
or five successive years, and pay rent for 
the same will be entitled to a free deed. 

In order to secure experienced and reli 
able labor it is proposed to set aside .'|i!25,- 
000, for the purpose of helping to this 
state such emigrants as may be needed, 
the amount advanced to them to be de- 
ducted from their wages in small monthly 
instalments. 

Apprentices, of both sexes will be taken, 
who, after serving their time, will be en- 
titled, in addition to their regular wages, 
to two or three shares of the stock, accord- 
ing to the time and nature of service. 

It is proposed that the company shall 
plant, buy, and sell everything connected 
with the silk interests, and manufacture 
silk in all its branches in conformity with 
the demands of the market, solely from 
California cocoons, or raw silk raised and 
reeled in California. If it goes into oper- 
ation, 200,000 mulberry trees will be 
I^lanted the present season. 

No more opportune time than the present, 
has ever been presented for inaugurating 
such an enterprise. The recent advance in 
the price of silks, growing out of the 
European war, will probably be kept up 
for many years. Mulberry trees can now 
be had in this state, at a very low figure. 
The eggs being no longer in demand. Silk 
worm raisers in this state must this year 
turn theii- attention exclusively to raising 
cocoons, which will be furnished cheap to 
any establishment that may have the means 
of utilizing them. Moreover, the stoppage 
of the silk looms of France has closed a 
large market for raw silk, which will now 
seek purchasers nearer home and at greatly 
reduced 2>riees. 

Such advantages, coupled with the su- 
perior economy and efficiency of the co- 
operative system of labour, and the plan 
proposed of securing a proper proportion 
of skilled labor from abroad, ought, with 
proper management, to make the projected 
enterprise a paying one. If successful it 
would prove of immense benefit to the 
state at large in furnishing a ready, home 
market for the immense number of cocoons 
Avhich must hereafter be produced here, 
and in giving a practical start to an indus- 
try which, fairly inaugurated, will furnish 
full employment, not only to oiu- present 
population, but to any number of futiire 
millions which may hereafter be attracted 
to the Pacific coast. 




REPORT OF THE STATE BOARD OF 
AGRICULTURE FOR 1870. 

Through the courtesy of the Secretary, 
Maj. Beck, we are enabled to commence the 
publication of the Kexsort of the State Board 
of Agriculture for 1870, this week. We 
shall continue its publication next week, 
and shall also give our readers the full pro- 
ceedings of the State Agricultural Society 
at the annual meeting which was hold at Sac- 
ramento yesterday. We ask the farmers of 
the State to give the report a careful jjerusal. 

To the members of the State Agricultural 
Society — Gentlemen : —In presenting to you 
our annual report at this time we feel no 
little pride and satisfaction in being able to 
say that the State Agricultural Society, the 
management of which has been entrusted 
to oiir care, was never in a more prosperous 
condition, financially and otherwise, thanat 
jaresent. 

A comprehensive statement of the trans- 
actions of the Board for the jjast year, the 
present jjosition and wants of the society, 
together with some recommendations for 
changes, with a view to rendering the soci- 
ety more efficient in assisting in the devel- 
opment of the State's numerous agricultix- 
ral and other resources will be found at the 
close of this report. 

In reviewing the jjrogress and resiilts of 
the industries of the state for the past year 
the Board find abundant reason for indulg- 
ing in most sincere thankfulness to Provi- 
dence for the general jjrosperity that has 
been vouchsafed to our entire jjeople. In 
looking over the industrial prosj^ects of the 
future we also find abundant reason for en- 
tertaining most sanguine hopes for an un- 
interrupted continuance of a healthy and 
substantial progress in all the arts, sciences 
and industi'ies that contribute to the gen- 
eral prosperity and happiness of a jieople. 

The long continued dry weather during 
the past few months was beginning to cause 
serious ajsprehensions among all classes of 
the community that we were about to ex- 
perience a repetition of the disastrous con- 
sequences of a dry season like that of 18G3 
and 1864. The late rains, however, and the 
general change of the weather gives prom- 
ise that the ensuing year will be one of the 
most prosjjerous that the State has ever ex- 
perienced. 

In jiursuance of a better and more ration- 
al system of agriculture which our grain 
farmers have been adopting for the last few 
years, an imusually large breadth of land 
was summer falloired during the last spring. 
The weather for farm labor, the forepart of 
the present sowing season, being so favor- 
able, all the laud thiis prepared has been 
put in early, and in a most excellent condi- 
tion. There has been sufficient rain to 
keep the work of jilanting going on contin- 
uously in most portions of the state, and it 
is believed that as a general thing land has 
been in a better condition for worldng and 
planting than in seasons when we have ex- 
perienced a greater abundance of wet dur- 
ing the planting time. If we have the 
amount of rain fall between this and spring 
which we may now reasonably expect we 
may look forward for one of the most abun- 
dant grain harvests we have ever experi- 
enced in the state. The prosj^ects of an 
unusually large foreign demand for our 
surplus grain were never better than at 
present. The supj^ly of wheat on hand at 
the present time at Liverpool, New York, 
Chicago and Milwaukee, the great centers of 
concentration of the bread sti;ifs of the 
world, is rei^orted to be 4,778,000 bushels 
less than it was one year ago. The war in 
France and Germany, if continued iintil af- 
ter the time for planting in those countries 
is past, must cause a very great falling off 
in the production of bread stuffs there the 
coming season, while the excess of con- 
sumption and distraction by the armies 
over the ordinary consumption of those 
countries in time of peace miist necessarily 
be very great. The present indications are 
that Germany and France will not only fail 
to i:)roduce a surjilus the coming season, but 
that they will themselves be heavy buyers 
for their own consumption. 

Silk Culture. 

As a consequence of the war between 
France and ' Germany, this promising in- 
dustry just in its infancy in our state, has 
met with a vei-y unexpected and much to 
be regretted loss. Our silk culturists, en- 
couraged by iirevious large and ajjparently 
constant demand for California silk eggs 
for European countries, turned their prod- 
uct, for the past seiison, mostly into that 
article. Orders were received from Paris 
early last spring for large quantities of 



eggs, and the prospect for good profits to 
producers looked very flattering. When 
the war commenced however, the orders 
that had been received were countermanded 
and no others sent out. Great injury to 
all the industries of France, and espec- 
ially to those connected with silk culture 
and manufacture is the necessary result of 
the war, carried on as it has been, entirely 
within the borders of that country. The 
sale of the California eggs has thus unex- 
pectably been cut oif and the product of 
the j)ast season rendered almost an entire 
loss. As the eggs will necessarily hatch in 
the hands of the producers, no considera- 
tion can be realized from them except for 
those necessary for home consumption. 
Through an anomalous combination of 
circumstances, the immediate demand for 
cocoons has also been injured by the war. 
The silk manufactixring machinery of 
France, being nearly half that of the 
world, has heretofore been able to consume 
nearly all the silk produced in Europe, 
and has also required large imjiortations 
from the silk districts of Asia. This ma- 
chinery is in eti'ect now most entirely idle. 
As a consequence, the cocoons and raw 
silk produced the last season in many por- 
tions of France, in Italy, Spain and other 
l^arts of Europe and in China and Japan 
are seeking a market elsewhere. The capi- 
tal and machinery employed in silk manu- 
facturing, outside of France, are insuffi- 
cient to handle and consume the large 
amount of extra material thus offered. 
Thus, for the jjresent, the market is over- 
stocked with cocoons and raw silk — a thing 
unknown in the history of this industry 
in the past, and not probable to occur 
again. All such anomalous conditions of 
commerce and trade, in articles of such 
universal consumption, are followed by 
changes which prevent a repetition of 
of themselves, in the future. Such chang- 
es are already taking place in reference to 
these industries. 

Manufactured silk goods are rajjidly in- 
creasinj." in value and are likely to go very 
high. Capitalists in our own country are 
seeing the promise of certain and large 
l^rofits, ai-e seeking investment in silk fac- 
tories. Heavy manufacturing houses in 
Lyons and other jiortions of France that 
have heretofore had only agencies in the 
United States for the sale of their goods, 
are preparing to transfer their entire estab- 
lishments to this country. Thus the war 
in France has set the eyes of silk manufac- 
turers towards the United States. The 
fifty i^er cent, ad-valorixm duties, which all 
manufactured silk goods imported to this 
country have to pay, gives them a strong 
invitation and inducement to take advan- 
tage of it. The fact that raw silk and co- 
coons may be imported free of duty, opens 
the door for the immediate supply of the 
raw materials, while the favorableness of 
the climate, in many portions of our coun- 
try — and especially in California, for the 
lu-oduction of silk, guarantees a plenty of 
that raw material close at hand for all fu- 
ture time. 

If peace was to be concluded between 
Germany and France, immediately, the silk 
crop of France, for the next year would 
necessarily be very light if not a total fail- 
ure. It will require years to repair the in- 
juries already done to this industry, and 
in the jn-esence of the disease of the worms 
which has i^revailed there in the jjast, and 
most likely will in the future, it is not 
probable that the production will ever 
reach the maximum raised before the war. 
Thus the temporary loss to our silk cultur- 
ists, is accomi^anied with a promise of al- 
most certain com23ensation in the immedi- 
ate future, of an hundred fold — and the 
industry in which they are engaged has re- 
ceived an imi^ulse as unexiaected as it is 
encouraging. By careful inquiry among 
our silk growers we learn that the disease 
among the worms in some localities, the 
past season, Avas entirely confined to those 
of French or European origin. The Japa- 
nese worms proved hardy and healthy in 
all cases, even when fed in the same build- 
ings and close by the side of the French 
which were badly diseased. Though the 
first importations of Japanese eggs were of 
an inferior kind, making small cocoons, of 
late, varieties have been obtained from the 
extreme north of Japan, which are in no 
way inferior to the best French annuals, in 
the quality or quantity of the silk produced, 
and are at the same time perfectly healthy 
and reliable. 

There are more mull)erry plantations bie 
ing set out this season than at any planting 
season heretofore and on the whole the in- 
dustry is in a most promising condition .If 
our farmers generally would plant a few 
mulberry trees about their buildings and 
on the line of the highways and division 
fences, they would answer the double pur- 
pose of ornamenting and beautifying their 
places and laying the foundation for the 



general introduction of a pleasant ai 
uable industry. Thus also an imi 
step Avould be taken towards a more m 
sified and hence more agreeable and profi- 
table agriculture. 

Beet Sugar. 

In the rejjort of the Board for the year 
1864 and in every annual rejiort since that 
time, the attention of our ijeojde has been 
most earnestly called to the f easability and 
importance of the production of the sugar 
beet in our state and the manirfacture of 
sugar therefrom. So imiiortant have Ave 
deemed this subject that we have returned 
to and repeated our recommendations year 
after year and have from time to time 
shown by carefully compiled statistics the 
amount of gold California Avas annually 
exporting in return for sugar imi)orted. 

Within the last seven years — and since 
Ave first called attention to this industry, 
and demonstrated its i^racticability in Cali- 
fornia, we have jjaid for imported sugars 
and molasses over .$34,000,000. In the 
light of this fact Ave are able to j)lace some 
estimate ixpon the importance of the suc- 
cessful initiation of this industry in our 
state during the past year, ui>on a scale 
that leaves no doubt as to its entire suc- 
cess in every particular. We may noAV 
lookforAvard Avith a certainty to the time, 
and that not far distant Avhen Ave shall bo 
able to produce all the sugar and molasses 
we shall need for home consumption, and 
Ave see no reason AA'hy Ave may not become 
exijorters. Thus by the addition of a 
single neAV industry we shall save for dis- 
tribution among our own peoj^le — and 
mostly among the laboring class $5,000,- 
000 a year. 

Other and still greater advantages may 
be looked for as a consequence of this new 
industry. It has been demonstrated that 
the manufacture of sugar from the beet 
contributes greatly to increase the other 
products of the soil. The extraction of the 
saccharine matter dejirives the root of only 
a part of its elements. The pul}) and foli- 
age of the beet supplies for animals an 
abundance of food, and the returns of the 
sugar Avorks Avill enable them to produce 
manures, Avhich will indefinitely increase 
the fertility of the soil. In a single prov- 
ince of France, Avhere the product of wheat 
before the introduction of this industry 
was but 961,173 bushels, and the number 
of cattle 700, a fcAV years after its intro- 
duction the Avheat product had increased to 
1,158,256 bushels, and the number of cattle 
to 110,,500. 

In this connection Ave would suggest that 
experience in France, Germany and other 
beet sugar countries, has proven that the 
best land for this purpose is that Avhich 
Avill ijroduce the best Avheat or secretes the 
greatest amount of saccharine matter in the 
grape. Many sections of this State, Avhere 
the land has been for many years subjected 
to an annual cropping of grain, and is for 
this croi^ nearly exhausted, are as Avell 
adai^ted to the production of the sugar beet 
as the richest alluvial bottoms. The beets 
on such lands Avill not groAV so large, and 
the product of the root per acre will be less 
in tons; but the beets Avill be sAveeter, and 
the number of pounds of sugar per acre 
will be greater. 

We would also suggest the practicability 
and propriety of the organization of sugar 
companies among our farmers, and the 
manufacture of sugar on a scale suited to 
the means and facilities of the company. 
One hundred thousand, or fifty thousand, 
or tAventy-five thousand dollars are not nec- 
essary to a successful beginning. On the 
contrary, small factories conducted on the 
cooperative plan and located in the imme- 
diate vicinity of those interested in them, 
are generally more economically managed 
and pay greater diA'idends on the capital 
invested. Farmers should not wait for 
capitalists to monopolize the profits of 
this industry. Good lands, the coopera- 
tion and intelligent direction of labor, 
with a small amount of ready money Avith 
Avhich to jnit up buildings and jiurchase 
machinery are all the elements that are nec- 
essary for the successful and profitable 
manufacture of sugar. The process of 
making sugar from beets is as easily 
learned by any farmer and may be as suc- 
cessfully practiced by him as the process 
of making cheese from milk. 

[To be continued.] 

A Novel aa'ay to Allay Hungeh. — It is 
said that the hixnters of Siberia, Avhen hard 
pressed by hunger, take tAvo thin laiec^es of 
board, and placing one on the i^it of the 
stomach and the other on the back, gi-adualy 
draAV together the extremities, and thus al- 
lay, in some degree, the cravings of appe- 
tite. A similar practice is knoAvn among 
the South Sea Islanders. This is suposed 
to be a very economical kind of board. 



58 



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[January 28, 1871. 




BY OUK LADY EDITOES. 



SAVED BY A SHADOW. 

BY KEIili VAN. 
[WrittPn for the Pef.ss.) 

Twenty years ago Sau Francisco was oc- 
cupied by a very different class of i)eoi)le 
from those who now tread its streets. 
Among them were adventurers from every 
clime. Some had left comfortable homes 
and good business prosi)ects, from a desire 
to grow suddenlj- rich ; while others craved 
novelty, tired of the monotonous sound of 
counting house duties and mercantile pur- 
suits. A goodly sprinkling of gamblers 
and world's idlers swelled the tide, and 
even emigrants from Botany Bay — ex -con- 
victs* (" Sidney Ducks," as they were then 
called) elbowed their way among the 
throng, with consequential air. 

As yet but few women were bold enough 
to venture so far beyond the proscribed 
limits of civilization, and in consequence 
many a manly heart smothered its tendcr- 
est emotions, and sighed for the eomi:)auion- 
ship so much needed. 

Tobacco smoke issuing from hundreds 
of living chimneys rendered the atmos- 
phere both stifling and irritating to even 
healthy beings, and the general spirit of 
Yankee enterprise which pervaded the 
jjlace awakened the astonishment of the 
drowsy Spanish settlers, who were at a loss 
to comprehend the situation, and have 
never satisfactorily settled the question 
whether this sudden invasion of their 
rights has been for their ultimate advan- 
tage. 

The Post ofKee was the chief object of in- 
terest in this, then canvas-roofed town, and 
many were the friondshii)s first formed 
among those whose habit it was to take i^o- 
sition in line ui^on the arrival of each mail 
steamer, and there, in turn, receive his al- 
lotted i)ortion. 

I had often observed a youth with beard- 
le.ss chin and anxious eye hasten to or from 
the spot, with a tell-tale face, which i)lainly 
discovered to the observer whether or not 
liis desire for news had been gratified ; and 
upon one occasion we exchanged glanc(!s, 
wliieh was all the introduction needed be- 
tween sympatheti<! hearts. The result was, 
we walked away arm in arm, and immedi- 
ately entered into conversation concerning 
each other, and the contrast between our 
present and past surroundings. 

It had been my custom, on my way either 
to or from the Post office, to pass a certain 
dwelling, on Clay street, whose wide win- 
dows and a well-swept door-ste]) bespoke 
the thrift and neatness of its inmates. 
Sometimes, when the curtains were lifted, 
a cheerful fire was seen blazing upon the 
hearth, and once I had observed a woman's 
hand brightening the window-panes. To 
those accustomed to the joys of domestic 
life, as most of ns were, this sudden transi- 
tion from such a life to the one now before 
us, was like the drifting of a l)oat at sea, 
without sail or compass. 

We missed the gentle voice of mother or 
sister who, with earnest solicitude, once 
followed us to the door with overcoat or 
scarf, when going out in the evening air; 
or the wistful look of wife or dear friend 
who, through the misty window-inuie, 
watched tend(;rly for our approach. Now 
how changed ! No one to care for our out- 
going or in-coming. We were like straws 
ilriven about l)y the wind; and letters from 
liome were the only links uniting us to the 
Jrue and beautiful in life, amid the cor- 
rupting influeneca by which we were siir- 
rounded. Was it a wonder then that the 
welcome sight of a home stirred a cliord in 
our inmost hearts, and caused us to step 
out of our way to pass it, and be reminded 
of what had once been ours ? 

My new-found friend and myself were 
slowly passing this dwelling, when, glanc- 
ing at the window, our gaze was transtixed 
by a shadow on the curtain. A girlish 
form, with clasped hands and drooping 
head, stood in an attitude of desi^air, while | 



the stalwart figure of a man muffled to the 
chin, with hat in hand, approached, and 
laying his hand upon hor shoulder, pressed 
his lii)s to her brow, and in an instant was 
gone. 

The street door suddenly opened; a tall 
figure passed out and was lost in the dark- 
ness. But there, on the window curtain, 
still remained the motionless shadow in 
the same jjosition of utter dejection. We 
remained riveted to the spot, till at length 
the shadow slowly vanished; and drawing 
my companion's arm within mine, we 
walked on saddened and thoughtful. 

I was awaken(>d from a reverie by the 
yoiith, who said, lightly, "I say, wasn't 
that a peep into somebody's love-life V 
Wouldn't you like to be where you had 
such a charmer to feel sorry when you left 
her'? Can you make out whether she is 
sweet-heart, wife or daughter? I'm going 
down to Parker's to play euchre with some 
fellows; will you come with me?" Forced 
to make some reply, I choked my emotions, 
and stopping abrui)tly, said with a husky 
voice: " Mj' j'oung friend, I am going to 
my room now, and if you will come with 
me I have something to tell you which may 
be of some benefit to you." My earnest 
tone excited his curiosity, and he reiulily 
consented to accompany me; so in silence 
we i)nrsued our way. 

Having reached tlie quiet room I called 
my home, and struck a light, I hastened to 
bring forth from my tnink one of my 
treasures, which I placed in his hands, 
and he slowly opened and gazed intensely 
upon the beautiful countenance of the one 
who above all else in the world I held most 
dear. Throwing myself upon a lounge, I 
covered my face and sought to control my 
emotions; and having succeeded, I thus 
exi)lained my strange conduct : 

"Three times in my life have I been an 
actor in a scene similar to the one we have 
just witnessed. The first was when I went 
to college and parted from my mother, 
whom I never saw again ! She died a 
month afterwards, and I can never forget 
her soiTOw as she stood before me like a 
statue, with clasi)ed hands and uplifted 
eyes, breathing a silent prayer for her boy 
In less than a year I ran away from college, 
and went home to bid my sister good-by 
before going to sea. She plead with me, 
earnestly, to go to father and acquaint him 
with my resolve — urging me to release her 
from the promise of secrecy I had imposed ; 
but my plans were formed and my will in- 
exorable. And so I passed forever from 
my gentle sister. Before my return, both 
she and my father had gone to their rest, 
and I found myself alone in the world, 
when I most needed a comforter. 

■ Some two years ago I chanced to form 
the acquaintance of the original of that 
picture. We were mutually attracted to- 
ward each other, and became nnich attached 
in a short time. Possessing the frankness 
of a child, comVunedwith many noble traits 
of true womanhood, I longed to make her 
my wife, but would not till I could lay 
wealtli at her fe(!t. So I ri^solved to come 
to t'alitornia, and for the third time in my 
life it became necessary for me to part from 
the one I held dearer than life itself. Slie 
was tilled with grief and foreboding, while 
I, sanguine of success, and strong in my 
desire to j)rove to her my devotion, scarcely 
realized the st^lf-imjjosed sacrifice I was 
making. Standing before me, radiant in 
her intensity of emotion, she begged me to 
alter my decision and remain satisfied with 
a more gradiial rise to competence. 

Snatching a kiss, I hastened from her 
presence, fearful of betraying my weakness 
if remaining longer a witness of such 
sorrow. 

Ten months have passed away since then, 
and to-night tliat shadow picture has 
brought forcibly to mind the three lesuling 
events in my life. Do you then wonder at 
the strange effect produced ? and can you 
expect me to wish to join such companions 
as one finds at the gaming tal de at Parker's ? 
Is there no higher enjoyment which should 
be sought for? Have you mother, sister or 
friend whose life is saddened by your 
aljsence? And may you not fit yourself to 
become a noble husband and kind fath(U' by 
choosing for friends those whose lives are 
not passed at the gambling table ?" I heard 
a sob, and found that my words had 
touched a tender chord; for with tears in 
his eyes, my young friend clasped my hand 
and said: "My dear fellow, some time I 
can tell you the story of mi/ life, but not 
to-night. Often disappointed at getting 
no letters from home, I promised my room- 
mate — a gay fellow — that if I had no news 
to-night I would run down and join them 
at gambling. But you liave diverted my 
thoughts fi-om myself by your touching 
stoi-y, and I can never find enjoyment in 
the gambler's life, while, to my dying day, 
I shall ieol that I have been saved by a 
shadow. 



SCATTER SEEDS OF KINDNESS. 

Let us gather uj) the sunbeams 

Laying all around our path ; 
Let us keep the wheat and roses, 

Oastinf,' out the thorns and ohaflf; 
Let us tiud our sweetest comfort 

In the blessings of to-day, 
With a i>atient hand removing 

All the briars from the way. 

Strange we never prize the musie, 

Till the sweet- voiced bird has flown; 
Strange that we should shght the violets, 

Till the lovely flowers are gone ! 
Strange that summer skies and sunshine 

Never seem one-half so fair, 
.\s when winter's snowy pinions 

Shake the white down in the air. 

If we knew the baby finp;ers, 

Pressed against the window pane, 
■Wcaild be cold and stiff to-morrow — 

Never trouble us again— 
Would the bright eye of our darling 

Catch the frown upon our brow? 
Would the print of rosy fingers 

Vex us then as they do now? 

Ah ! those little ice-cold fingers, 

How they jioint our memories back 
To the hasty words and actions 

Strewn along our backward track ! 
How those little hands remind us, 

As in snowy grace they lie. 
Not to scatter thorns, but roses. 

For our reajiing by-aud-by. 

UP COUNTRY LETTERS. 

[Written for the Press.] 

Dear Beadeb. — Did you ever take a long 
ride in some heavy vehicle, over stony 
pavements, until the rambling and jolting 
seemed to have become a part of you ? 
and a sudden stoj) made you instinctively 
feel yourself, to see if all were with you, 
or you had indeed lost the top of your 
head ? Just so it seems to me, now, after 
a three months run of the typhoid fever, 
in yotir city, to find myself in this quiet, 
cosy nest, up country; among cheerful, 
kindly faces, honest hearts, and willing 
hands; where the music of barnyard fowls 
and cattle is teeming with health and 
Ijeauty to my ears! 

And sitting in the warm sunshine, on 
the porch, I lay back my head, relax every 
muscle, and dreamingly wonder if this is 
indeed I — out of the dim sick room, at 
last! breathing Clod's pure sunshine and 
air once more. Lazily I watch the men 
going and coming from work in the fields; 
see their stalward forms, broatl chests and 
dcej) breathing. Yet how unconscious 
they are of the blessings of health they 
enjoy. I wonder why they grow so impa- 
tient and imeasy at this beautiful country 
life, aud long for work and equal pay in a 
city. 

Yet so it is. Willing to give up this 
pure air, sunshine, good fare, kind treat- 
ment, robust health, and honest toil, for 
what? — Bad air, smoke and fog, poor food, 
no friends, only associates, flabby muscles, 
and no employment, maybe, simply be- 
cause of the dullness and tame life of farm- 
ers, compared with the excitement of life 
in the city. 

I confess it puzzels me, (but I am an in- 
valid and of course like quiet) , but there 
must be some caime for this growing dis- 
like to farming. I will watch, and see for 
myself why this is so, and whether boys 
aud girls agree in their dislike of country; 
and if the cause can be removed, so as to 
make farm life more attractive and beauti- 
ful than city life, li. P. 

I.\ THE Way.— A mother who wasjjrepar- 

ing some flour to bake into brea<l, left it 
for a few moments, when little Mary — with 
childish curiosity to see what it was — took 
hold of the dish, which fell to the floor, 
spilling the contents. The mother .struck 
the child a severe blow, .saying with anger, 
that she was always in the way! Two weeks 
after, little INIary sickened and died. On 
her death bed, while delirious, she asked 
her mother if there would be room for her 
among the angels. "I was always in your 
way, mother; you had no room for little 
IMiiry ! And will I be in the angels' way ! 
Wili there be no room for mo ?" The bro- 
ken-harted mother then felt that no sacri- 
fii'fi (u)uld have been too great, could she 
have saved her child. 

Feathee Tkimminos. — Some of the new- 
est and most uncommon trimmings of the 
present season are composed of feathers, 
arranged in a variety of ways, either as 
ornaments for the hair, in separate shapes, 
or in continuous rows, forming a border of 
any desired width. White poultry feathers 
are particularly useful for this purpose, as, 
by dyeing, they ma^ be made to assume 
any tint required to match or contrast with 
any dress. 



DRESSING BABIES. 

(Written for the Pbess.] 

Mothers, why will you insist on dressing 
your babies in the most inconvenient, ex- 
pensive, tinhcalthy, and unbecoming way 
you can jjossibly invent ? It is extraordi- 
nary to me that they must have shirts like 
gossamer with no sleeves but loose, no 
warmth nor comfort, only a band to muss 
up, get in a wad and hurt the delicate skin 
of baby. Then two flannel petticoats with 
double rows of pins, a dress long enough 
for its mother, whose weijiht baby is ex- 
pected to carry al)Out to keep its feet warm ! 
The only re.ally .sensible article of clothing 
is the knit sack which mothers find ea- 
sier to put on and keej) on, than a blanket. 

Poor baby ! The mother must keep it in 
the fashion if it is cold and uncomfoi-table. 
She gets the imtterns from Mrs. Lofty — 
and so they vinst be the thing. 

Now let me give you my idea of what ba- 
by would like to wear if it was consulted. 
The first two months a nice soft flannel 
band, without any hem to htirt the delicate 
skin, sewed on every day, quite loose, to 
give plenty of room to eat and grow in. 

Next a high necked, long sleeved, knit 
shirt, coming down well over the hi2)s; 
then a long flannel jjctticoat, matle like 
a slip without sleeves, — of thick, warm 
flannel — a white one made in the same 
style, fastening on each shoulder in- 
stead of behind, which is such a bother to 
"baby" in dressing. And then a little slip 
miule high in the neck and long sleeves, 
with all the trimming, laces and frills you 
wish, so long as "baby's" comfort is not in- 
terfered with; a little sack, if you wish, 
and "baby is dressed with comfort, wamth, 
economy and dispatch ! l. p. j. 

WHERE IS YOUR BOY AT NIGHT. 

The practice of allowing your boys to 
spend their evenings in the streets, is one 
of the most ruinous, dangerous and mis- 
chievous things possible. Nothing more 
speedily marks their course downward. 
They acquire, under the cover of night, an 
unhealthy state of mind, vulgar and pro- 
fane language, obscene practices, criminal 
sentiments, and a lawless, riotous beaiung. 
Indeed, it is in the streets, after nightfall, 
that boys generally acquire the education 
and capacity of becoming rowdy, dissolute 
men. — \yatrh7nan. 

And in all jjrobability, nine-tenths of the 
criminals in our state prisons are caused 
by the loose manner in which jiarents, and 
mothers in particular, bring tip their boys. 
Their home duties occupy their time and 
thoughts, or society claims their entire 
life, and boys are troublesome and in the 
way. Home is not matle attractive to the 
boys, so they run the streets all day, and 
as they grow older, far into the nights too, 
without restraint from either parent. 

Oh, mothers! can you forget your duties 
to your boj's ? They should be eared for 
as sacredly and tenderly as your girls; 
should be reared as purely; and if their 
2)aths in after life lead them through sin 
and temptation, so much more do tlioy 
need your holy and wise counsel and teach- 
ings, that their natures may revolt against 
profanity and crime, their principles ho 
founded upon rocks of purity and truth, 
and the name of "mother" be a talisman 
unto them for ever, "home," a beacon 
light beckoning them onward and upward. 



Popped White. — A little four-year old 
had been intently watching the process of 
corn-i3opi)ing, on a stormy day in the be- 
ginning of Winter. Hainicning to turn to 
the window, she ob.served, forthefirsttime, 
the falling of snow. Amazed and delighted, 
she ran to her father, and exclaimed, "Oh, 
do look at the funny rain, it's all popjied 
white!" 



ThERE have been many definitions of a 
gentleman, l)ut the prettiest and most pa- 
thetic is that given by a j-oung lady: — "A 
gentleman," says she, "is a Iniman being 
combining a woman's tenderness with a 
man's courage." 

One-sixth of the female population of 
England work out of doors. It would im- 
jirove the health of the other five-sixths 
if they hail a little more out-of-door work 
to perform. 



January 28, 1871.] 



59 



ousEHOLD ^Reading. 



Health. 

Dr. Trail, a writer of note upon medical 
subjects, describes health as " the natural 
play of all the functions;" and as none of 
the medical profession have given us any 
thing better, I shall apcept it as a correct 
definition, and endeavor to show my read- 
ers how inevitably we are bringing prema- 
ture death upon ourselves and ruin to the 
nation through ignorance of the laws of 
health. 

We are a nation of invalids ; not an indi- 
vidual in pel- feci health can be found; scarce 
any in the moderate enjoyment of that 
greatest of God's blessings ! The rule is 
si6knesSj and health is the exception, 
among our women and children in i^articu- 
lar. 

Can this condition continue and not 
grow worse ? And if worse, does not anni- 
hilation of the race follow sooner or later ? 
Yet we are intelligent and liberal, spending 
annualy millions of dollars in schools and 
reading matter; endowing scores of medi- 
cal colleges for the education of our young 
men (and women too now) and not a town 
■or village but can boast of its two or twen- 
ty doctors, who hold the same jjosition in 
society as the minister — one caring for and 
curing the souls of men, and the other their 
bodies; with this difference :— one aims to 
prevent crime by a pure life; while the oth- 
er holds out a palliative, in the shape of 
drugs, to avert the suiiering caused by 
wrong habits of life, etc,. 

No minister believes or teaches his peo- 
ple that they may lie, steal, and slander 
their neighbor, and by a repontence merely, 
be saved through their (orthe clergyman's) 
ju-ayers ! No, a repentance (recognition of 
sin) is necessary, and then " cease to do 
evil and learn to do well" must followbefore 
the "holy man" can cure the soul; proving 
conclusively that the soul purifies itself, 
through pure teaching and pure living. 

And just so with the body. Through un- 
physiological habits, in eating, drinking, 
etc., we defile the body, filling it with im- 
purities (pork, fine flour, whiskey, etc.) 
until the condition called disease follows. 
The doctor comes and drugs the patient, 
adding more impurities, until the victim 
dies, or recovers, in spite of the drugs. 

And now compare the two teachers: does 
the physician tell the patient the cause of 
his illness; how to avert it, and so keep 
his body the "pure temple" which the Bi- 
ble speaks of? Oh, no; for perhaps he 
honestly believes sickness to be the lot of 
man, or a visitation of God, intended to pu- 
rify his soul (not body) and teach patience 
and godliness. 

Think of it, — a sick man capable of 
studying, God's laws, which the well man 
rejects or is not deep enough to fathom. 

Health is the time for learning God's 
laws and obeying them. And if our physi- 
cians are ignorant of these subjects, they 
should be instructed; or if they already iin- 
derstand Hygiene and fail to teach it to 
the people who constitute their "flock," 
they are certainly to blame. Should not 
our doctors of medicine, like our doctors 
of divinity, endeavor to teach the people 
how to avoid the sin of sickness ? 

That there is a way so to live, in harmo- 
ny with our natures, as to keep well, (even 
with our inherited diseases following us "to 
the third and fourth generation") accords 
with our intelligence upon the healthful- 
ness, of domestic animals and all vegetable 
life, which subjects are considered impor- 
tant studies for our scientific men. Not 
only do they study the conditions of dis- 
ease but acquaint themselves with the nor- 
mal habits of animals and plants, and place 
them in such relations as will best supply 
what is requisite for their perfect health, 
well knowing that it is only in health that 
they can expect them to be beautiful and 
perfect of their kind. And why not desire 
the same for the human race ? 

Do not "nature's laws" operate alike with 
them a^ with the lowest forms of life ? Do 
we not desire only the intelligent, true, 
social and healthy for our friends and rela- 
tives, feeling a just pride in so choo.sing ? 
And are tliere not spent annually millions 
of dollars in our churches, public schools, 
colleges, alms houses, hospitals, prisons, 
etc. to improve the people ? Yet how few 
are earnest enough to search for the hidden 
cames underlying the continued needs for 
these institutions, by removing which we 



avert the desire to commit crimes against 
soul and body. In future articles I may 
possibly show how, by studying the laws 
of our natures and obeying them, we may 
not only be healthier, but happier. 

L. P.J. 



A New way to Cook Meat. — A good way 
to cook meat is to seal it in a vessel hermet- 
ically tight. Cooked thus a long time in 
its own juices, it is rendered very tender, 
and has a peculiar, appetizing flavor. 

Take an earthen jar that will stand heat, 
with tight fitting cover. If beef is to be 
the dish for dinner cut in convenient pieces, 
lay them in the jar, rub each piece with salt 
and pejjer and a little lump of sugar, put 
in a little water; lay on a piece of thick but- 
tered i^aper and press down the cover. If 
you think it will allow any steam to escape, 
mix shorts or rye meal with water to a paste ; 
press strijjs of this all round the edge of 
cover. Bake in a moderate oven four or 
five hours, according to tenderness of meat. 
Chickens or turkies are excellent cooked in 
this way. The toughest old hen can be ren- 
dered toothsome by this process. A good 
plan for fowls is to put in the bottom some 
strips of carrots, a little onion, if liked, 
with bread crumbs, red ])epi)er, and lumps 
of butter, with the seasoning as above. — 
Western Rural, 



Vegetables. — Vegetables intended for 
dinner should be gathered early in tlie 
morning. A few only can be kept twelve 
hours without detriment. When fresh- 
gathered they are plump and firm, and have 
a fragrant freshness no art can give them 
again after they have lost it by long keep- 
ing, though it will refresh them a little to 
jjut them into cold water before cooking. 
A little soda in the water they are cooked 
in will help to preserve the color of those 
that are green. They lose their good ap- 
pearance and flavor if cooked too long, and 
are indigestible if not cooked enough; close 
attention and good judgment are necessary 
to know the jiroper time to take them up. 
Always drain the water from them well be- 
fore sending to tal)le; have the dislies hot 
upon which they are placed, and never 
send them to taV)le until the meats are 
served; when sent in too soon, and often 
uncovered, they become chilled and unfit 
for use. Always put vegetables to boil in 
hot water. 



Food Medicines. — Dr. Hall relates the 
case of a man who was cured of billiousness 
by going without his sup])er and drinking 
freely of lemonade. Every morning tliis 
l)atient rose with a wonderful sense of rest, 
refreshment, and a feeling ii,s thougli the 
blood had been literally washed, cleansed, 
and cooled by lemonade and the fast. His 
theory is that food may be used as a remedy 
tor many diseases successfully. For ex- 
ample, he instances cures of spitting blood 
by the use of salt; epilepsy and yellow 
fever, watermelons; kidney afi'ections, cel- 
ery ; poison, olive sweet oil ; erysipelas, jjoun- 
ded cranberries applied to the parts aflected ; 
hydrophobia, onions, etc. So tlio thing to 
do in order to keep in good health is to know 
what to eat, and not what medicine to take. 



Disinfecting Houses. — A ready method 
of disinfecting houses in which cases of 
scarlet fever have occured is recommended 
by the Food Journal. It is this: Dissolve in 
a certain quantity of water as much saltpe- 
tre as it will hold: and in the solution soak 
several sheets of coarse blotting i)ai)er, 
which miist be allowed to absorb as much 
as possible. Carefully close every door, 
window and chimney of the affected 
room, and let the prepared blotting paper 
be lighted and smoulder itself out. This 
method is said to be efficacious, and is cer- 
tainly easy of trial. 

To Stop Bleeding. — It is said that bleed- 
ing from a wound, on man or beast, may 
be stopped by a mixture of wheat flour and 
common salt, in equal parts, bound on with 
a cloth. If the bleeding be jJi'ofnse, use a 
large quantity, say from one to three jiints. 
It may be left on for hours, or even days, 
if necessary. The person who gave us this 
recipe says that, in this manner, he saved 
the life of a horse which was bleeding from 
a wounded artery. The bleeding ceased in 
five minutes after the application. 

Potatoes, as usually cooked, are probably 
the most objectionable article of food which 
can be presented to a weak digestion. The 
starch granules are but half ruptured, and 
are held together by cellular tissue, so that 
they are reduced by mastication only into 
small pellets, which require long soaking 
in gastric juice before they can be broken 
up sufficiently for solution. — Chambers on 
Indigestion. 

Cake and Candy. — A celebrated physi- 
cian says that it is cake that ruins the teeth 
and not candy, as is generally sux^x^osed. 



Domestic Receipts. 

Poor Man's Plum Pudding. — One cup 
chopped suet, one cup molasses, one cup 
sweet milk, one egg, two cups flour, a 
lainch of salt, nutmeg and cinnamon. Stir 
all together; then add one pound raisins 
and one pound currants; wet the cloth in 
cold water previous to putting the pudding 
into it. Boil four hours. To be eaten 
with wine sauce. 

Gkeman Cake. — One cup butter, two 
cujjs sugar, one cup sweet milk, three eggs, 
two cups flour, one tea-si30onful soda and 
two tea-s23oonsful cream of tartar; mix all 
together and flavor with lemon. Sprinkle 
the top thick with ground cinnamon before 
baking. Ice as soon as baked. 

Steamed Brown Bread. — One cup) sweet 
milk, one cuj) sour milk, half cup molasses, 
one cup flour, two cups Indian meal, one 
tea-spoon soda. Pour into a mold and tie 
down tighcly. Put into boiling water and 
steam from two to three hours. 

To Make Graham Gems. — Stir Graham 
meal into cold soft water or milk to the 
consistency of a thick batter. Beat well 
with the spoon and droj) into hot greased 
gem jjans (either tin or cast-iron ones) . 
Bake in a very hot oven. 

Plain Rice Pudding. — One teacup of 
rice, one teacup of sugar, a little salt and 
two quarts of milk. Flavor with cinnamon 
or lemon and bake slowly two hours. 

Sago Pudding. — Pare and core six sour 
apples; lay in a large dish one cup brown 
sugar and three-quarters cup sago; fill the 
dish with cold water and bake two hours. 
Any other fruit may be used in place of the 
apples. 

How TO Keep a Mustard Plaster 
Moist. — By adding a little syrup or mo- 
lasses in mixing a mustard poultice it will 
keep soft and flexible, and not di-y up and 
become hard and uncomfortable, as when 
mixed up with water alone. A thin i)aper 
or fine cloth should come between the 
jolaster and skin. The strength of the 
plaster is varied by the addition of moi'e or 
less flour. 

Crumpets. — Take three teacui^sful of 
raised dough and worlc into half a teacup- 
ful of melted butter, three eggs, and milk 
to make a thick flatter. Bake in a hot, 
buttered i)an, in half an hour. 

Mechanical Hints. 

How TO Bore Holes in Glass. — Any 
hard steel tool will cut glass with great 
facility when kept freely wet with camphor 
dissolved in turpentine. A drill-l)ow may 
be used or oven the hand alone. A hole 
bored may be readily enlarged by a round 
file. The ragged edges of glass vessels 
may also be thus easily smoothed by a 
flat flle. Flat window glass can readily be 
sawed by a watch spring saw by aid of this 
solution. In short, the most brittle glass 
can be wrought almost as easily as brass 
l)y the use of cutting tools kept constantly 
moist with camphorized oil of turpentine. 

Parchment Paper. — Paper can be read- 
ily converted into vegetable isarchment l)y 
immersing it for a few moments in a mix- 
ture of two volumes of sulphuric acid and 
one of water. The acid should be washed 
off the paper by immersing and slightly 
agitating it in a large quantity of cold 
water. The last trace of acid may be re- 
moved by finally immersing the paper in 
water to which a small (quantity of am- 
monia has been added. To prevent con- 
traction or wrinkling, the paper should be 
stretched on a frame while yet wet. Paper 
so prej^ared is transparent, and can be used 
for tracing paper; and may also be employ- 
ed as a very good substitute for sheepskin 
parchment. 

Something About Isinglass. — J. L. 
Souberaine, who has recently examined the 
different varieties of this article, points out 
these distinctions : Bussian isinglass dis- 
solves very rai:)idly in hot water, seldom 
leaving over 2 per cent, of insolulile resi- 
due; it is pleasant to the taste, and yields a 
firm and transparent gelatine. Bengal or 
Indian isinglass dissolves readily, but 
leaves a much larger proportion of residue 
— from 7 to 13 per cent. ; it often has a 
fishy taste, and its gelatine is not clear. 
The gelatine obtained from Brazilian isin- 
glass is opaque and acrid. The isinglass 
prepared in China is seldom exported. 

Artificial Tablets may be made as fol- 
lows : Equal i^ortions of ivory dust or 
shavings, and gelatine or albumen, worked 
into a i^aste, and afterwards rolled out into 
sheets, allowed to liarden, and afterwards 
cut to the required size. 

Varnish for Drawings and Litho- 
graphs. — Take dextrine 4 jiarts, alcohol 1 
part and water 4 parts. The drawings 
should be pre^^ared jireviously with two or 
three coats of thin starch or rice boiled 
and strained through a cioth. 



Life Thoughts. 

It is far better to suffer than to lose tlic 
power of suffering. 

Experience is the father, and memory the 
mother of wisdom. 

Censure is the tax a man pays to the pub- 
lic for being eminent. 

It is easy to look down on others; to look 
down on ourselves is the difficulty. 

We cannot conquer fate and necessity, 
yet we can yield to them in such a manner 
as to be greater than if we could. ' 

He who pleases himself without injuring 
his neighbor, is quite as likely to please half 
the world as he who vainly tries to please 
the whole world. 

When fame is regarded as the end, and 
merit as only the means, men are apt to dis- 
pense with the later, if the former can be 
had without it. 

Base all your actions upon a principle of 
right; preserve your integrity of character, 
and in doing this, never reckon the cost. 

It is with our thoughts as with our flow- 
ers — those that are simple in expression 
carry their seed with them ; those that are 
douiile, charm the mind but produce noth- 
ing. 

Always laugh whenyoucan — itisacheap 
medicine. Mirthfulness is a philosophy 
not well understood. It is the sunny side 
of existence. 

Without love we are unhapi:)y; with it 
we are still unsatisfied, and long ever foi 
our ideal which wo can only reach in 
heaven. 

The highest genius never flowers in satire; 
but culminates with that which is best in 
human nature. 



Old Age Without Religion. 

Alas! for him who grows old without 
growing wise, andto whom the future world 
does not set oi)en her gates when he is ex- 
cluded by the present. Tlie Lord deals so 
graciously with us in the decline of li'fe that 
it is a shame to turn a deaf ear to the lessons 
which He gives. The eye becomes dim, the 
ear dull, the tongue falters, the feet totter, 
all the senses refuse to do their office, and 
from every side resounds the call: "Set 
thine house in order, for the term of thy 
pilgrimage is at hand." The playmates of 
youth, the fellow-laborers of manhood, dio 
away and take the road before us. Old age 
is like some quiet chamber, in which, dis- 
connected from the world, we can prepare 
in silence for the world that is unseen. — 
Tkolitck. 



Honest Independence. — A tree must be 
rooted in the soil before it can bear flowers 
and fruit. A man must learn to stand up- 
right upon his own feet, to respect him- 
self, to be independent of charity or accident. 
It is on this basis only that any suiJerstruc- 
ture of intellectual cultivation worth having 
can be built. — [Froude. 



It is quite the fashion to drop now and 
then a lump of piety into personal conduct, 
but too often there is little care to "work it 
in." A life properly seasoned with grace 
has a uniform flavor. — [ W. H. Beecher, 



A lazy boy makes a lazy man just as a 
crooked sapling makes a crooked tree. 
Those who make our great and useful men 
were trained in their early boyhood to be 
industrious. 



Your Standing at Home. — We often hoar 
the question asked of such and such an one 
"What is his standing in society?" or 
"What is his standing in the church, or 
among business men?" But we never think 
of asking, before we take him into our con- 
fidence, "How does he standathome?" And 
yet the man who can make rejily to this 
(juestion with an untroubled heart and clear 
conscience is a hero not so often met with, 
but that he is worthlookingafter, and close- 
ly cultivating. 



"O ! I Forgot." — Of all the despisable 
excuses ofi'ered for omission of duty or 
neglect to fulfil an appointment, the 
most contemptible is the stereotyped 
phrase. " I forgot it." Many persons 
think that a sufficient apology for the neg- 
lect or omission of any promise; with us it 
is the worst. The great French Minister, 
Talleyrand, once said, " a blunder is worse 
than a crime, for a crime may bo the effect 
of circumstances, it may be guarded 
against, or it may never occur again; but a 
blunder is always likely to occur." We 
can forgive a crime, but not a blunder. 
The man who is always forgetting is utterly 
unfit for any i^ublic position. 



60 






[January 28, 1871. 



LETTER FROM SAN DIEGO. 



How to Commence Farming with Small IVIeans — 
The Sugar Beet and its Manufacture. 
Editors Press: — Will you jjlease per- 
mit ono who has had experience in agri- 
cultural matters uiJon this coast, ranging 
over twenty-three years of time, and in 
neai-ly all the distance between Chili and 
Puget Sgund, to offer a few suggestions in 
answer to the query: " Is there any open- 
ing for poor, but willing and intelligent 
men with little or no money to make a start, 
and a living at farming V" 

Tlioro are in those southern counties, and 
it is presumed elsewhere, localities where 
land can be had at a nominal jirice — either 
buying or renting — where a person who is 
willing to live simi:)ly, can begin life as a 
farmer; or, as part farmer and part manu- 
facturer; and with a very small amount of 
money. By living plain, — that is, doing 
with little or no meat, — (do not get 
alarmed) f(n- the first year or so, the cost of 
iving (ran be kept at less tlian half wliat is 
asked for board at the lowest-priced board- 
ing houses, or say at S3 per Aveek. There 
are hundreds of persons hereabouts who 
do not consume over $2 worth of in-ovis- 
ions j)er week. It must be borne in mind 
that at certain altitudes along the coast 
very little if any carbonaceous food is re- 
quired; and in fact, such food is very im- 
healthy, and ^iroduces hepatic diseases, 
oftener than most are willing to believe. 
It is found by actual experiment thattliose 
living upon grains, coarsely ground and 
unbolted, and upon liguminous 2>lants 
and tomatoes, can endure more fatigue and 
last longer than those performing a similar 
amount of labor ujion a more stimulating 
diet. I have seen the ore-carriers of Peru 
mount the rough and precipitous inclines, 
with burdens that would stagger a San 
Francisco hod-carrier, and do it upon a diet 
oi frijoles (Mexican beans). The porters 
in T\irkey habitually carry a load of one 
hundred to one hundred and fifty pounds; 
their diet is black bread and tomatoes. Un- 
doubted testimony can be jiroduced that 
any one can live longer and accom)3lish 
more in such a climate as ours, by avoiding 
STich stimulating food, narcotics and con- 
diments, as most people consider indispen- 
sable, and which renders the cost of living 
double or treble what it would be without 
them. 

Now, although it is somewhat doubtful 
about finding any great numlier of persons 
who are willing to forego, even temi)orarily, 
the superfluities of the table, for even so 
great consideration as health and independ- 
ance, the opening to reach that end exists; 
and for almost an unlimited number. 

I will glance at one or two occupations 
in which little capital is required; and no 
one who is acquainted with the demand 
will doubt, that a profitable market is al- 
ways at liaud for the products. 

In many k)calities in tliese southern 
counties, tomatoes, sugar beets and the 
mulberry, wotdd be three things that could 
be cultivated to profit. The first two, as 
the more immediately available, — the toma- 
to especially, as bearing at all seasons, so 
as to enable the grower to put them into 
the San Francisco market, fresh from the 
vines, at a ])eriod when there are few or 
none obtainable in that locality; and at 
other times, when unprofitable to ship fresh, 
to can, or make into catsuj). 

The Sugar Beet Culture. 
The sugar beet can be iitilized in several 
wiiys: — as forage, (one-fourth of an acre 
produced ninety dollars worth, sold as for- 
age here within the last month) , to bo sold 
to the manufacturers, or to be worked up, 
on a cheai) co-o])erative i)lan, into a low 
grade of sugar or mclado suitable for com- 
mon purposes, and quite saleable to the 
refineries. It is quite ])racticable for a i 
few to combine and with machinery that Jiarne^g 
will not cost over $500 to .SI, 000, to reduce 
seventy tons of beets per day to "molado," 
Kutficiently defecated for refinei-y purposes. 
AVith regard to the mulberry, the eggs and 
raw or cut cocoons, are always saleable, 
but of course not realized ui)on as soon as 
the other two. 

These are onlj' a few of the many arti- 
cles that the beginner, with little or no cajj- 
ital, can start upon. 

There are many localities, this for in- 
stance, where there is little or no capital, 
and very few persons willing, or able to 
take stock in an incorporation ; and if one 
waited for a comi)lete oi'ganization, and 
suflScient capital to build such a fac- 



tory as the one at Alvarado, some 
years would elapse, before anything 
could be realized; whereas, if every 
one who would i)lant a few beets, 
with their other crops, that is diver.sify 
their culture, depending upon the sale or 
crude manufacture of them, something 
could be done without delav. 



A Cheap Sugarle. 

About the i^racticability of making the 
beet sugar a melado, of a sulticiently defe- 
cated gi-ade to be available for common 
use, and remunerative to the farmers, if 
sold to refiners, I think there can be no 
question. In the first ])lace we will take 
it for granted that every farmer has water; 
posibly not high enougli above ground to 
give the required ion-o through the hose, 
for cleaning the beets; but the elevation by 
Avind power of, say lOO barrels per day into 
a tank twenty feet high, can be efl'ected, at 
an outlay of iJlOO. I have put up such a 
mill here several times, by contract. Then 
a commom crusliing mill with slicing ma- 
chine will cost about 6200; the evaporator 
and defecator $200 min-e; two men and two 
horses per day, S7; one-half cord of fuel, 
$4; chemic^als $1; making, in labor and ma- 
terial, exclusive of beets, $12 ])er day. 

Mr. Pardee, an experienced farmer hero, 
is prepared to contract to furnish beets at 
.$4 ])er ton; making a result, sui)posing 
them to yield six per cent, of saccharine 
matter, a profit u])on the outlay of the 
manufacturer of $28 per day, provided his 
sugar is worth t(>n cents ])er pound. Now 
I call that a good return upon a capital of 
$1,000. Possibly $4 more maybe required 
for laljor, which will reduce the profit 
daily to $24. 

Profits of the Beet Culture. 

]Mr. Pardee estimates that there are 1,000 
acres upon the Sweet Water Creek (Nation- 
iil Ranch) , that will yield at the rate of 40 
tons per acre ; he bases his estimate upon 
actual experiment. He has a sugar beet 
upon his ])lace now that weighs 100 
pounds — first growth ; and he says that ho 
can i)lant so as to have them, at their high- 
est? saccharine stage, every month in the 
year. But we will call the average i)ro- 
duction 25 tons per acre; that gives $100 
per acre for a crop that costs no more to 
cultivate than corn, and leaves quite as 
much forage for stock. Estimating the 
residue of the beet to be worth $10 for 
forage, gives $110 per acre as the gi-oss 
l>rocoeds, and allowing $50 as the cost of 
cultivation, leaves $tiO per acre as profit to 
the farmer. F. M. Shaw. 



THE YOUNG OF OYSTERS. 

Editors Press:— I noticed in one of 
your late numbers that yon assert that by 
opening an oyster and examining the liquor 
retained in the shell with a microscope, 
you can see many small oysters, covered 
with shells, swimming nimbly about. 
Well, you i)lease inform your careful read- 
ers how they get there, and when they are 
set free by their mothers to take care of 
themselves; and if thei-e are male and fe- 
male oj-sters; if so, how do they multiply. 
This is a very interesting subject, and ono 
but little understood. j. b. 

San Francisco, Jan., 1871. 

The oyster was formerly considered her- 
maphordito; but it is now known that it is 
of sei)arate sexes — the females largely pre- 
dominating in numbers. They are ovovi- 
vaparous — they produce a living fa-tus, by 
excluding it from an egg covering. The 
eggs are expelled in a white, viscid fluid, 
called "spats" (common to all shell fish) . 
This substance adheres to marine bodies 
and to the iwrent shells; by thus accumu- 
lating one upon another, immense banks of 
oyster beds are sometimes formed. 

As the fish are all stationary, fecundation 



Fakmixo A.MONG THE Clouds. — Mr. B. 
W. Barnes, an old friend, of La Porte, 
Sierra County, sends in his name as a sub- 
scriljer to the Rural, and writes as fol- 
lows:— "I liave started a farm on Bald 
Mountain, and rai.sed 10,000 pounds of 
potatoes and other vegetables, corn, etc., 
this last year. You no doubt think that 
strange; but let me explain, for you may 
not know that on the south-west side of 
Bald Mountain, high up, there are four or 
five springs coming out, and below them a 
flat of 12 or 15 acres of fine rich land. I, 
by chance, crossed it several years ago, and 
the thought occurred to me then that the 
place would be comparatively free from 
frost, and, as it fac^ed right, would make a 
fine ranch. Last spring I started in and I 
now think I have the best little ranch with- 
in 20 miles of here. My jiotatoes, corn 
and beans were green a full month after 
everything had been killed 20 miles below 
here, and in all the valleys above. Of 
course everybody thought I was (!razy; but 
when I brought into town the best potatoes, 
green com, beans, turnips, etc., tliat were 
is effected through the medium of the I '''^'®*' ^^'^^ ^^^^i' l>egan to think different. I 



Horse Harnessinci Machine. — A corres- 
pondent of the Rural New Yorker says that 
a gentleman of that city has arranged a de- 
vice whereby a horse may be unharnessed 
and the harness be hung w]} in thirty-two 
seconds! 

The device consists of two small ironpul- 
lies, a small cord three yards in length 
and a hook. One pulley is fastened to a 
joist directly over the horse's back, the 
other a yard to the left. The hook is to 
draw the harness uj) with, the cord being 
tlirough the two pullies, with an iron ring 
through the left hand end of the cord to 
fasten iipon a. large nail to hold the harness 
uj). The harness must be made with the 
collar o])en at the botom, with the hames 
attached to the collar, so that the harness 
will raise up from the horse. The lines are 
left over the dash, nor are they unliuckled 
from the head-stall; the tugs are left liitched 
to the buggy, so are the hold-backs, and the 
sliafts are left in the loops; the head-stall is 
taken oft' with tin; lines attached, and hung 
upon the back-saddle; the hame-strap is 
unbuckled, the two girths unbuckled, and 
all the harness, with the shafts, are drawn 
u]) together. Of course the harness must 
be suspended directly over where the horse 
stands as he is driven into the carriage 
house. In harnessing, the animal is plac- 
ed in the sliafts, the harness lowered upon 
his back, the straps which have been loosen- 
ed must be again made fast, the lK)ok dis- 
(nmnected and tlie work is done. The device 
is ai>plicable to double as well as single 
ss. 



water, which conveys the sperm to the ova. 
The eggs, as already intimated, are to a 
certain extent develoiied before being 
ejected by the female; and sometimes, after 
being ejected, instead of becoming fixed to 
the outside of the shell, or to some other 
neighboring body, they continue to float 
about until they are accidentally received 
within the cavity of the shell of the adult 
oyster, in the process of respiration. Here 
they often continue until developed, as de- 
scribed in the paragraph to which our cor- 
respondent refers. 

There is a species of small crab that 
often finds its way within the shell of the 
oyster in the same manner^ Neither the 
young oyster nor the crab can form any 
l)Ortion of the food of the adult oyster, as 
the softness of the mouth of the latter does 
not admit of its attacking any resisting 
substance, alive or dead. When the crab 
or young oyster becomes large enough to 
annoy the adult oyster, it is summarily 
ejected. The young oyster is attached to 
its bed first by the glutinous nature of the 
fluid in which its partially developed ova is 
enveloped; and when once fixed, a calca- 
reous growth from the shell itself, jjerfects 
and i)ermanently fixes the union. 



am satisfied that the season up there is two 
months longer than at La Porte, and only 
about l>i miles distant. "How's that for 
high ?"— Pretty high to make a roatl to; 
but I am going to do it this summer." 

The above shows what can be done by 
perseverance and industry. There are 
thousands of just such or better i)laces all 
through the mountains and mines, which 
will in time be utilized for agricultural 
purposes. Bald Mountain, at the locality 
of this ranch, is about 4,000 feet above the 
level of the sea. 



Ramie in San Jose. — The San Jose In- 
dependent says that several farmers in that 
vicinity are intending to cultivate the ra- 
mie, on a small scale, this season. The 
idea is to test the capacity of the soil for 
such culture, and to prei)are for its more 
extended introduction, should the claims 
which have been put forth for this textile 
be realized. This is a move in the right 
direction. The next thing to be done is to 
secure a ma(;hinc for i)reparing the rough 
fibre for market. 



A New Variety of STnAT\'BERBrEs — 
Perhaps. — Two years ago the Rev. 
Charles Ritter, of West Chester, N. Y., 
planted a few strawberry i)lants, supj^osed 
to be of the Russell variety. They bore 
two crops the first season^a matter of 
some little surprise. But last season they 
kei)t right along, and were yielding plenti- 
fully well into November, when the matter 
was referred to in the Farmers' Clnb as 
something quite singular. The novelty of 
strawberries at that season in the New York 
market created considerable attention, and 
the berries sold readily for $3 a quart. 
They are unusually large and of very su- 
perior flavor, and the vines are very pro- 
lific. It is thought they may be a new va- 
riety. Mr. Ritter has commenced propa- 
gating them under that imijression. 

Set Out Nurseries. — Farmers who have 
heretofore paid no attention to planting 
trees or vines on their i>remises should 
remedy that neglect at once. No better 
time can be found for such improvements 
than the present. A quarter of an acre set 
out or planted now with seeds for a nur- 
sery, will furnish young trees enough next 
year to cover a very large tract of land. In 
planting fruit trees, some of the more rare 
should be included — as the fig, the olive, 
the orange, the lemon, almond, etc. The 
cost of such preparation is but trifling, 
either in time or money; while the chances 
of profit are large. The comfort and pleas- 
ure of such surroundings is of great value. 
In planting, don't forget the forest and nut 
trees, nor the mulberry. 



Norway Oats in Calipobnia.— We have 
by request been furnished a coi>y of the 
following letter : 

Mark West Creek, Sonoma Co. I 
Jan. 14th 4«71. )" 

Mr. Samiiel Miller, Dear Sir: — In rejdy 
to your request for a statement of my suc- 
cess in raising the Ramsdell Norway Oats 
and how the straw answers for stock, I 
would state that on the 20th day of March 
1870, I sowed on seven acres of ground, 
240 lbs. of the Norway Oats. From the 
time of sowing until harvesting on the 21st 
day of July, there was no rain fell on 
them, they grew- up strong from five and 
one half to six feet high, fully coveiing the 
ground and a sample of the field was cut, 
yielding ninety-two (92) bushels to the 
acre; I saved the straw, and it was run out 
from the thrashing machine into a shed. 
This shed was filled one end with this 
straw and the other with the the best Cali- 
fornia Oat Hay. The shed was open at 
both ends, and the cattle and horses had 
free access to both kinds. They went as 
readilj' to the oat straw as the hay and ato 
it up clean, Avasting none of it. And from 
this experience it ap))ears to me that for 
stock it was as valuable as hay for feeding 
pur2)oses. John McLaughlin. 

The Dollar Engine. — Our mechanical 
department is in receipt of this ingenious 
toy, which is a reciprocating engine, with 
cylinder, piston, fly-wheel, boiler and i)at- 
ent safety-valve, yet weighs less than four 
ounces and can be covered with a tumbler. It 
is said to make over a thousand revolutions 
per minute, and to be upwards of 500-flea 
power. This last is a mistake in part. Its 
attractive power may be greater, but the re- 
pulsive power of 500 fleas, we speak feel- 
ii^ly, can't be ecjualed by any engine yet 
invented. Sent by mail (the toy, not the 
fleas), pre])aid, on receijjt of .$1.30, by Col- 
by Brothers & Co. , W)8 Broadway, New York. 



The following anecdote, wliich we find in 
the papers, is worth rei>rinting: Old Dr' 
Stearns, of New London, in his latter days, 
kept a drug store. A gentleman one day 
purchased a cigar of the Doctor, and light- 
ing it, began to smoke. "Please do not 
smoke in the store," said Dr. S., politely, 
" it is against our rule." "But you sell 
cigars," rejoined the gentleman — "sell 'em 
to smoke, don't you ?" " Yes, sir, we sell 
cigars," replied the Doctor, alittle sharply — 
" and we .sell physic; but we don't allow it 
to operate in the store." 



January 28, 1871.] 



61 




1870 
:i47,«00 
3,938,900 
512,500 
221,000 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE AT WHOLESALE. 

San Feancisco, Thurs., r. m., Jan. 2Cth. 
FLOUR— Is still iu limited demand for ex- 
port; -while the demand for local trade con- 
tinues fair, with still further advance in prices 
from last quotations. Standard Oregon brands 
are quotable at $(i.02>^@6.87>^; local brands- 
superfine, $.5..';0@.5.75; extra $G.75@6.87%. 
Transactions include 4,000 bbls. Cal. extra, 
2,000 qr. sacks Cal. superfine, and 1,000 bbls. 
Oregon extra. The receipts of California flour 
and grain at this port from July 1st to Jan. 21st 
is given in the Bulletin as follows: — 

4869 

Floiu-, qrsks 509,700 

Wheat, centrals 4,951.800 

Barky 538,900 

Oats 234,500 

The above comparison shows a general decrease 
in the deUveries this season. The deficiency 
in flour and wheat is equal to 1,134,000 centals 
wheat. In Barley there has been a decrease of 
26,400 centals; and in oats, 1.3,500 centals. 

WHEAT — Very little has been done in con- 
sequence of the extreme figures demanded, 
which are slightly in advance of our last 
review. Sales embrace 15,000 qr. sacks. We 
quote the range of all kinds at $2.20@2.37; 
good to choice shipping, $2.25@2.32%, choice 
milling $2 . 27@2 . 37 % . Liverpool quotations are 
reported to-day at 128., an advance of 5d. since 
last week. New York rates— $1.70@1. 75 per 
bushel. 

BARLEY — Is still in fair demand, and prices 
remain about the same as last week. We 
quote f 1.35@1.45, from fair to choice. Sales 
5,000 sacks. 

OATS — We note a limited demand for oats. 
Fair to good may be quoted at fl.45@1.62. 
Sales 6,000 sacks. 

CORN- 600 sacks Los Angeles Yellow, $1.50. 
The weekly deliveries of late have been large, 
averaging 3,000 sacks for over a month. 

BUCKWHEAT— Nominal at $3@3.50 from 
the wharf. 

RYE — In limited demand. The latest sale is 
reported at $2.62%. 

FEED — Remains with but little change. We 
quote: Straw, $8@9; Bran, $28@30; Mid- 
dlings, $35 for feed, and f 37@40 per ton for 
tine; Oil Cake Meal $30. 

Hay — The receipts have been fair since our 
last, and prices have remained firm. We quote 
ordinary wild oat to choice wheat at $13(rt)17 .50 
■^ ton. 

HONEY — In good demand at the following 
rates: Los Angeles, 5-gall cans, $12(5^16, and 
Potter's, 2 lb do, at $4 ^ dozen. 

POTATOES Market firm, with advanced 

prices. We quote Carolinas at $1 00; other 
kinds $1.50(a),$1.87%, from fair to choice. In 
one or two cases $2 has been paid for choice 
Humboldt. 

HOPS — This year's crop is still quotable at 
10@12%c. [According to Emmett's Hop Cir- 
cular, the New York market stands — for N. Y. 
State 9@14c.; Eastern, 8@12c.; Wisconsins, 
8@12c.; Michigans, 6@10c. ; Ohios, 6@10c. 
Some very fine California hoi)s were in the 
market, but were held for better prices on ac- 
count of their quality and superb condition.] 

HIDES- — We quote Dry, slaughterer's stock, 
16%@18 c; Salted; 8@8%c. Sales during the 
week 1,930 Cal. dry. 

WOOL — We quote good shipping, at 1.5@ 
17%c; very choice, 18%c; burry, 10@12%c; 
slightly do, 13@14c. There are being no 
stock on the market, the above quotations are 
merely nominal. Sales of 10,000 lbs. of long 
staple are noted at 22/^c. 

TALLOW— Quotable at 7@7%c, from ordi- 
nary to choice. 

SEEDS — California Mustard, none in the 
market; Flax 3@3%c., Canary, 7@8c. 

BEANS — Quiet at the following rates. Bayo 
at f2.50@2.62%; butter, $2.25; small white, 
$1.90; pink, $2; red, $2@2.25; pea, $2@$2.25 
per 100 pounds. 

FRESH MEAT— The market is firm ,ind 
quotations little changed. We quote prices from 
slaughterers to dealers: 

BEEF— American, 1st quality, 10@llc '^ lb. 
Do 2d do 9(7/'10c '^ lb. 

Do 3d do 7(0} 8c % ft). 

VEAL— From 8@ 13c. 
MUTTON— Steady at 9@10c. '^ fc. 
LAMB — None in market. 
PORK— Undressed at G%@7%c; dressed, 
0@11%. An advance of fully one cent per lb. 

POULTRY, ETC.— In good supply, and 
prices remain unchanged. Young Chickens $6@, 
7; Hens $7@8.50; Roosters, $7@8.00: Diicks, 
tame, $8@9 'f) doz; do wild, $1@3.00 f, doz; 
geese, tame;$2..50@$3 ^ pair; mid, $1.75@3 "§, 
doz; tame Turkeys, 18@;20c '^ lb; Hare, 1.50 
per doz; Doves, 50c do; Quail, $1.2.5@1..50. 

DAIRY PRODUCTS— CaUfornia Butter, 
fresh, in rolls, 45@50c; Packed rolls, 32(ai37%c. 
Oregon firkin, 20@22%c; Eastern do, 25@ 
35c. The receipts of choice butter have been 
fair. 

Cheese — In fair supply, at unchanged rates. 
California, new, ll@15c.. Eastern, 16@17c. 

Egos — California fresh, 37%@40c; Oregon, 
30c; CaUfornia Lard, 11-lb tins, 12@13i-^c; 
Oregon, 13%@14%c, according to package. 

FRUITS — Wc submit the follo^ving prices, 
for which we are indebted to A. Lusk & Co. : 
Cal. Apples, per box, $1.00@$2.00; Oregon, 
f 1@$2.00; Pears, per box, $1.50@$4.00; Or- 
anges, per 1,000, $40@$50; Lemons, per box, 
$16; Pears, scarce. 

CASE GOODS— In 2 fc cans, per doz.,. Apri- 
cots, $4; Apples, $2.50; Blackberries, $4; Ger- 
man Prunes, $4; Grapes, $4; Peach, table, $4; 



Peach, pie, $3; Pie, assorted, $3; Plum, table, 
$3,50; Plum, pie, $3; Pears, $3.75; Quince, 
$3.50; Tomatoes, $2; Table, assorted, $3.75. 
GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS —Busi- 
ness in this department still contains good; 
stocks of all kinds are comijlete, and prices 
rule low. 

BAGS AND BAGGING— Are in moderate 
request only, and will so be until the approach 
of the coming season. We quote wool bags at 
50@52%c. Oat Sacks 23x40, 12%c; 28x35, 18c; 
Potato Sacks, 17 %c.; imitation Dundees, 18@ 
19 c. Standard burlaps, 22x36, 12 %c. 
BUILDING AND FENCING MATERIALS— 
In good demand, and prices are reported firm. 
We quote wholesale rates to dealers: Redwood 
Rough at $18; do Siding, $22. .50; do Surfaced, 
$30; Fancy Pickets, $30; Oregon Rough, $17; 
do Flooring, $27; do Fencing, $18; .Laths, 
$3@,3.25, and Redwood Shingles, $2.75 "^ M. 

DRIED FRUITS— In moderate request. We 
quote the market as follows : Cal. Dried Apples, 
5%c; Oregon do, G^/^c; Languedoc Almonds ; 
25c; Figs, Smyrna, 15@20o; Prunes, Hungarian, 
16@17c, for old and new respectively, ^ lb; 
Raisins, layer, $4.25@5.00; Currants, Zante, 
ll%(«r2%c.; Citron, .50c. 

PROVISIONS— The stock of all kinds of 
Cured Meats are in fair sujiply, and a good de- 
mand continues to exist. We quote jobbing 
rates as follows; Hams, California, atl3@13%c; 
Oregon do, 16%@17c; Bacon, California, 15(ai 
15%c; Oregon do, 16@16%c; Lard, California, 
12%@13%c; Oregon do, in kegs, 13(ai.l4>^c 

Leather Market Report. 

[Corrected weekly by Dolliver & Bro.. No. 109. Post'st.] 
San Francisco, Thursday, Jan. 26. 

Shipments to the east still continue large, 
and several tanners have advanced their price 
one cent per lb. 

City Tanned 26 ®29 

Santa Cruz 26 ©31 

Country 25 @28 

Calf and Kip Skins. — French stocks con- 
tinue scarce and high on account of the lack 
of exportation from French ports which has al- 
most entirely ceased. We quote : 

Best French C'alf Skins. ■¥( doz 75 00(S)100 00 

Common French Calf Skins, 'jj* doz 35 OOW 75 00 

French Kips, 1(4 ft 1 mia> 130 

California Kip, ^ doz 60 00(g» 80 00 

California Calf, ^11. 1 00(g> 125 

Eastern Wheel Stuffed Calf, ^ lb 8(>(g> 1 00 

Kastern Bench StutTed Calf, ^ lb 1 l(>tq> 1 25 

Eastern Calf for Backs, per lb 1 li(at 1 25 

Sheep Koans for topping, all colors, ^ doz 8 50(r|> 13 00 

Sheep Roans for linings, ^ doz 5 50(g> 10 50 

California Kusset Slieop Ijiniugs 1 75«^ 5 60 

HAltNESS LEATllEK, ^ lb 3U((* 37 

Fair Bridk', ^ lb 3:i(g» 40 

Skirting, ^ doz 4 50(u> 4 75 

Welt Leather, ^ doz 30 00(<v .50 00 

Buff Leather, Hf> foot 22fe> 26 

San Francisco Metal Market. 

PRICED FOR I.WOICES 

fobbing pricea rule/rom ten to jiflftn per cent, higher than the 
followinQ quolatiotift. 

FaroAT, .Tan. 27. '.871. 
Iron. -Duty : Pig, $7 per ton; Kailroad, OUc ijl 100 lbs.; 
Bar, l@lMc ^ lb: Sheet, polished, 3c ^ lb; common, 
mCifV.icl^ tb; Plate, l^c ^ lb; Pipe, lj<ic ■^ ft; 
Galvanized, 2iic '^ ib. 
Scotch and feng. Pig Iron, ^ ton. ..$34 @$35 SO 

White Pig, ^ ton 32 ® 33 00 

Ketiued Bar, bad assortment, ^16.. — 03 @ 

Refined Bar, good assortment, 'jfl lb, •- 04 @ 

Boiler, No. 1 to 4 — 0434® 

Plate, No. 5 to 9 © — 04^ 

Sheet, No. 10 to 13 — 04}^® — 05 

Sheet, No. 14 to 20 — 05 ® — 05M 

Sheet, No. 24 to 27 — 05 ® — 06 >4 

Copper.— Duty : Sheathing, 3 Jic If* ft; Pig and Bar, 
2^c^ ft. 

Sheathing, lf» ft (§> — 26 

Sheathing, Yellow — 20 ® — 21 

Sheathing, Old Yellow — 10 (» — 11 

Composition Nails — 21 @ — 22 

Composition Bolts — 21 ® — 22 

ri-. Plates.— Duty : 25 ^ cent, ad valorem. 

Plates, Charcoal, IX, ^ box 12 00 @ 

Plates, I C Charcoal 10 00 @ 10 50 

Roofing Plates 10 00 (g> 10 50 

Banca Tin, Slabs, ^ ft ® — 42 

Steel.— English Cast Steel, ?J ft ■ ® — 15 

Quicksilver.-^ ft (gt — 00 

Lead.— Pig, 1ft ft — 6 ®— 7 

Sheet — 9 ® 

Pipe — 10 ® 11 — 

Bar — 8 ®— 9 

iiNC.-Sheets, ^ ft — 10;<i(g> — 11 

BOBAX — 36 @ — 28 



[ADVERTISEMENT.] 

A NEW PAPEK FOE 1871. 



San Francisco Market Rates. 

'Wholesale Pricet. 

Friday, January 27 

S'lgar, crushed, ^ Bi Ha 

Do. Hawaiian 9 

Coffee, Costa Kica, ^fti — 

Do. Hie 

Tea, Japan, ^ lb 65 

Do. Ureen 60 

Hawaiian Rice, * lb 8 

China Kice, 1i* lb 8 

Coal Oil, %* gallon 46 

Candles, %1 lb 14 

Overland Butter 30 

Ranch Butter, * lb 40 

Isthmus Butter, IS* lb 25 

Cheese, California, ^Ib 9 

Eggs, %* ilozen 80 

Lard, '# lb il>i 

Ham and Bacon, ^ lb 3t 

Shoulders, l^lb 9 

tteiull i*i*lce«. 

Butter, California, fresh, ^Ib 50 

do. pickled, «» 40 

do. Oregon, ip )b 

Cheese,* lb.... 20 

Honey, '^ tb 25 

Eggs, « dozen S" 

Lard, '# lb 18 

Hams and Bacon, ^ lb 22 

Cranberries,^ gallon 7P 

Potatoes, «lb 2 

Potatoes, Sweet, ^ B) — 

Tomatoes, » lb 2 

onions, If* ft) 2 

Apples, No. 1, V lb 4 

Pears, Table, W lb S 

Plums, dried, %* lb 10 

Peaches, dried, 'J* lb Ill 

Oranges, ^ dozen .'iO 

Lemons, •# dozen 50 

Chickens, apiece 76 

Turkeys, 1* B) — 

."^oap. Vale and C. O 10 

■ Soap, Castile,* lb 18 



1, 1871 
& 15 
@ 12 
® 22 

o i»y, 
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@ 1 00 

a 9 

@ 9 
60 
18 

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a .VI 

a :i5 

a 15 

® 'j-iy, 

a ii^i 

O 17 

a lu 
a 60 

@ 60 

a 25 

a 25 

a 30 

a w 

a 2c 

a 25 
a 1 uo 

a 3 



a 



a 



a i: 

a IB 

a 75 

a 75 
a 1 00 

a 25 

a 15 

a 2C 



A First Class Pacific States Agri- 
cultural and Home Jotirnal. 

Will be issued weeldy on Saturdays, com- 
mencing Jan. 7th, 1871, containing sixteen pag- 
es devoted to 

Ag;rlo\iltxiro, IHortioulture, Stoolc 

;i^a.i»<iii^, I><>iiieBtio I^coiioiny. 

IZome lVta.ii\ifa.otiix'©B >Xe- 

cliivnics, IiitlvistvieiSf otc 

With an able and ample corps of editors, spe- 
cial contributors and correspondents, we shall 
publish a liberal variety of articles, entertain- 
ing as well as instiiictive, which will not only 
make the Kubal Press an able assistant to its 
patrons, but an attractive and welcome visitor 
to every reader iu every intelligent 

Home Circle, 

in the Pacific States. And more than this, we 
shall freight its columns with fresh thoughts, 
and uew ideas, which hastened across the con- 
tinent by rail, shall awaken and quicken the 
zeal of the moi'e staid and gradual moving cul- 
turists of the eastern and European States, to 
their 

Pleasure and Profit. 

We shall not only make a good paper for all hus- 
bandmen and homestead owners, (who now, more 
than ever require a knowledge of new discover- 
ies in science and mechanical improvements, ) 
but shall also render the journal a desideratum 
for those who contemplate becoming freehold- 
ers, and a large class of 

Mechanics, Teachers, Students, Business, 
Professional and Trades Men, 

whose interests are more or less identical with 
successful farming, and the active develop- 
ment of our vast and rich resources. Few there 
are — male or female — who will not find pleasure 
and ennoblement in the study of progressive 
farming and gardening. 

Honest, intelligent and eoireet information 
will be faithfully given, in behalf of, and urging 

An improved Cultivation of tlic Soil; 
A greater Diversity of Products; 
Better Breeds of Stock; 
Better Varieties of Fruits ; 
The Culture of New Products; 
Creation of New Home Industries; 
Adoption of Improved Implements; 
Higher and Hai^iiier Aims in Life, etc. 

Valuable and Timely Hints, 

will be given weekly to lessen the labors of the 
farm, the household and the shop, and add to 
the health, the wealth and the wisdom of every 
patron of industry. 

How to Farm in the Pacific 
States. 

As the conditions and circumstances of soil 
and climate and seasons on this coast are so pe- 
culiar that many of the approved methoils of 
eastern agriculture are not at all applicable on 
our side of the Continent, — special attention 
will be given to considering the need, extent and 
character of the modifications necessary. This 
will alone render the paper of great practical 
value to our home readers and more essential to 
them than all the thstant publications obtaina- 
ble, without such auxilliary and motUfying in- 
structions. 

The following are among the specialties upon 
which the Pacific Kdral Press will treat : 

Silk, Cotton and Sugar Beet Culture ; Nurseries, 
Orchards, Tropical and small Fruits; Steam- 
plowing, seeding and harvesting for large 
tracts; Reclamation of swamp and un- 
productive lands ; Hill and mountain farm- 
ing; Grape growing; Fig, Rasin and Fniit 
drjdng; Irrigation; Lessons and Lectures on 
the chemistry of growing crops and on fer- 
tilizing lands; Practical Farming vs. Specu- 
lation; Taxation of unimproved lands; 
Railroads and improved transportation for 
crops and the better class of immigi'ants; 
Farmer's Clubs, lectures and associations; 
Co-operation in farming, mechanism, man- 
ufacturing and other industries; Govern- 
ment lands for settlers whether sold by R. 
R. operators or the U. S. ; Rehable whole- 
sale and retail market reports; Brief notices 
of Mechanical and Scientific Progi-ess; 
Instructions for regular and f.armer me- 
chanics; Household Reading; Health and 
domestic receipts; a spriukUng of sprightly 
reading; Life thoughts; Poetry, condensed 
stories, items of news, etc., will be given. 

A Plain and Simple Style 

Of \^Titing will be our endeavor. Necessarily 
dealing largely in researches for facts we believe 
it desirable to jiresent them in an iuviting shape 
and in so comprehensive language that our 
special journalism shall advance in popiilarity 
and common reUsh. 

No editorials or selections of uncluzste or dovht- 
ful influence; or lottery, quack or other dlireputable 
advertisements, will be admittsd into its columns. 



Arrangement of Matter. 

Our reports of agricultural, horticultural an.i 
other fairs, lectures, farmers' clubs and social 
literary meetings [the improvement and in- 
crease of which we shall especially advocate] 
will be carefully prepared in a valuable form for 
preservation; and the matter of our entire col- 
umns -^rill be so classified as to be convenient to 
readers of various minds and individual tastes 
for ready perusal and future reference. 

Interesting Illustrations of Pacific States 

and Eastern Inventions and Machinery, 

Fine Arts, Science, Fruits, Rare 

Stock and Natural Scenery, 

Of special or peculiar interest to our readers 

will be published weekly in liberal variety. 

No pains or reasonable expense will be spared 

to furnish a 

Large and Eichly Tilled Journal 
Nicely printed on fine paper, which will favora- 
bly compare with the long established class 
journals of more populous fields and older com- 
munities. Although the latter have less oppor- 
tunities than new communities to be benefitted 
by printed information of discoveries. 

And Neighborly Experiences, 

the reading of agriciiltural newspapers and 
books is lately increasing with a rapidity 
quite astonishing, and with the most profitable 
results. 

We enter the field after a careful considera- 
tion and consultation with many of our leading 
agriculturists, with the strong conviction that 
such a joiu'nal on this coast is greatly needed 
and earnestly desired by the most prospectively 
flourishing and rapidly progi-essing community 
in the Union if not in the world. We know 
the task before us, — two of the proprietors and 
editors having experienced respectively 18 and 
13 years of successful journalism in this state. 
SUBSCRIPTION IN ADVANCE. 

One copy one Tear $4 00 

One copy six montbs 2.50 

One copy three months 1.25 

Single copies 10 

CLUB RATES. 

Ten copies or more, first year, each $.3.00 

[A free copy or premium nent to getter up ot club.] 

A select variety of advertisements only will be insert- 
ed. Circulated widely among the most thrifty of our 
population, the P. R. P. will be tho cheapest and 
most effective medium for a large range of first class 
advertisements in the Pacific states. 

Correspondence is resiiectfully solicited from 
every worthy source. 

Local Canvassers Wanted for every town, 
city and county. Special inducements offered. 

iParties desiring to get wp clubs or act as 
agents, will be furnished sample copies and pros- 
pectus free. 

DEWEY & Co., 
Publishers Patent Agents and Engi-avers, No. 
414 Clay St., San Francisco. Nov. 21, 1870. 

[Being also publishers of the Scientific Press, we 
would say here that no change will be made in that 
paper except to improve it in its present character. 
Each journal will be published entirely distinct from 
the other.— D. & Co.] 



The Pacific Rueal Press. — We have receiv- 
ed a sample copy of this new pul)lication from 
the office of the San Francisco Scientific Press 
of Dewey & Co. 

We are much pleased with it. It is a first 
class agricultiu-al paper and is bound to have a 
good circulation in the state. 

It is in quarto form, and printed on good 
paper and type. 

It is filled with good and appropriate matter, 
and not spoiled with personal pus's, published 
for personal considerations. 

The illustrations are ajipropriate and in good 
taste. 

We look upon this journal as one which i^ill 
fairly represent the industrial interests of Cali- 
fornia. — Sacramento Union, Dec. 26. 



Pacific Rural Press. — Dewey & Co., of the 
Scientific Press, have just issued a sixteen-page 
paper, quarto form, bearing the foregoing title. 
It is to be devoted to the interests of agricul- 
ture, and will be freely illustrated. The speci- 
men number is creditable. The publishers say, 
iu a circular accompanying the paper : 

We herewith present to your notice a copy of 
the Pacific Rural Press, the publication of 
which we undertake after well testing the wants 
of the Pacific Coast farmers and ruralists by 
the publication of a Farming Edition of tho 
Scientific Press. We have not only learned that 
there is a demand for a first-class home agricul- 
tural paper, but a disposition to support a good 
one. We are not only well situated for the tin- 
dertaking, but have also the means and disposi- 
tion to make it a success, and shall employ the 
best writers in every department, and furnish 
superior engi-avings for illustrations and em- 
bellishments. 

We wish it success. — S. F. Call, Dec. 24. 



New Agriccltural Paper. — We have received 
from Dewey <fe Co., publishers of the San Fran- 
cisco Scienlific Press, the prospectus of the 
Pacific Rural Pre.ss, a new agiicultural paper to 
be published weekly, commencing January 7th. 
It will treat of agriculture, horticulture, doiru^s- 
tic manufactiu-es and all matters pertaining to 
the industrial interests of California. We un- 
derstand that I. N. Hoag, of Yolo County, and 
formerly Secretai'y of the State Agricultural 
Society, will be one of the editors and will do 
much to make it generally acceptable to tho 
community. There is a great opening for a 
journal iu this state of the character mentioned 
and for talent and abihty in the editorial depart- 
ment. — Sacramento Daily Union, Dee. 16, 



62 



;>>'f tija-^ —^^--Li — ■ ''■' C.aLjJ - '-^■ . . -.v/ c;. 



[January 28, 1871. 



ALL POLICIES IN THE 




J^issJm.Co. 




//o/^ /-o/?/^/ri//?£ LA iV. 



^l 



^^ 



>^ 



..^-^t'bv 



s/i/v r/f/^/vc/sco. 



Crandall Patent Spring Bed, 

Received Premium for best Spring Bed at the State 
Fair and was on exhibition at all of ^the District Fairs 
n this State. 

IT EXCELS 



l.ta;htneaJi, Cleanllnciiii, 

KluntlcUy and DurabtlHy, 

Any other Spring Bed Ever Invented. 

Being without upholstery in can be aired at pleasure; 
while the springs b(!lug in couplets are seU-supportiug, 
thus dispensing with cords, twine, etc., and from tlie 
peculiar construction of the various parts it is imposti- 
ble for the bed to get out of order. 

Manufactory— 123 Front street, near comer of M, 
Sacramento. 

COOK,KY A OREEV, Proprletnra. 



California Stock and Poultry 
ASSOCIATION. 

THOMAS E. FINLEY, Manager. 

Onice 113 Leidesdorff st. Yards cor. Laguna & Washington 

SPECIALTY. 

Lig'ht Brahmas, the largest and best bred _stock in 
America. 

" ALSO 

Dark Brahmas, Iloudans, La Fleche, Derby "Game, 

Dominiriue, Wliite Cochins, Buff Cochins, White 

Leghorns, Whito Crested Black Polands, 

Wiite Faced Black Spanish, Golden 

Laced Seabright Bantams, Wiitc 

BantadS, Silver Grey Dorking, 

Grey Dorkins. 

Pigeons. — Black Fantail's, Pouter's, Nuns, Priest'K. 
Pigs. -White Chester. While Suffolk. 
LOP KAItED U.i^BITS.] 
Kothini: sent COD. 



CHOICE POULTRY. 

l.lBlit BrahmuM and White J^effhorn*N, 

A few.trios f<ir sale. .\lwi :i very choice young 
HOUDON COCKS, 
£0 OS 

for hatching from the 
I oUowing Breeds : 
Light Brahmas, 
Dark Brahmas, 
Houdan, Bearded, 
Buff Cochins, 
Bl'k .\frican Bantams, 
White Leghorns, 
Aylesbury Duc'ks. 

>'ieiIOI.«i A: WII.I-AKD, 

Importers and Breedersof Choice Poultry. 
2ST21-3m-lamin8 Brooklyn, Alameda Co. 




KELSEY'S NURSERIES, 



Chicken Ranch for Sale. 

K Chicken Haucb within the city. 
Four Kfioined lIouii« and Outblldlneii 

and stock of Poultry, canbc' obtained fur the sum of fr.OO. 
Ground nMit low; extent about two acres; affording an 
excellent opportunity for commencing a profitable liusi- 
ness. For particulars apply on ttje premises on Potrero 
Avenue between 15tli 4: 10th St., or by letter addressed 
"K" at the office of this paper. 



S. N. PUTNAM, 

622 Montgomery Street, San Francisco. 

Dealer in improved and unimproved Farms, Grazing 
and Timber lands. Particular attention given to pro- 
curing small Farms and Homesteads for purchasiTS, 
claims for prc-emptors &c., in every part of the State. 
lvl-3mr 




O A KLA N D. 

Established in 1852. 
Is now more fully stocked than ever before. 

Fruit Trees, Ornamental Trees, Deciduous 

Shade tries. Evergreens of all kinds: Fruit Plants; to 
wit: UasplH-rricK, Strawberries. Gooseberries. Currants, 
(irapes, Rhubarb, Asjiaragus and all Flowering plants, 
for inside and outside culture. 

IJ'OItEST TREES 

of Australia, Europe, China and .lapan. in fact wo aim 
to have and to get all and everjthing desirable. 

Parties planting can find in this establishment what- 
ever may be wanted, for use and beauty in fiuTiishing a 
place without being obliged to go from one nursery to 
another. Ivlr W. F. KELSEY, Proprietor. 



HERING'S NURSERY, 

OAKLAND. 

Corner of Delger St. and Telegraph Av.5 

A choice collection of the most Ix^autiful 
trees, shrubs, plants etc., to be found in 
California, suitable for general culture. 
Evergreen Trees, Ix'st standard sorts and 
fancy varieties; Deciduous and Evergreen 
Shruberj'; Golden and Crimson leafed, and 
double flowering Geraniums. 

Elegant Fuschias. 

splendid assortment of Il(>Res, and many 
most desirable (ireen House and out-of- 
door leaf and flowering plants. 
(yOrrffTS carefvUy JilUd and forwarded. 

The entire stock for sale, including hous- 
es and business in a good locality at a bar- 
gain. Address, F. A. HERINO, Nurseryman, 
lvl-5minr Oakland. 




KING'S NURSERY, 

ELM Street, (between Telegraph Av. and Broadway sts.) 
OAK.r.iAlNI3. 

GREEN H0IT8E PLANT 
EVERGREFJJ TREES, 

SHRUBS, ROSES, ETC 
A superior stock of large 
sized Australian Gum trees, 
including :— EUCALYPTUS 
GLO BOLUS, (Blue Gum), 
extra fine street and shade 
tree. EUCALYPTUS VIM- 
ENALI8, a lieautiful droop- 
shade tree, fine leafed and 
fragrant; both sorts very 
popular. AC.\CI.\S in vari- 
ety. Montery Pines, Mon- 
tery Cypress, Lawson's Cy- 
press, etc., etc. Orders at- 
tended to. Addi'css 
Ivl-tf M. KING, Nurseryman, Oakland. 




Trees for Silk and Trees for Shade. 




T uin thiiinin<,' cut my MrLiii;itnY I'l.^ntatioxs and 
will wll my surjiliis tivt-s 

VERY CHEAP. 

1 year old Mntticanleis ^'IQ per thousand. 
"2 and 3 yr, old do from §25 to $35 according 

to size. 

2 to 3 yr old Alba and Moretti from §30 to 

Liberal discoiint on large orders or to the trade. 

Shade Trees! 

The large White .\nd Black Mulberry's arc the best 
sha<le trees in tiie Stat**. I will s<dl well grown trees of 
these kinds from VI to 20 feet high, at 25 and 50 cents 
each. 

Silk Worm Eggs and Sili< Manual Free 



to custiiniers fur tiv 
Ivl-tfr 



■s. Send your urdirs tc^ 
I. N. HOAG, Sacramento. 



NEW SEEDS AND PLANTS. 

WK 'iFFER roll SAI.i: 

CHOICESEEDS, BULBS AND PLANTS 

from Australia, .Japan and Sandwich Islands. I{.imie, 
the celebrated China (irass. Vegetable, (irass and Flow- 
er Seeds; new an4l rare Plants, Fruit Trees etc., at the 
OLD STAND. IK^"Send for catalogue. ""^iu 
£. E. SCOOKE, 425 Washington St., S. F. 
.jj-3 Ivl-luir 





TREES AND PLANTS! 

By the 100, 1000, or 
100,000, both at 

WUOLESALE OB KETAIL, 
AT LOWEST MABKET 

K A T £ 8. 

Fruits guarsnteed true to name. My 
stock etnbruces all the leading fruits of 
the country from the Apple to the Straw- 
berry—including the 

OBANGK, I.EMON A-Tilt I.ISIE. 

Also all the leading and favorite 
SHADE AXD OHXAMKyTAL TREES, 
SUKUBBEKY, VISES ASD P LASTS, 

MULBERRl' TREES AND CVTTIXGS, 
ASD SILK WORM EGGS, ALSO TIIE 
Osage Orange Hedge Plant for fencing farms. Pate nt 
Grafting wax for top grafting, and the common Graf ting 
Wax for top or root grafting. 

Send for Circulars, Catalogues, Printed Directions and 
Price List. 
Send 25 cts for Hoag's Treatise on Silk Ouliore. 

ild<lre«« ROBKRT AVILI.IAMSOJT. 
Capital Niu-series, U St., bet. L^h k 16th 

Sacramento Cal. 
I am also a partner in the Tree yard of Sayl-es & Wil- 
liamson on E St., bet. 8th & lith streets, Sacramento. 
lvl-3mr 



LOS GATOS NURSERY, 

On the Los Qatos Creek 2 miles south of San Jose. 
This new nursery now contuns as fine an assortment 

—OF — 
FRUIT TREES, ORNAMENTAL TREES, FOREST 
TREES, NUT TREES, SHRUBS AND PLANTS, 
AMERICAN, EUROPEAN AND AUSTRAL- 
IAN EVERGREENS, AND 
PALM TREES I 

as any first class nurserj' in ^ 

the State of California with i^ 
this advantage, viz:we have «* 

no old scrubby stock to get ^ 
rid of- Every care h&8 been 
taken to secure 

Reliable Standard Sorts, 



BEST VARIETIES; 

Proper tTriiiiilnir, iind VIsorouM Oron-thl 

We invite Nxirseuvmen, Dealers akd Pi-anters, to 
examine our 

STOCK AND PRICES. 

Our large and splendid collection of 

TVTJT TREES, 

we deem worthy of special mention. These include 
2000 Chestnuts, 1, 2 snd a years old. .'jOOO Pecan Nut, 1 
2 and :i years old; Wood very valuable for timber. But- 
ternut, 1 lyid 2 years old. States Black Walnut, 1 and 2 
years old. California Black Walnut, 1, 2 and.) years old. 
Uickory Nut. EngHsh Walnut, l,and 2 years old. 
Sweet Almond. Soft Shell Almond. Paper Shell Al- 
mond, etc. 
Orders promptly attended to. Address 

SYLVESTER NEIVHALK,, 

Proprietor I.os Onto* Xurscry, Sna Jose, 

lvl.iin3m 





SHADE AND ORNAMENTAL 

x' K. E E », 

Orape Vines and Cnttlngs. 

we offer a labge lot of the 

White Mulberry, (Morus Alba) 

Of suitable size for shade trees. 

The Mulberry is the most desirable 
tree to 1h" had for shade or Onianii ut. 
and as rapid growers as the L<icust. 
They are long lived and will flourish 
on any soil where other trees will grow, and will live 
in overflowed land as well as the t*ottonwood or Willow, 
and can be used for Silk business if desired and are 
also valuable for timber. 



THE ELM. ASH AND OSAGE ORANGE, 

All very desirable Trees for shade and ornament. 
ALSO, 



Grape Roots and Cuttings. 



Of all the choice varieties of Foreign and California, or 
Mission. Mulberry trees can be supplied by. the 100 or 
1000 to the trade at low prices. 

KyAll orders must be accompanied witli the cash.'^ai 

Direct to A. P. SMITH, 

lTl-iin3mr Smith's Gardens, Sacramento. 




SAN LORENZO NURSERY! 

Established in 1853. 



We are pre- 
pared to fur- y^ 
nish ar.ESEHAL /^ 
assortment of ^ 




assortment 
Fruit and Shade 
Trees at as low 
rates as they 
can be sold at 
any reliable 
Nursery in Cal- 
ifornia. 

Or ers solic- 
ited from all 
lars send for catalogue and price list 

J. LEWKLLING & SON, 

lvl-3mr San Lorenzo, Alemeda Co., Cal, 



parts of the Pa- 
cific States. All 
trees carefully 
labeled and 
packed in the 
best possible 
manner for 
transportation. 
A liberal dis 
count will be 
wade on large 
orders. For fur- 
ther particu- 



AMERICAN SEED STORE ! 

W. R. STRONG-, 

8A.CRAME\TO. CVUFORXIA. 

A new and complete suppl ; 

OF 

FRESH SEEDS OF ALL 

VARIETIES FOR THE 

FARM AND GARDEN, 

ADAPTED TO THE PA- 

CIFIC COAST. 

All our seeds are war- 
ranted good and true to 
nnine, and are sold at low- 
est rates both at wholesale 
AND retail, a liberal re- 
duction to the trade and 
those buying in large quantics. We are determined to 

GIVE SATISFACTION TO ALL OUR CUSTOMERS. 
Among our stock will be found all valuable kinds of 
Garden, Field, Flower, Herb and Tree Seed. Also 30,000 
lbs. Alfalfa, of California growth. Red and White Clover, 
Timothy, Red Top, Blue Grass direct from producers in 
Kentucky, &c., &c. 

The celebrated Ramadell Xorway Oats 

»S per Butliel. 

Early Rose and other choice varieties of Potatoes, kc. 

All orders filled with dispatch and all Seeds carefully 

packed and sent or 8hipi>ed as directed. Catalogues or 

circulars sent ou application free of charge. Address 

W. K. STRONG, 

lvl-3mr Sacramento CaL 

PURPLE POPPY, 

[JLmbergler of ClermoDt.j 

Just received and for sale by 





C JL.. ItELLOOG;. 



FIVE D0LLAK8 PEE POUND. 



New York Seed Warehouse, 

No. 491 Sansome St., Sun Francisco. 

Ivl' 



GEO. F. SILVESTER. 

Seedsman, 

Importer and Dealer in all kinds of Vege- 
table, Flower, Field, Fruit k Tree Seeds, 

Garden Tools, Plants, Trees, &o. 
No 317 Washingtou St., bet. Battery and Front, B.KS 

FRANCISCO. 

Farmers, Ranchmen and Land 
Owners, 

TA.JtE TVOTICE ! 

Having a large quantity of fine large two year old 

MULBERRY TREES 

on hand more than for my own use, I will sell on satis 
factory terms as to price and tiuic of payment. Th 
trees are of a 

Good Thrifty Growth, 

and well adapted for shade or ornamental purposes or 
for feeding worms. 

Address, 

-WM. M. HAYXIR, 
lvl-3mr Maeramriilo. 



J. P. D ALTON. 

DEALEB IN 

Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Ev- 
grreen 

TREES, 

Shrubs and Flowering Plants, Seeds, Bulbs, etc. 
Depot cor. i:)th and Broadway, Oakland. Ivl-mS 




SILK WORM EGGS. 

O AAA CARTGXS .lAPAXESE ANNUALS, SILK 
Zf\J\)\J WORM E(iGS, just arrived 

For Sale in Bond or Duty Paid. 

B. J. DORSET, 

l-3mr 41 and 42 Merchants' Exchange, California st. 



McLURES PATENT CHURN. 

Patented May 17, 1870. 

Has taken the premium at all the State Fairs East of 
the Rocky Mountains. 

The Greatest Labor SavingMachine of the Age 

Sl^ Warranted to make Butler m/rom lliree 

to Five Minutes. '^^ei. 

It is self-cleaning, reejuires no scrubbing. 

100 JUST EEOEIYED- 

For sale by J. L. HUNT, 

lvl-2inGmr Cor. Battery and Wasliingtou sts. 



f 



January 2S, 1871.] 



-^^^^S 






63 



Douthett's Patent Double Motion 

D^SH CHURN. 

Making Butter in from 6 to 10 Minutes. 
The only really useful and practical 

CII XJ It IV 

Ever Offered to the Public. 



The old style of DASHER CHURN always had the 
preference over all others, and with this simple and 




practical attachment, now stands without a P.I 
At the East it is rapidly taking the place of the 

Thermometer and Cylinder Churn, 

and its sales are enormous. Having bought the 
rMglit for tills Coast, 

we are now prepared to furnish either large or small 

CHURNS AND CASTINGS 

as may be desired. Wo manufacture six different sizcf 
of churns and the small casting can be applied to the 
three smaller sizes, and the large one with the frame 
and balance wheel to the three larger ones. 




WE CHALLENGE COMPETITION 

in this churn and invite any one needing a oooD churn 
to examine and try this one before purchasing elsewhere. 
The gearing is all simple, leaving nothing to get out 
of order; the dasher is easily removed by simply 
opening or removing the guide holding it in its place, 
leaving the churn 

ENTIRELY CLEAR OF ANY OBSTACLE. 
In fact, it is the only churn that ever has been offered 

which IB ENTIKELY 

FREE PEOM ANY OBJECTION, 

and we offer it as the 

Best Churn in Existence. 

No.| 1 Churn holds 2 gallons; 

'2 do do 3 do 

3 do do 6 do 

4 do do 8 io 

5 do do 13 do 
(J do do 22 do 

E. K. HOWES & CO. 

Nob. 118, 120 and 122 Front Street, San Francisco, Cal 
iTl-eowSmr 



WIESTER & CO., 

No. 17 New Montgomery Street, San Francisco. 

i>AXE]VT>i» BouonT AivD SOLD oiv com:m:is!««ioiv. 



town on tho Pacific Coast to sell thib v-l'iabit 



LoMgrshores Comliination. Tool. 

This device is just what its name indicates. As a Kitchen 
Tool it is indispensible. It will fit and lift with perfect safe- 
ty, any Stove Lid, Frying Pan, Pie Pan, Pot, Kettle, orany oth- 
er vessel or dish used about a stove. It is a complete tool for 
stretching cai-pets, di'iving tacks, pulling tacks, &c., &c. It 
answers the diuble purpose of hammer and pincers, and is al- 
so a good Nut Cracker. It is made of the best malleable irou, 
and the Hammer, Pincers and tack puller, are all hardened so 
as to stand the roughest usage. An Agent is wanted in every 
little implement. Retail price fifty cents. 





]VeAV Gtas Lig'lit. 

This Light takes the place of the Candle, the Kerosene Lamp and Coal Gas. Each 
Lamp is a perfect Gas Factory, making its own gas as fast as it is required. It is a 
safe, cheap and beautiful ligh t. Circulars and full particulars sent on apiJlication. 

A few good traveling agents wanted to sell this and other valuable Patents. 

Hay Press. 

The best and cheapest hay press in the United States. Presses furnished at manufac- 
tory cost to parties buying County or State Rights. The profiits on a few Presses will 
pay for a county Right. 

IVe>v Engfland S5p>riii{j Bed. 

The cheapest and best in the market. Rights for sale and beds at cost. Send for de- 
Bcrijitive cii'cular. 

■WIESTER «fe CO., 

IT Tiew Montgomery Street, (Grund Hotel), San Francl8CO. 



871. 



SUBSCRIBE FOR THE 



187I. 




Tlie only Literary Magazine 

PUBLISHED ON THE PACIFIC COAST, 



The Sixth Volume of this popu- 
lar California Magazine vi'ill com- 
mence with the January Number 
for 1871. We promise our read- 
ers rich things during the coming 
year, 




Terms : — f 4 . 00 per annum, 
payable in advance. 

Club Rates: — Two copies, $7.00: 
Five copias, $ 16. co ; Ten copies, $30.00 ; 
and each additional copy, $3.00. For 
every Club of Twenty Subscribers, au 
extra copy will be furnished gratis. 



PUBLISHED BY 

[oHN H. Carmany & Co., No. 409 Washington Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



Bound Volumes.— Sbc Numbers— from January to June, and July to December— consti- 
tute a volume. Bound volumes will be sent, post-paid, for $3.00, paid in advance. 



BAKER & HAMILTON, 

IMPORTEHS AND DEALEKS IN 



NOVELTY MILL AND GRAIN SEPARATOR. 




THE und irsignod hav" 
ing purchased of the Pa- 
tentees, WIRTS & SWIB'T, 
of Hudson. Michigan, 
their right to this mill. 
Patented June 22d, 1809, 
for California, Oregon, 
Washington Territory, 
Montana, Utsh, New 
Mexi(;oand Arizona, wish- 
es to call the attention of 
Faem: bs. Millers and 
GnAiN Uealees to one of 
THE GREATEST IM- 
PROVEMENTS OF THE 
AGE for cleaning and sep- 
arating grain. While it 
combines all the essential 
qualities of a first-class 
Fanning Mill, it also far 
excels anything that has 
ever been invented for 
the separation of grain. 
It has been thoroughly 
tested on all the ilitt'( r- 
ent kinds of mixed grain, 
separating all the difl'er- 
eut seeds in almost a mag- 
ical mann»r, placing them 
in theirdifl'trent compart- 
mentsin the mill arranged 
for their reception, at tho 
same time taking out all 
the Muslard, Grass Seed, 
Barley and Oats, and mak- 
ing two distiuct quali- 



ties of wheat if desired, thereby selecting '.uperior 1 1 1 1 1 1 ' 1 1 f M 1 1 r ' 
small and cut kernals, Huch as merchant ible w hi it is 1 j sit 1 m 1 tl 1 11 rini 
Mill a great quantity of wheat usually sown that has been cleaned in the common mill 
farmer, as the cut or shrunken kernals will never germanate. 

The above mentioned Novelty Mill is the only mill known to possessail these superior qualifications, and was 
exhibited and tested at the last Michigan State Fair held at .Jackson, Michigan, September 21, 22, and 23, 1809, and 
bore away thepalm over some thirty other different mills from all parts of the United States, including tho fa. 
mousDicky Mill of Racine, Wisconsin. All who have witnessed here the operations of the NOVELTY MILL, de- 
clare it perfection, and the most beneficial invention to the Farmers, Millers, and Grain Dealers ever introduced 
on the Pacific Coast. The farmers in Santa Clara County, are loud in its praise, and also in other parts of the 
State where it is being introduced. No. 1 Mill, complete, is capable of cleaning 2.5 tons of grain per day; No. 2 
Mill, 15 tons; No. 3. Mill, 8 tons. A large number of recommendations and certificates of the practical working 
ot the mill will be furnished. Circulars containing references sent free by mail. N. B. Town, County, or State 
Rights for sale on favorable terms . For further particulars apply to 

Ilv21.3in K. STOSJE. 4,88 Battery .Strert, San Francisco. 



W/^////A 

Wheat, and all the 

I } the use of this 

wiU be saved to the 



1000 Farms in Los Angeles Co. 

For Cotton, Wheat, Corn, Grapes, Oranges etc. The 
"Abel Stearns Rancho," 200 square miles in sections, 
finartor sectionR, etc., on Goverument system of survey, 
forming blocks one mile square, with road on each side, 
fronting on the ocean; the Railroad to San Francisco to 
pass through them; the unsold portions subdivided, for 
sale on long credit, or rent. The famous Anaheim is on 
this tract. For Maps, Circulars, etc., apply to B. F. 
NORTHAM, 4;J2 Montgomery st., San Francisco, or 
TIMO. LYNCH, at Anaheim and Lob Angeles. lvl*3mr 



Willamette F.armer, 

l^aleiii, Orofson. 

The only AmltuUtiral Paper publlahed In 

Oregon. 

The Best Advertising Medium. 

Terms of Subscription:— One year, $2.50; six months 
$1.50. Address 
8v2i tf A. I.. STINSON, Publliiher. 




IMPI.EMENTS AlVD SIACHINES, POKTA. 
BL.ESTEAM ENUINES, HAKU'WAKE, 

Would call the attention of Farmers and Dealers in Ag- 
ricultural Implements to their very extensive stock for 
the trade of 1870-1871, 

CONSISTING OP 

Plows, ITarrowft, Cultivators, Horse Boes, 
Oan{; Plows, Seed Sowers, Buckeye OraIn 
Brills, Hill's Cul. Sowers, Hay Cut- 
ters, Seed Cleaners, Grist Mills, 
Barley Mills, Cider Mills, Fan 
3tllls, <jlra|>e Crushers, Mow- 
ers, Reapers, Headers, Header Wagons, Threshers, 
Whi eled Rakes, Hay Presses, Rubber Belting, Leather 
Belting, Baling Wire, Baling Rope, Nails, Shovels, Bolts 
Rivets, etc., etc. Orders by mail or Express will re- 
ceive prompt attention. BAKER h HAMILTON, 
Nos- 9, U, 13, and 15, J street, Sacramento, 
lvl-3mr Nob. 17 & 19 Front st., San Francisco. 



THE 

ASPHALTUM PRESSURE PIPE 
o o m: jp A IV Y, 

HAVIIV'G ERECTED A M ANXJPACTOKX 

of sufficient capacity to supply their Asphaltum Pipe in 
large quantities, 

Are now Prepared to Take Orders 

AND MAKE COMTKACT8. 

This Company will manufacture Pipe and guarantee 
it to stand any pressure required; itis lighter than iron 
pipe and more durable, it is not aflected by chemical 
action, cannot coiTode, and being glazed imparts no dis- 
agreeable taste to water. To miners and farmers it is 
invaluable; any body can put it down; it is twenty per 
cent cheaper than iron pipe and ten times more durable. 
For further particulars, apply at the office of the Com- 
pany, Room No. 2, M5 Market street. 

B^ Circulars sent on application. 16v21-tf 

Swamp Land Reclamation. 

— THE— 

California Peat Company, 

OWNERS OF TUE 

Roberts' Steam Ditching IVIachine, 

are now ready to take contracts. They are prepared to 
construct 

I>ltclics and I-ie-vees. 

of any desired dimensions. Terms easy. Address, 
J. B. TOWNSEND,t636 Clay Street. 
P. O. Lock Box, 814. 
23v21-Im 



TEAM WANTED TO PUKOHASE. 

A four nr six horse team is wanted by the advertiser 
with or without wagon or gang jiUjw. Required to be 
delivered at Gilroy, Watsonville, Salinas, or the vicinity 
of those places. A party wishing to sell a team, etc., can 
hear of a purchaser by sending a letter addressed B Ru- 
^AL Pkess, containing price and other particulars. 

WM. M. LYON. CHAS. J. BARNES. 

LYON & BARNES, 

Successors to Lvon h Son, dealers in Produce Vegeta- 
bles, Butter, Eggs, Green and Dried Fruits, Cheese , 
Poultry, Honey, Beans, etc., etc. 
Ivl-limr No. 21 J Street Sacramento. 



GILES H. GR4T. 



J4HKS H. BArBN. 



G-RAY & HAVEN, 

ATTOKNE YS AlVD COUNSELORS AT LAAV, 

(n Building of Pacific Insurance Co., N. E. corner Call- 
fomiaan Leide.-dorH streets, 
i7vl6 SAN FRANCISCO. 



G A. ». 

The Pacific Pneumatic Gas Company 

Begs to call the attention of the public to its gas works 
which are suitable alike for domestic, manufacturing, 
and general uses. Their apparatus is the only one wor- 
thy of the confidence of those who desire an economical 
and bnllutnt light, with pcrfnt safety from accidents. 

Th(S( works are insu<<essful use in the following 
pi i\ ate residences- Go\ Haight, the En cinal, Alameda: 
H F Williams, Esq , South han Francisco; J. R. Arguel- 
lo, rsrj hintaClaia.A P Brayton, Esq., Oakland: O. 
AN ( liiMs. Esq , Loh Angeles, Mrs. Brayton, Oakland; 
Cipt Will ox, San Dii go, .1. P. Jones, Esq., Gold Hill, 
Ni\ad.i W B Isaacs, Esq , Post St., San Francisco; Jos. 
\ Diiiiuhoi, Esq M( iilo P.iik, M Schallenberger, Esq., 
San Josi Capt Kidd. .stoc kton. John Parrott, Esq., San 
M.itii>.Cid J C Hajs, Oakland; A. A. Cohen, Esq.. Ala- 
nuda. A. D. B( 11. Ta> kir street, San Francisco: J. S. Em- 
cry Oakland, and Isaac Requa, Esq, Virginia City|N(vada. 

Also 111 the following public iustituticms: the City and 
County Almshouse, San Francisco; the County Hospital, 
Sacramento; the Industrial School, San Francisco; the 
State Institute for the Deef, Dumb and Blind. Berkely. 

Also, the following private institutions: The College 
of Santa Clara, Santa Clara: the Alameda Insane Asylum; 
Alameda; and the New Hall and Theater, Petaluma. 

Also in the following Mining and Manufacturing 
works. The Pacific Iron Works, San Francisco; tho 
Chollor-Potosi Hoisting Works, Virginia City; the Eu- 
reka Gold Mining Company's Hoisting Works and Mill, 
Grass Valley, California; the Crown Point Mining Co.'s 
Mill (the Rhode Island), Gold Hill, Nevada. 

Also, in the following stores; E. Cohn & Co., Marys- 
ville, Gibson and Cross' (saloon). Gold Hill, Nevada; P. 
Brown & Bro., Marysville; Wm. Klein, Marysville, J. 
M. Browne, Gilroy; and N. Wagner h Bro., Marysville. 

Also, in the following hotels; Horton's New Hotel, 
South San Diego; the International Hotel, Virginia City, 
and the St. Charles Hotel, Carson City. 

Also, in large works adapted for town purjioses: in 
the Workshops, Streets and Officers' Residences, at the 
United States Navy Department, Mare Island. 

Pacific Pneumatic Gas Company; office 21)0 Sansome 
street, San Francisco. Send for Illustrated Pamphlet 
and Price List. A. D. BELL, Sei retary. 

J. W. STOW, President. Ivl-Sm-r 



Tu > VIS Ji Waoneii, 41 First St.— Mill Stones, Belting Cloth 
and general Mill Fumishinys. Portable Mills all sizes from 
l(ito3(i-iu. No superior manufactory for farmers <& ranchmen. 



64 



[January 28, 187I. 



TO CLUBS. 

Send in yonr subscriptions as fast as ob- 
tained. After the first ten names have 
been paid for, others can be added within 
Tny reasonable time, thereafter on the same 
terms. Clnbs may be composed partly of 
names for Eukal, and partly for Scien- 
aiPic Pkess Blanks and extra copies fur- 
nished when desired. 

What our Neighbors say of the Pacific 
Rural Press. 

It is s beantifnl and valuable sheet.— .Iin -To^ Jnd. 

ThefiretNo. evinces marked editorial ability Fills np 

a vacancy that has been felt in our agricultural departnu-nt. 

With its publishers there is no such word as fail.— 

Mt. Mtdgeniirr, 

We believe every subscriber will be satisfied withjthe in- 
vestment of the price of subscription, li.—[S<mnra Drm. 

It is a work which noifarmer should be .without.— I I're*" 
Union, 

An admirable specimen both as to execution and contents. 
Contains a large amount and great variety 'of attractive 
reading matter and several excellent illustrations.— l.Sf.W,-- 
ton Diiili/ Ind. 

A large Ifi-page weekly. The Rural Press will be to the 
Pacific coast what Moorea Rural New Yorker is to the Mid- 
dle and Northern States.—! Encinal Alamedii. 

Any intelligent farmer in the State will consider his 
money well invested by subscribing for the new pai>er. 
"Honest, intelligent and correct information will be faith- 
fully given in behalf of and urging an improved cultivation 
of the soil, a greater diversity of products, better breeds of 
stock, better varieties of fruits, the culture of new products, 
the creation of new home industries, the adoption of im- 
proved implements, and happier and higher aims in life." 
—{Enrinal. 

They can, if they will, make it a creditable work. [We wil 1 
that.l Itopenswell. 

Excellent paper and type— and a first-class agricultural 
iournal.. .Its merits entitle it to a large circulation, which 
we apprehend it will speedily obtain.— 1 V'tlUjo Hemrder, 

We announce with pleasure the new paper by Dewey i, 
Co.. proprietors of that peerless paper, the Scientific 
Press. — [Arizona Miner. 

Wo think the rural people of the Pacific Coast will have 
an organ second to none in the countrj'.— [/'^»ft" StiiUxman. 

Just the kind needed on this coast, and merits an extend- 
ed circulation.— (/ffd Bluff Imlfj>rndnil. 

Pacific Rcrai. Pre-ss, published by'A. T.JDewey, W. B 
Ewer. G. H. Strong and J. L. Boone. The paper is a suc- 
cess, and will supply a want long^needed. 

It has already attained to a large circulation — 

Tsrunning over with entertaining and instructive reading 
matter, and embellished with numerous engravings. 

The heading is beautiful and appropriate.— [/'«/'»'''>">^". 

We cordially welcome it. The publishers, believing that 
the agricultural enterprises of this coast were sufficient to 
support a publication wholly devoted to its interests, deter- 
mined to confine the Srifnti/ic Prr.sfl to mining and mechan- 
ical arts, and have therefore started the Parijir JiurnI Prrt^s. 

If the first number is to be taken as an earnest of what 
will follow, each week, we can advisedly say to all interested 
in agricultural pursuits.. subscribe.—! Vathjo nironiilf, 

Dewey ,t Co., publishers, have unusual facilities for pub- 
lishing a 8Ui>erior paper for [the farming community, and 
they are men of energy to do it.— [A"«iii.'7'(, .V. F. 

Such a paper has been in demand on this coast for some 
time, and we judge from the amount of agricultural in- 
formation which it contains, that it fills the bill. 

We notice that I. N. Hoag. of Volo county, has been se- 
lected as one of the contributors to its pages. 

It is the duty of the farmers to sustain it, and try and 
make it a success, which we believe will be done.— [iVo 
H.iil. 

We have received this new home and farm journal, and 
like it well. 

The publishers seem determined to make a popular, first- 
class rural home journal, well filled with interesting and 
elevating reading, with no unchasteness in either reading 
or advertising matter. 

Having the countenance and encouragement of the prom- 
inent and most active agriculturistjj in California, and long 
experience in the publication of the "Scientific Press"— 
which will be continued entirely independent of the " Rural 
Press"— the public have ample assurance that the new ell'ort 
to establish a first-class farm journal on this coast will prove 
a success. 

Dewey & Co., San Francisco, are the publishers, and the 
price is low— $4 a year; or to a club of 10 or more, $3. 
Sample copies sent on receipt of a postage stamp.— ["Alpine 
Miner." 

The " Rural Press" will supply a want long felt in Califor- 
nia, and we predict that it will acquire a large circulation 
among our agric i Itnral population. 

Culike many so-called "agricultural" papers, it will not be 
exclusively to horse-racing, prize-fighting, yachting, etc., 
but will be a respectable family journal.— [Democrat, Dow- 
uieville. 

We judge that it will meet the roquirementB of agricul- 
turiste. As publishers of the "Scientific Press," the name 
of Dewey A Co. is a guarantee that this new publication will 
meet with favor.- [Alpine Chronicle. 

The farmer, horticulturist, the home circle and the house- 
wife will find in it just the articles that will be pleasing and 
profitable to them.— (Christian Advocate, S. F. 

It will represent the agricultural interests of California 
and the Pacific Slope. • • • With so much ability as to 
command a wide circulation and influence. — [Helena, (M. 
T.)f;oz. 

Will be found worthy the patronage of the people of this 
State.— [Argus, Snelling. 

We heartily welcome the new publication. 

The interests of our own county are about equally divided 
between raining and farming. 

Not a farmer in it, however well informed, but may learn 
something of value pertaining to his business, from an ably 
conducted paper, specially devoted to the consideration of 
the peculiar conditions of soil, climate and seasons of th 
Pacific Coast, 

From the well known ability and energy of the publishers, 
we doubt not that the "Rural Press" will fulfill all these 
conditions.— llnyo Indei>endcnt. 

From a Cobresponoent.— I have seen your "Pacific Ru- 
ral." and I never tire of looking at and studying its "head 
and front." It is a taking picture, and will mduce many to 
take the paper. The oontente are No. 1, also. W. H. M. 



New Advertisements. 



2Vo qitack, indelwate or other disreputable notices 
will be accepted. All advertviemenis in this paper 
appear in our monthly edition and bound vol- 
wnes of the Pacific Rural Press for Railroad 
Depots, Steamboats, Hotels, and other free read- 
infi rootns. 



FLOWER 



SEEDS ! 

a 




Our New Illustrated Catalog:ue, 

Containing lists of 

Stove and 

Bedding Plants, 

Flower Seeds, 

Hardy Ucrbacious Plants, 

Dahlias, Gladiolus, Lillies, 

and other bulbs, is now ready and will be mailed to all 
applicants. Address, 

MICHEL BROS. & KERN, 
107 N. 5th Btreet, St. Louis, Mo. 
X. B. Choice bulbs and seeds sent by mail. 4Tl-3mr 

G-LEN GARDENS, 

OXE mLE E.VST FRO